K^^&A THE ^i. H. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. EDITED BY THE ASSISTANT-SECRETARY OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. VOLUME THE ELEVENTH. 1855. PART THE FIRST. PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL %* 2eH3.^7 LONDON: "^st^lOnL Vi' LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS. PARIS :! FRIED. KLINCKSIECK, 11 RUE DE LILLE; BAUDRY, 9 RUE DU COQ, PRES LE LOUVRE ; LEIPZIG, T. O. WEIGEL. SOLD ALSO AT THE APARTMENTS OF THE SOCIETY. MDCCCLV. %st' list OF THE OFFICERS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, ELECTED FEBRUARY 21, 1855. William John Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S. Wia^xt^iHtnt^. Sir P. De M. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Sir Charles Lvell, F.R.S. and L.S. Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. and L.S. Prof. John PhilUps, F.R.S. ^tcxttaxits. John Carrick Moore, Esq., M.A. Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S. dfbreign ^tcxttaxv. Samuel Peace Pratt, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. D. Sharpe, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. @@i!][F!fl@QL. John J. Bigsby, M.D. Col. P. T. Cautley, F.R.S. and L.S. Sir P. De M. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., F.R.S. Thomas F. Gibson, Esq. R. A. Godwin- Austen, Esq., B.A., F.RS. WilUam John Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S. J. D. Hooker, M.D., F.R.S. & L.S. Leonard Horner, Esq., F.R.S.L. & E. Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S. & L.S. John C. Moore, Esq., M.A. John Morris, Esq. Sir R. L Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. & L.S. R. W. Mylne, Esq. S. R. Pattison, Esq. John Percy, M.D., F.R.S. Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. Col. Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S. Samuel Peace Pratt, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S. J. W. Salter, Esq. D. Sharpe, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. ^S^i^tant'^tcxttiixr), Curator, anti Hibrarian. T. Rupert Jones, Esq, TABLE OF CONTENTS. PART I.! ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIOISS. Page Austen, R. Godwin, Esq. On Land-surfaces beneath the Drift- gravel 112 . On the possible Extension of the Coal-measures beneath the South-eastern part of England. [Abstract.] 533 Baily, W. H,, Esq. Description of some Cretaceous Fossils from South Africa; collected by Captain Garden, of the 45th Regiment. (With Plates.) 454 Bedford, Commander E. J. Notice of some Raised Beaches in Argyllshire. [Abstract.] 549 Beyrich, Prof. Remarks on the Brown Coal of the North of Ger- many ; with Observations by W. J. Hamilton, Esq 550 Bray, W., Esq. On the Geology of Georgia, United States. [Abstract.] 521 . On the Occurrence of Copper in Tennessee, U.S. [Abstract.] 8 Brickenden, Capt. L. On a Pterichthys from the Old Red Sand- stone of Moray. [Abstract.] 31 . On the Occurrence of Glacial Traces on the Rock of Dumbarton . 27 Charters, Major. On the Geology of the vicinity of Nice. [Abs- tract.] , 36 Clarke, Rev. W. B. Notes on the Geology of New South Wales. [Abstract.] , 408 . On the Occurrence of Fossil Bones in the Auriferous Alluvia of Australia 406 . On the Occurrence of Obsidian Bombs in the Auriferous Alluvia of New South Wales. [Abridgement.] 403 IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page Crawford, James C, Esq. On the Geology of the Port Nicholson District, New Zealand. [Abridgement.] 530 Dawson, J. W., Esq. Notice of the Discovery of a Reptilian Skull in the Coal of Pictou 8 . On a modern Submerged Forest at Fort Lawrence, Nova Scotia. 119 Forbes, Charles, Esq. On the Geology of New Zealand; with Notes on its Carboniferous Deposits. [Abridgement.] 521 Forbes, David, Esq. On the Causes producing Foliation in Rocks; and on some observed cases of Foliated Structure in Norway and Scotland 166 Fox, R. W., Esq. On Sand-worn Granite near the Land's End. . . . 549 Garden, Capt. R. J. Notice of some Cretaceous Rocks near Natal, South Africa. [Abstract.] 453 Gilchrist, Dr. W. On the Origin and Formation of the Red Soil of Southern India 552 Graves, P. W., Esq. Notice of the Occurrence of a Tidal Phaeno- menon at Port Lloyd, Bonin Islands. [Abstract.] 53 Hamilton, W. J., Esq. On a specimen of Nummulitic Rock from the neighbourhood of Varna 10 . On the Tertiary Formations of the North of Germany ; with special reference to those of Hesse Cassel and its neighbourhood. 126 Harkness, Prof. R. On the Anthracitic Schists and the Fucoidal Remains occurring in the Lower Silurian Rocks of the South of Scotland ; with Notes on the Fossil Fucoids, Zoophytes, and Annelids of the Flags and Sandstones at Barlae 468 Heaphy, Charles, Esq. On the Gold-bearing District of Coro- mandel Harbour, New Zealand 31 Hislop, S., and R. Hunter, Rev. Messrs. On the Geology and Fossils of the Neighbourhood of Nagpur, Central India; Part I. (With a Geological Map.) 345 Hislop, The Rev. S. On the Connexion of the Umret Coal-Beds with the Plant-beds of Nagpur; and of both with those of Burdwan 555 Hooker, Dr. J. D. On some minute Seed-vessels {Carpolithes ovu- lum, Brongniart), from the Eocene beds of Lewisham. (With a Plate.) 562 . On some small Seed-vessels [Folliculites minutulus, Bronn) from the Bovey Tracey Coal. (With a Plate.) 566 Hopkins, Evan, Esq. On the Vertical and Meridional Lamination of the Primary Rocks. [Abstract.] 143 Hull, Edward, Esq. On the Physical Geography and Pleistocene Phaenomena of the Cotteswold Hills 477 Tsbister, a. K., Esq. On the Geology of the Hudson's Bay Terri- tories, and of portions of the Arctic and North-western Regions of North America. (With a Geological Map.) 497 TABLE OF CONTENTS. V Page LoFTUS, William Kennett, Esq. On the Geology of portions of the Turko- Persian frontier, and of the Districts adjoining. (With a Geological Map.) 247 Merian, Prof. On the St. Cassian Beds between the Keuper and the Lias in the Vorarlberg Alps 451 MuBCHisoN, Sir Roderick T. Additional Observations on the Silu- rian and Devonian Rocks near Christiania in Norway, ! on pre- senting M. Theodor Kjerulf's new Geological Map of the District. 161 . On the Occurrence of numerous Fragments of Fir- wood in the Islands of the Arctic Archipelago ; with Remarks on the Rock- specimens brought from that Region 536 , and Prof. J. Morris. On the Palaeozoic and their associated Rocks of the Thiiringerwald and the Hartz 409 NicoL, Prof. James. On the Section of the Metamorphic and Devo- nian Strata at the Eastern extremity of the Grampians 544 Odernheimer, Frederick, Esq. On the Geology of part of the Peel River District in Australia 399 Owen, Prof. Additional Remarks on the Skull of Baphetes planiceps. 9 . Description of the Cranium of a Labyrinthodont Reptile {Bra- chyops laticeps) from Mangali, Central India. (With a Plate.). . 37 . Notice of a new Species of an extinct Genus of Dibranchiate Cephalopod {Coccotevthis latipinnis) from the Upper Oolitic Shales at Kimmeridge. (With a Plate.) 124 . Notice of some new Reptilian Fossils from the Purbeck Beds near Swanage 123 . On the Fossil Cranium of Dicynodon tigriceps from South Africa. [Abstract.] 532 . On the Fossil Skull of a Mammal {Prorastomus sirenoides) from the Island of Jamaica. (With a Plate.) 541 . On the Remains of Dicynodon tigriceps from South Africa. [Abstract.] 541 Prestw^ich, Joseph, Jun., Esq. On a Fossiliferous Bed of the Drift Period near the Reculvers 1 10 ?. On a Fossiliferous Deposit in the Gravel at West Hackney . . 107 ! ! . On the Correlation of the Eocene Tertiaries of England, France, and Belgium. (With a Plate.) 206 . On the Origin of the Sand- and Gravel-pipes in the Chalk of the London Tertiary District. (With a Plate.) 64 , and John Brow^n, Esq. On a Fossiliferous Drift near Sahsbury. 102 Ramsay, Prof. Andrew C. On the Occurrence of Angular, Suban- gular. Polished, and Striated Fragments and Boulders in the Per- mian Breccia of Shropshire, Worcestershire, &c. ; and on the pro- bable existence of Glaciers and Icebergs in the Permian Epoch. . 185 VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page RosALES, Henrique, Esq. On the Gold-Fields of Ballarat, Eureka, and Creswick Creek, Victoria 395 RuBiDGE, N. R., Esq. On the Occurrence of Gold in the Trap Dykes intersecting the Dicynodon-strata of South Africa *, 1 Sandison, D., Esq. Notice of the Earthquakes at Brussa. [Abstract.] 543 . Notice of the Occurrence of Coal near the Gulf of Nicomedia. [Abstract.] With a Note by W. J. Hamilton, Esq 476 Sharpe, Daniel, Esq. On the Structure of Mont Blanc and its Environs. (With a Plate.) 11 Sutherland, Dr. P. C. Notes on the Geology of Natal, South Africa 465 Symonds, Rev. W. S. Notice of the Fossils from the Keuper Sand- stone of Pendock, Worcestershire 450 Trimmer, J., Esq. Additional Observations on the Occurrence of Pipes and Furrows in Calcareous and Non-calcareous Strata . . 62 WooDVv^ARD, S. P., Esq. On the Structure and Affinities of the Hip- puritidse. (With three Plates.) 40 ERRATA. Page 45, line 14 from bottom, /or the Turco-Persian Frontier, read from near Hakim-Khan in Turkey in Asia. ! 58, ! 19 & 7 from bottom, T/or in the Bakhtiyari Mountains on the ! 59, ! 4& 13 from top, j Turco-Persian Frontier, read a little north of Hakim-Khan, on the road to Hassan Chelebi, in Asia Minor, about lat. 38< 40', long. 37< 50'. ! 86, ! 10 from top, /or Transactions read Proceedings. ! 86, ! 10 from bottom, /or Liebig's read Leibnitz. ! 88, ! 20 from top, /or part 3 read 3 parts. ! 88, ! 26 from top, /or elephant's read seal's. ! 88, ! 32 from top, /or Dervalque r^ac? Dewalque. ! 250, ! 5 from top, /or extinct read existing. ! 284, ! 18 from top, /or A'mi read A'mir. ! 285, note. /or Pulim read Pulun. ! 352, line 15 from top, /or had read have. ! 352, ! 2 from bottom, /or south-west read south-east. ! 363, ! 8 from top, /or Mandla read Mandu. oca' ^ rf(^^ Malcolmson read Malcolm. ! 364, note, J-' ! 364, line 20 from top, /or hill part read hill-fort. ! 364, ! 28 from top, /or Jib read Jihur. ! 380, ! 15 from top, for Halyadoba read Halyadoho ; and for Umred read Umrec?. ! 380, ! 3 from bottom, omit at Masulipatam. LIST OF THE FOSSILS FIGURED AND DESCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME. [In this list, those fossils the names of which are printed in Roman type have been previously described.] Name of Species. Formation. Locality. Page. Plants. (7.) Carpolithes (Rhytidosporum) ovulum. PI. xvi. Chondrites informis regularis Folliculites minutulus. PI. xvii. Palaeochorda major ? teres Trichoides amhiguus. Tertiary Lower Silurian Lower Silurian Tei'tiary Lower Silurian Lower Silurian Lower Silurian Lewisham Barlae & Whitless. Barlae Bovey Tracey Barlae & Kirkfell. Barlae , Barlae , 562 473 473 565 473 474 474 Rasf rites Barrandi Protovirgularia dichotoma ? ZOOPHYTA. (2.) Lower Silurian Lower Silurian Glenkiln and Cairn Ryan, Barlae 475 475 Crossopodia Scotica Nereites muUiforis Annelides. (2.) Lower Silurian Lower Silurian Barlae and Inver- leithen. Barlae 475 476 ECHINODERMA. (1.) Hemiasier Forbesii. PI. xii. f. 1 [Cretaceous ...| South Africa | 463 MOLLUSCA. (42.) {Lamellibranchiata.) Area Natalensis. PI. xiii. f . 2 Umzambaniensis. PL xiii. f. 1... Biradiolites canaUculatus. Woodcut, p. 51. Caprina adversa. Woodcut, p. 51 ... Aguilloni. Woodcut, p. 51 Caprinella triangularis. Woodcuts, p. 52. Caprinula Boissii. Woodcuts, p. 52. Caprotina quadripartita. Woodcuts, p. 50. Cardium denticulatum. PI. xiii. f. 4. Diceras arietinum. Woodcuts, pp. 53, 54. Hippurites colliciatus. PI. iv. f. 5 ! cornu-vaccinum. PI. iv. f. 2, Woodcuts, pp. 42, 45. ! corrugatus. PI. iv. f. 4 Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Upper Green- sand. Lower Chalk. Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Jurassic Cretaceous Cretaceous Cretaceous South Africa South Africa France. France. Tyrol. Rochelle. Near Lisbon. S. France. South Africa France. Hakim Khan, Tur- key in Asia. Salzburg Hakim Khan, Tur- key in Asia. 461 460 460 58 42 58 VIU Name of Species. Formation. Locality. Page. Hippurites Loftusi. PI . iii radiosus. "Woodcuts, p. 43 Toucasianus. Woodcuts, p. 44. vesiculosus. PI. iv. f . 6 Cretaceous ... Cretaceous . . . Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Lower Chalk... Upper Green- sand. Lower Chalk... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous . . . Hakim Khan, Tur- key in Asia. France. S. France. Hakim Khan, Tur- key in Asia. South Africa S. France. South Africa S. France 58 59 Inoceramus expansus. PI. xiii. f. 5... Monopleura imbricata. Woodcut, p. 51 Natica multistriata. PI. xii. f. 8 Radiolites acutus. PI. v. f. 3 462 460 47 cylindraceus. PI. iv. f. 1. Wood- cut, p. 45. Hoeninghausii. Woodcuts, p. 49 mammillaris. Woodcuts, pp. 46, 48. MantellL PI. v. f. 4 France 45 France. St. Mamest. Cap la Heve Sussex 60 Mortoni. PI. v. f. 1, 2. Wood- 59 cut, p. 47. Requienia ammonia. Woodcut, p. 54 Lonsdalei. Woodcut, p. 53 ... Teredina France. Wilts. South Africa South Africa 462 Trigonia elegans. PI. xiii. f. 3 461 {Gasteropoda.) Chemnitzia Sutherlandii. PI. xii. f. 5 Scalaria ornata. PI. xii. f. 2 Solarium pulchellum. PI. xii. f . 3 ... Turritella Bonei. PI. xii. f. 7 Meadii. PL xii. f. 6 Voluta rigida. PI. xii. f. 4 Cretaceous Cretaceous Cretaceous Cretaceous Cretaceous Cretaceous South South South South South South Africa Africa Africa Africa Africa Africa Ammonites Gardeni. PI. xi. f. 3. Soutonii. PI. xi. f . 1 Stangeri. PL xi. f. 2 Umbulazi. PI. xi. f. 4 Baculites sulcatus. PL xi. f. 5 . Coccoteuthis latipinnis. PL vii. . [Cephalopoda.) Cretaceous ... Cretaceous . . . Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Cretaceous ... Upper Jurassic South Africa South Africa South Africa South Africa South Africa Kimmeridge 459 459 457 458 458 459 456 455 455 456 457 124 Corax. (Tooth.) PiSCIS. (].) I Cretaceous ...| South Africa | 463 Br achy ops laticeps Chelonian remains. Reptilia. (4.) Jurassic' .. Cretaceous Dicynodon tigriceps Saurillus obtusus. Woodcut, p. 123 Karoo Beds Purbeck ... Mangali South Africa South Africa ...< Durdlestone Bay. . . 37 464 532 541 123 Prorastomus sireno'ides. Mammale. (1.) PL XV I Tertiary . Jamaica .^41 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. Pjlate 1, ! Map and Sections, to illustrate Mr. D. Sharpe's paper on the Struc- ture of Mont Blanc To face p. 11 2. ! Fossil Reptilian Skull, to illustrate Prof. Owen's paper on the Braehyops laticeps 37 3-5. ! HiPPURiTES AND Radiolites, to illustrate Mr. Woodward's paper on the HippuritidcB 00 6. ! Sections and Diagrams, to illustrate Mr. Prestwich's paper on Sand-pipes 80 7. ! Fossil Cephalopod, to illustrate Prof. Owen's paper on Coccoteuthis lutipinnis 124 8. ! Sections and Diagram, to illustrate Mr. Prestwich's paper on the Correlation of the Tertiaries 241 9. ! Geological Map, to illustrate Mr. Loftus's paper on the Turko- Persian Frontier 247 10. ! Geological Map, to illustrate Messrs. Hislop and Hunter's paper on the Neighbourhood of Nagpur 345 11-13. ! Fossil Shells, to illustrate Mr. Baily's paper on Cretaceous Fossils from South Africa 4C4 14. ! Geological Map, to illustrate Mr. Isbister's paper on the Northern- most parts of America 497 15. ! Fossil Mammalian Skull, to illustrate Prof. Owen's paper on Pro- rastomus sirenoides 541 16. ! Fossil Seed-vessel, to illustrate Dr. Hooker's paper on the Rhy- tidosporurn ovulum 5(54 17. ! Fossil SEED-vESSEL,to illustrate Dr. Hooker's paper on the Folliculites minutulus 570 GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, FEB. 21, 1855. REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. The Council have much pleasure in making a Report which indi- cates that progressive prosperity of the Geological Society which must be satisfactory to its Members. It will be seen that during the past year 32 new Fellows have been elected, and that two elected in former years have completed their Fellowship, making an addition of 34 Ordinary Fellows. One Foreign Member has also been elected. On the other hand, the diminution which the Society has sustained from deaths and resignations amounts to 22, leaving for 1854 a total increase of 13 Ordinary Members, a result which contrasts favour- ably with many former years. At the close of 1853, the Geological Society numbered 871 Members; at the close of the past year it consisted of 884. The Council have to report that the current expenditure of the Society during the past year has exceeded the income by the sum of ♀9 lis. lie?., not including in this calculation the sum of 58189 received for compositions, nor the sum of s6199 15s. 3c?. invested in Exchequer Bonds. The Council think it right to explain that this circumstance, apparently so contradictory to the Reports of the two preceding years, can be most satisfactorily accounted for. VOL. XI. a 11 ANNIVERSARY MEETING. In the first place, the sum invested in Exchequer Bonds exceeds the sum received for compositions by a larger amount than the excess of expenditure over income. But the principal circumstance to which the Council have to call the attention of the Fellows is, that, in con- sequence of the very large excess of income over expenditure last year, it was determined to apply ^650 to the purchase of Books for the Library, and a further sum of j630 for the purpose of procuring assistance in the Museum. The sum actually expended under these two heads amounts to 5^40 13*. 3c?. The Council adopted this temporary mode of investing the surplus balance at their Banker's in the purchase of Exchequer Bonds, while they were considering the propriety of continuing to invest the amount received for Composition Fees, or of expending that amount in furthering the objects of the Society ; it having been suggested by the Treasurer that the sum already invested far exceeded the present life-interest of the surviving Compounders in their com- positions. The number of Compounders at the close of 18.53 was 134, and at the close of 1854 it was 137, three having died during the inter- val, and six newly elected Fellows having compounded, the amount of whose compositions, with one remaining unfunded at the close of 1853, is 36220 10^. Of this, the sum of ^199 I5s. 3d. has been laid out in the purchase of two Exchequer Bonds of 36 100. The amount of the funded property of the Society therefore (exclusive of the Exchequer Bonds) remains the same, viz. 564014 15*. 8^?. The amount received from the 137 existing Compounders is ^643 15 lOs. The Council have further to report that the 10th volume of the Journal of the Society has been completed. The first part of Vol. XI. is ready for publication ; and a new Part of the Transactions, forming the 4th part of the 9th volume, is in an advanced state. The Supplement to the Library Catalogue, to which reference was made in the Report of last year, is being executed by Mr. Rupert Jones in a manner which must render it exceedingly valuable to all the working members of the Society : ! it will be found also to contain a list of such original Maps, Sections, and Illustrations as have accom- panied communications, and have been left in the possession of the Society. The Council desire to call the attention of the Society to the im- proved List of the Donations to the Library of the Society, published in the Journal, as prepared by Mr. Jones, acting on the suggestion of some Members of the Council ; it now contains a complete list of the titles of all the various notices and original memoirs comprised in the numerous Transactions and Journals, British as well as Foreign, which the Society has received. They have further to report, that in March last it was deemed ad- visable, as a temporary measure, to authorize Mr. Rupert Jones to obtain an Assistant in the Museum. The services of Mr. Gawan were engaged ; and in December last the engagement was, by consent of the Council, continued down to the present Anniversary. The charge in respect of this increase amounts to ^634 1 Os. ANNUAL REPORT. Ul The Award of the Wollaston Palladium Medal for the year has been made to Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche, C.B., Director-Gene- ral of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, F.R.S., F.G.S. &c., for his many valuable contributions to Geological Science during a long series of years ; and more especially for the establishment of the Museum of Practical Geology ; for the very accurate Geological Survey of the United Kingdom now in progress, illustrated by Maps, Sections, and Specimens ; and for the skill and impartiality displayed by him in the selection of his many able coadjutors in that great national work. The balance of the proceeds of the Wollaston Donation Fund has been awarded to Drs. Guido and Fridolin Sandberger, of Wiesbaden, for their valuable work on the Fossils of the Rhenish Palaeozoic rocks in Nassau, and to assist them in its completion, and in the publication of their intended work on the Fossils of the Mayence basin. Report of the Library and Museum Committee. Library. Since the last Annual Report, 1 2 volumes, exclusive of periodicals, have been added by purchase, and about 90, also exclusive of period- icals, have been received as donations, making a total increase of above 100 volumes. Amongst the purchased books may be mentioned as more particularly valuable, BischofFs Geologic, Grewingk's Geology of North Persia, Goldfuss' Coal Flora, Meyer's Palaeontology of Wurtemberg, Dr. Hooker's Himalayan Journals : and it may be added that the set of Annals of Natural History has been completed by purchase, and the serials continued regularly to the present time. Of the books received as donations, Jardine's Ichnology of Annan- dale, presented by Sir R. I. Murchison, F.G.S., ! Siluria, presented by Sir R. I. Murchison, F.G.S., ! Scale's Geognosy of St. Helena, presented by A. Morant, Esq., F.G.S., ! Conchologia Iconica, several parts, presented by L. Reeve, Esq.,F.G.S., ! Darwin's Cirripedia, and other works, presented by the Ray Society, ! deserve to be specially named, in addition to the 63 volumes presented by Mr. Lonsdale, out of which the Society's set of the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal has been completed, with the exception of a few parts. All these books have been catalogued, arranged in their proper places, and bound so far as necessary : in referring, however, to this section of our Report, it is right to observe that the great want of additional shelves, pointed out by the Committee of last year, is now still more strongly felt, as no addition has as yet been made, notwithstanding the continued increase of books. The arrangement of serials is much embarrassed by this deficiency of space, as sets are frequently obliged to be arranged in more than one place, and the difficulty of reference is thereby much increased. a 2 IV ANNIVERSARY MEETING. The preparation of the new Catalogue steadily progresses, and one and a half sheet of the supplementary portion, including the serials, are now in the printer's hands, this being the part most difficult of arrangement. The Catalogue of the Maps is also in hand, but this has not been prepared without much difficulty, as many of the charts already catalogued have had to be disturbed and separated when cataloguing the new. The arrangement of manuscript Sections and Drawings is also in progress ; and as many Maps are now ready, the new Case is also required. In respect to the Ordnance Maps, the revised Maps have not been applied for, as it would be useless to obtain them, until cases for their reception had been purchased ; but the Maps already in possession are put into cases as quickly as they can be prepared for them. Generally it may be stated that the accommodation for the reception of Maps and Dravsdngs is limited and inconvenient, and more especially for those which are kept in portfolios. Notices of Donations and of Papers received, as well as of pur- chases, are regularly published in the Quarterly Journal. Museum, Two new tables have been purchased for supporting the drawers of cabinets when under examination. Mr. Gawan has been principally employed in cleaning fossils, securing the loose specimens and labels, and labelling in paint the larger specimens of rocks and boulders, exhibiting glacial action or the footprints of animals. He has also commenced the re-arrange- ment of the Tertiaries, under the direction of Mr. Jones. Everything thus labelled has been catalogued by Mr. Jones, who has also acted upon the suggestion of the last Committee by preparing the inter- leaved copy of Mr. Morris's " Catalogue," presented by the author for the use of the gentlemen willing to assist in the respective palseon- tographical departments, and whose aid would therefore be now of the greatest advantage. Of British specimens the donations have principally been con- nected with the carboniferous and cretaceous formations ; and have been placed in the respective drawers. Of Foreign specimens, those of Mr. Loftus, received in 1853, have been examined, separated, and put into drawers ; duplicates having been prepared for presentation to the British Museum. The St. Domingo specimens of Col. Henneker have been examined, arranged, and put into drawers ; the duplicates having been sent to the British Museum and the Museum of Economic Geology in Jermyn Street. Mr. Townsend's specimens from Ascension, received in 1853, have been sorted and put into drawers, and the duplicates sent to Jermyn Street. In the Upper Museum, the arrangement of the Brazilian, Ceylon, and Chinese specimens has been continued : the specimens of aurife- rous rocks from Victoria, New South Wales, and New Zealand, pre- ANNUAL REPORT. V sented by Sir T. Mitchell, Mr. Milner Stephens, and Sir George Grey, have been partly arranged ; and a second series of fossils from Central India, presented by the Rev. Messrs. Hislop and Hunter, is in course of arrangement for illustration in the Journal. In addition to the above, fossils from Prome have been presented by Lieut. -Col. Turton through Lieut. -Col. Cautley. As the specimens here referred to necessarily occupy much space whilst under examination, it is very desirable that duplicates of the Nagpoor specimens, new much in the way, should be presented at once to public Institutions. In referring generally to the Museum, it should be observed that much labour has been expended upon it by Mr. Jones, which does not at first arrest attention ; such, for ex- ample, as that required to reduce to order, or, as it were, sift out, local specimens from Foreign Countries which had been put promis- cuously into drawers without reference to the papers they were intended to illustrate. Mr. Jones has done much to correct this evil, and, by properly arranging these specimens, to enable a reader to compare an author's statements with the specimens on which he founds his reasonings. Mr. Jones speaks most favourably of the assistance he has received from Mr. Gawan, and the Committee is satisfied from its own obser- vation that his services have been most valuable, and that it is desirable that they should be continued : indeed, from the arduous duties performed by Mr. Jones, he is fully entitled to every assist- ance it is in the power of the Society to afford him. The Committee in closing their Report think it right to point more especially to the valuable donation by Mr. Greenough of his Map of India, and to the equally valuable donation by Mr. Griffiths of his new Map of Ireland ; donations which must be the more cor- dially received as coming from two of the oldest Members of the Society. J. E. PORTLOCK. S. P. Pratt. January 23, 1855. Comparative Statement of the Number of the Society at the close of the years 1853 and 1854. Dec. 31, 1853. Dec. 31, 1854. Compounders 134 137 Residents 204 203 Non-residents 463 475 801 815 Honorary Members 16 15 Foreign Members 50 50 Personages of Royal Blood 4!70 ? 4!69 871 884 Tl ANNIVERSARY MEETING. General Statement explanatory of the Alteration in the Number of FellowSy Honorary Members, ^c. at the close of the years 1853 and 1854. Number of Compounders, Residents, and Non-residents, December 31, 1853 801 -(4c?c?, Fellows elected during former 1 1^ r *d f 2 years, and paid in 1 854 .... J Fellows elected, and paid, during 1 Resident. .. . 16 1854 J Non-resident 16 !32 ! 34 835 Deduct, Compounders deceased 3 Residents ? 4 Non-residents ? 9 Resigned 4 20 Total number of Fellows, 31st Dec. 1854, as above. . 815 Number of Honorary Members, Foreign Members, and"! ^^ Personages of Royal Blood, December 31, 1853 .... J Add, Foreign Member elected during 1854 1 Deduct, Foreign Member deceased 1 Honorary Member ? 1 71 ! 2 As above 69 Number of Fellows liable to Annual Contribution at the close of 1854, with the Alterations during the year. Number at the close of 1853 204 Add, Elected and paid in 1854 16 220 Deduct, Deceased 4 Resigned 4 Compounded 6 Became Non-resident 3 ! 1/ As above 203 ANNUAL REPORT. Til Deceased Fellows. Compounders (3). Rev. H. M. De la Condamine. | James Hall, Esq. J. E. Winterbottom, Esq. Residents (4). Arthur Aikin, Esq. John Evans, Esq. Prof. E. Forbes. G. W. Aylmer, Esq. E. S. Barber, Esq. Isaiah Deck, Esq. Rev. Thomas Egerton. Capt. Sir J. FrankUn. Non-Residents (9). Joseph Martin, Esq. G. A. M'Dermott, Esq. J. M. Scobie, Esq. Dr. William Stanger. Charles Walker, Esq. Honorary Member (1). Professor Robert Jameson. Foreign Member (1). Professor F. S. Beudant. The following Persons were elected Fellows during the year 1854. January 4th. ! Charles Moore, Esq., Bath ; Robert Hunt, Esq., Australia ; Robert W. Hall, Esq., Cirencester ; Joseph Hobbins, M.D., Wednesbury ; and Edward S. Jackson, Esq., M.A., Tot- teridge. 18th. ! Alfred Wm. Morant, Esq., Camden Town; and John B. Denton, Esq., Gravely, Stevenage. February 1st. ! Charles Robert des Ruffieres, Camden New Town; Edward H. Sheppard, Esq., Clifton ; Alexander G. Gray, Jun., Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; and George M. Stephen, Esq., Maida Hill. 22nd. ! Charles Lindsay, Esq., Doctors' Commons ; C. H. B. Hambley, Esq., Brixton ; and James A. Caley, Esq., Clifton. March 8th.! N. S. Maskelyne, Esq., M.A., Oxford; B. Water- house Hawkins, Esq., Norwood ; S. P. Woodward, Esq., Islington ; and Charles W. Dilke, Esq., Sloane Street. 22nd. ! Edward O'Riley, Esq., Toungoo, Burmah ; Frederick J. Bigg, Esq., Strand ; Samuel Minton, Esq., Freyberg ; and Samuel H. Beckles, Esq., St. Leonards. April 5th. ! Robert Etheridge, Esq., Bristol. May 3rd. ! John Petherick, Esq., Waterford ; and John Coode, Esq., Portland. ! ! 24th. ! Edward Bretherton, Esq., Liverpool ; and William Ferguson, Esq., Gower Street. Vm ANNIVERSARY MEETING. June 7th. ! Thomas Wynne, Esq., Longton, Staffordshire. November 1st. ! John H. Murchison, Esq., Porchester Street ; Wm. Henry Mortimer, Esq., Harley Street ; John W. Dawson, Esq., Pictou, Nova Scotia ; and AViUiam Cunnington, Esq., Devizes. 15th. ! Francis Galton, Esq., Victoria Street, Westminster. December 13th. ! James Colquhoun, Esq., Harley Street; George Burnand, Esq., Sussex Square, Hyde Park ; and R. B. Grindrod, M.D., Great Malvern. The following Person was elected a Foreign Member. May 3rd. ! M. Joachim Barrande, Prague. The following Donations to the Museum have been received since the last Anniversary. British Specimens. Specimens of Flints with Fish-remains from Norfolk ; presented by Capt. Alexander. Slab of Stone with Footprints, from the Old Red Sandstone of Elgin ; presented by Capt. L. Brickenden, F.G.S. Specimens of Impressed Sandstones from the Lower Carboniferous rocks of Yorkshire ; presented by H. C. Sorby, Esq., F.G.S. Shells from the jVIammaliferous Gravel-beds of Orton ; presented by J. Trimmer, Esq., F.G.S. Echinodermata from the Chalk of West Norfolk, and Fossils from the Nar Clay; presented by C. B. Rose, Esq., F.G.S. Fossils from the Green-grained Chalk of Chardstock ; presented by Rev. T. Walrond and J. Wiest, Esq. Fossils from the Lower Carboniferous rocks of Scotland ; presented by W. Ferguson, Esq., F.G.S. Specimen of Slate from Westmoreland, and a Specimen of Coked Straw ; presented by Mr. J. Jameson. Foreign Specimens. Specimens of Rocks from Victoria ; presented by G. M. Stephen, Esq., F.G.S. A second Series of Fossils from Central India ; presented by the Rev. Messrs. Hislop and Hunter. Suite of Auriferous Rocks, with Specimens of Gold, from New Zea- land, collected by Mr. Heaphy ; presented by Sir George Grey. Specimen of Nummulitic Rock from near Varna ; presented by W. J. Hamilton, Esq., Pres. G.S. Collection of Fossils from Prome ; presented by Lieut.-Col. Turton. annual report. ix Charts and Maps. The Charts, &c., published by the Admiralty during the past year ; presented by Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, Hon. M.G.S., by direction of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Geological Survey of Great Britain : ! Maps, Nos. 17 and 18. Hori- zontal Sections, Nos. 31, 32, 33, 34, and 37; presented by Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.G.S., on the part of Her Majesty's Govern- ment. Geognostische Karte von Kurhessen und den angrenzenden Landern, zwischen Taunus-, Harz- und Weser-Gebirge, von Adolph Schwarz- enberg und Heinrich Reusse ; presented by the Authors. Carte Geologique de la Belgique, in 9 sheets, par Andre Dumont ; and Carte Geologique de la Belgique et des Contrees voisines, par Andre Dumont ; presented by the Author. Geological Map of the United States, by Jules Marcou, and Text ; presented by the Author. General Sketch of the Physical and Geological Features of British India, in 9 sheets, by G. B. Greenough, Esq., F.G.S. ; presented by the Author. Geognostische Karte der Umgebungen von Kraus und vom Mau- hardsberge ; presented by the Imperial Academy of Vienna. Geological Map of Norway, by M. Keilhau ; presented by D. Forbes, Esq., F.G.S. Miscellaneous. Model of Volkmannia Morrisii, a fossil plant, from Carluke ; pre- sented by W. J. Gourlie, Esq. Model of Mont Rosa, and Model of the Zugspitze ; presented by MM. Schlagintweit. Lithograph of the Remains of a young Iguanodon ; presented by J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., F.G.S. Coloured Drawing of a Specimen of Quartz Crystal ; presented by Miss C. Sowerby. Lithographic Portrait of the late Prof. E. Forbes ; presented by Prof. Tennant, F.G.S. Specimen Lithograph of Fossils ; presented by G. B. Sowerby, Esq. The following List contains the Names of the Persons and Public Bodies from whom Donations to the Library and Museum were received during the past year. Alexander, Capt. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Art-Union of London. Asiatic Society of Great Britain, Athenseum Journal, Editor of. Babbage, C, Esq. Basel Natural History Society. Belgium, Royal Academy of Sci- ences of. Bellardi, M. L. Bengal, Asiatic Society of. ANNIVERSARY MEETING. Berlin, German Geological Society at. Berlin, Royal Academy of Sciences at. Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. Bianconi, Signor J. J. Binney, E. W., Esq., F.G.S. Bland, T., Esq., F.G.S. Bologna Academy of Sciences. Bombay Geographical Society. Boston Natural History Society. Bowerbank, J. S., Esq., F.G.S. Breslau, Silesian Society at. Brickenden, Capt. L., F.G.S. British Association for the Ad- vancement of Science. Buckman, Prof., F.G.S. Caen, Linnean Society of Nor- mandy at. Cambridge Philosophical Society. Canadian Journal, Editor of the. Carter, H. J., Esq. Cautley, Lieut.-Col., F.G.S. Chemical Society of London. Cherbourg Society of Sciences. Civil Engineers' Journal, Editor of the. Colonial Office. Copenhagen, Royal Academy of Sciences at. Cox, A., Esq. Daubeny, Prof., M.D., F.G.S. Davidson, Thomas, Esq., F.G.S. Deslongchamps, M. E. Dijon, Academy of Sciences of. Dublin Geological Society. Dumont, Professor Andre, For. M.G.S. East India Company, The Hon. Edinburgh, Royal Society of. Ehrenberg, Prof., For.M.G.S. Erfurt, RoyalAcademy of Sciences at. Escher, M. A. Fairbairn, Wm., Esq., F.G.S. Ferguson, W., Esq., F.G.S. Ferrari, Signor Silvio. Fitton, Dr., F.G.S. Forbes, D., Esq., F.G.S. France, Geological Society of. Frankfort, Senckerberg Natural History Society at. Franklin Institute. Geneva Natural History Society. Giebel, Prof. C. Greenough, G.B., Esq., V.P.G.S. Haarlem, Society of Sciences at. Hamilton, W. J., Esq., Pres. G.S. Hanau, Wetterau Society of Na- tural Science at. Hargraves, E. H., Esq. Harkness, Prof., F.G.S. Hauer, M. J. Ritter von. Hausmann, Prof. J. F. L., For. M.G.S. Hebert, M. E. Hislop, Rev. S. Hopkins, Evan, Esq., F.G.S. Horticultural Society of London. Howard, Luke, Esq. Hunter, Rev. R. Indian Archipelago Journal, Edi- tor of the. Institute of Actuaries. Istituto Lombardo de Scienza. Jameson, J., Esq. Jones, T. R., Esq., F.G.S. Jukes, J. Beete, Esq., F.G.S. Kelaart, E. F., M.D., F.G.S. Koninck, Prof.L.de, For.M.G.S. Kopp, M. H. Layton, T. W., Esq. Leeds Philosophical Society. Leidy, J., M.D. Leymerie, M. A. Liebig, Prof. J. Liege Royal Society of Sciences. Lille Society of Sciences. Linnean Society of London. Liverpool Literary and Philoso- phical Society. ANNUAL REPORT. XI Lonsdale, Wm., Esq., F.G.S. Lyell, Sir Charles, F.G.S. Madrid Royal Academy of Sciences. Mallet, R., Esq. Manchester Philosophical Society. Marcou, M. Jules. Martin, P. J., Esq., F.G.S. Medical Circular, Editor of the. Monthly Journal of Medicine, Editor of the. Morris, J., Esq., F.G.S. Moscow, Imperial Society of Na- turalists of. Munich, Bavarian Academy of Sciences at. Murchison, Sir R. I., F.G.S. Museum of Practical Geology. Neufchatel Society of Sciences. Nicol, Prof. J., F.G.S. Oldham, T., Esq., F.G.S. Par do, Signor Lorenzo. Paris, Academy of Sciences at. Paris, Museum d'Histoire Natu- relle de. Philadelphia iVcademy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia, American Philoso- phical Society at. Photographic Society. Pictet, Prof. F. J. Puggaard, M. C. Quekett, J., Esq. Ray Society. Redfield, W. C, Esq. Redman, J. B., Esq. Reeve, L., Esq., F.G.S. Renevier, M. E. Reusse, M. H. Roemer, Dr. Ferd. Rose, C. B., Esq., F.G.S. Royal Astronomical Society. Royal College of Surgeons. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic So- ciety. Royal Geographical Society. Royal Institution of Great Bri- tain. Royal Society of London. Schlagintweit, Dr. A. Schlagintweit, Dr. H. Schrenk, M. A. G. Schwarzenberg, M. A. Sedgwick, Rev. Prof., F.G.S. Silliman, Prof., M.D., For. M.G.S. Smithsonian Institution. Society of Arts. Sorby, H. C, Esq., F.G.S. Sowerby, Miss C. Sowerby, G. B., Esq. State of New York. Statist, Editor of the. Statistical Society. Stockholm Royal Academy of Sciences. Strasbourg Society of Natural History. Studer, Prof. B., For. M.G.S. Suess, M. Eduard. Taylor, R., Esq., F.G.S. Tennant, Prof. J., F.G.S. ThioUiere, M. Victor. Treasury, Her Majesty's. Trimmer, J., Esq., F.G.S. Van Diemen's Land, Royal So- ciety of. Vaud Society of Natural Sciences. Verneuil, M. de. For. M.G.S. Vienna Geological Institute. Vienna, Imperial Academy of Sciences at. Villa, Signor Giov. Battista. Walrond, Rev. T. Wiest, J., Esq. Yates, J., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. Yorkshire (West Riding), Geolo- gical Society of. Zepharovich, M. Ritter von. XU ANNIVERSARY MEETING. List q/" Papers read since the last Anniversary Meeting, February 17 th, 1854. 1854. Feb. 22nd. ! On the Tertiary Formations of the Mayence Basin, by William John Hamilton, Esq., Sec. G.S. March 8th. ! On the Geology of the Gold District of Victoria, Au- stralia, by A. Selwyn, Esq. ; communicated by Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.G.S. On the Gems and Gold Crystals of Victoria, by G. M. Stephen, Esq., F.G.S. On the Gold and Cinnabar regions of California, by J. S. Wilson, Esq. ; communicated by Sir R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. On the Gold of Coromandel, New Zealand, in a letter from Charles Heaphy, Esq., to His Excellency Sir G. Grey ; com- municated by Sir R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. On the Geology of Victoria, Australia, by Evan Hopkins, Esq., F.G.S. March 22nd. ! On the Geology of a part of Madeira, by Sir Charles Lyell, F.G.S. ; extracted from letters to Leonard Horner, Esq., F.G.S. On Fish-remains in Chalk-flints, by Capt. Alexander ; in a letter to the Secretary. - On some Valleys in Yorkshire, by H. C. Sorby, Esq., F.G.S. Aj^ril 5th. ! On the Geological Structure and Erratic Phaenomena of part of the Bavarian Alps, by M. Adolph Schlagintweit ; commu- nicated by the President. On the Mammaliferous Deposits of the Valley of the Nene, near Peterborough, by Joshua Trimmer, Esq., F.G.S. May 3rd. ! On some intrusive Igneous Rocks in Cawsand Bay, near Plymouth, by Leonard Horner, Esq., F.G.S. On the May Hill Sandstone, and on the Classification of the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales, by the Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.G.S, May 10th. ! Postscript to Palichthyologic Note, No. 4, On som.e Pycnodont Fishes hitherto referred to Tetragonolepis ; Palichthy- ologic Notes, No. 6, On a new Fossil Fish from the New Red Sandstone ; No. 7, On some new Fossil Fishes from India ; No. 8, On some Fossil Fishes from Egypt ; by Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.G.S. On some Fossil Insects from the Purbecks and the Oolite, by J. O. Westwood, Esq. ; communicated by the Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S. On Pegmatite in Ireland, by M. A. Delesse ; commu- nicated by Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.G.S. ANNUAL REPORT. Xlll 1854. May 24th. ! On the Structure and Affinities of the Rudista, by S. P. Woodward, Esq., F.G.S. * Geological Notice of the Isle of Sheppey, and its outlier of Bagshot Sand, by C. H. Weston, Esq., F.G.S. On the Dimensions of the London Clay, and its most Fossiliferous Strata ; and on an outlier of the Bagshot Sands in the Isle of Sheppey, by Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. June 7th. ! On some Fossil Mammalia and Reptilia from the Purbeck beds of Durdlestone Bay, Swanage, by Prof. Owen, F.G.S. On a Section exposed in Excavations at the West India Docks, by W. Blanford, Esq. ; communicated by Prof. E. Forbes, F.G.S. On the Distinctive Characters, founded on Palseon- tological and Physical Evidences, of the London Clay and the Bracklesham beds, by Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. June 21st. ! On the Relations of the London Tertiaries with th Lower Tertiaries of France and Belgium, by Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. On Fossil Foot- tracks in the Wealden at Hastings, by S. H. Beckles, Esq., F.G.S. On the Geology of the Turco-Persian Frontier, by W. K. Loftus, Esq., F.G.S. - On the Geology of the Nagpoor District, Central India, by the Rev. Messrs. Hislop and Hunter ; communicated by J. C. Moore, Esq., F.G.S. On a Labyrinthodont Reptile from Mangali, near Nagpoor, India, by Prof. Owen, F.G.S. Additional Notes on Sand-pipes, by Joshua Trimmer, Esq., F.G.S. November 1st. ! On the Occurrence of Gold in South Africa, by Dr. Rubidge ; communicated by Sir R. I. Murchison, F.G.S. On the Occurrence of Copper in Tennessee, by W. Bray, Esq. ; communicated by the President. On the Occurrence of a Reptilian Skull in the Coal at Pictou, by J. W. Dawson, Esq. ; communicated by Sir C. Lyell, F.G.S. On some Nummulitic Limestone from Varna, by W. J. Hamilton, Esq., Pres. G.S. November 15th. ! On the Geological Structure of Mont Blanc, and the Cleavage of the rocks in its vicinity, by Daniel Sharpe, Esq., Treas. G.S. On Glacial Traces on the Surface of the Rock of Dumbarton, by Capt. L. Brickenden, F-G.S. November 29th. ! On a new Pterichthys from the Old Red Sand- stone of Morayshire, by Capt. L. Brickenden, F.G.S. ' On the Gold-field of Coromandel in New Zealand, by C. Heaphy, Esq. ; forwarded by Sir George Grey. On the Geology of the Vicinity of Nice, by Major Charters, F.G.S. XIV ANNIVERSARY MEETING. 1854. December l.Stli. ! On a Fossiliferous Deposit in the Drift near Salis- bury, by Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. and John Brown, Esq., F.G.S. On a Fossiliferous Drift at Wear Farm, between Grove Ferry and the Reculvers, by Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. On a Fossiliferous Gravel near Stoke Newington, by Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. On the Terrestrial Surfaces beneath the Drift, bv R. A. Godwin-Austen, Esq., Sec. G.S. 1855. January 3rd. ! On a Submerged Forest at Fort Lawrence, Nova Scotia, by J. W. Dawson, Esq., F.G.S. On some additional small Reptilian remains from Purbeck, by Professor Owen, F.G.S. On a large Fossil Cuttle-fish, from the Kimmeridge Clay, by Professor Owen, F.G.S. On the Tertiary Beds of Hesse Cassel and its vicinity. by W. J. Hamilton, Esq., Pres. G.S. January 17th. ! On Vertical and Meridional Lamination of Primary Rocks, by Evan Hopkins, Esq., F.G.S. January 31st. ! Notes on a Geological Map of Christianiaby M. Th. Kierulf, by Sir R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. On the Foliation of the Rocks of Norway, by David Forbes, Esq., F.G.S. After the Reports had been read, it was resolved, ! That they be received and entered on the Minutes of the Meeting ; and that such parts of them as the Council shall think fit, be printed and distributed among the Fellows. It was afterwards resolved, ! 1 . That the thanks of the Society be given to John Carrick Moore, Esq., and Colonel Portlock, retiring from the ofiice of Vice-President. 2. That the thanks of the Society be given to R. A. Godwin- Austen, Esq., retiring from the office of Secretary. 3. That the thanks of the Society be given to G. B. Greenough, Esq., J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., Capt. Strachey, and P. N. Johnson, Esq., retiring from the Council. After the Balloting Glasses had been duly closed, and the lists examined by the Scrutineers, the following gentlemen were declared to have been duly elected as Officers and Council for the ensuing year : ! ANNUAL REPORT. XV OFFICERS. PRESIDENT. William John Hamilton, Esq. VICE-PRESIDENTS. Sir P. De M. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S. and L.S. Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. and L.S. Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. SECRETARIES. John Carrick Moore, Esq., M.A. Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S. FOREIGN SECRETARY. Samuel Peace Pratt, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. TREASURER. D. Sharpe, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. COUNCIL. John J. Bigsby, M.D. Col. P. T. Cautlev, F.R.S. and L.S. Sir P. De M. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., F.R.S. Thomas F. Gibson, Esq. R. A. Godwin-Austen, Esq., B.A., F.R.S. William John Hamilton, Esq. J. D. Hooker, M.D., F.R.S. and L.S. Leonard Horner, Esq., F.R.S.L. and E. Sir Charles Lvell, F.R.S. and L.S. John C. Moore, Esq., M.A. John Morris, Esq. Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. and L.S. R. W. Mylne, Esq. S. R. Pattison, Esq. John Percy, M.D., F.R.S. Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. Col. Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S. Samuel Peace Pratt, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S. J. W. Salter, Esq. D. Sharpe, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. Income and Expenditure during the INCOME. ♀ 8. d. ♀ s. d. Balance at Banker's, January 1, 1854 .... 412 11 2 Balance in Clerk's hands 13 16 9 426 7 11 Compositions received 189 Arrears of Admission Fees 21 Arrears of Annual Contributions 1818 39 18 Admission Fees of 1854 268 16 Annual Contributions of 1854 61i 2 Dividends on 3 per cent. Consols 115 3 6 Dividends on Exchequer Bonds 3 5 11 Publications : Longman & Co. for Sale of Journal in 1853 . 62 4 5 Sale of Transactions 18 6 9 Sale of Proceedings 1 18 1 Sale of Journal, Vol. II 3 15 Sale of Journal, Vol. Ill 4 2 6 Sale of Journal, Vol. IV 5 12 6 Sale of Journal, Vol. V 5 6 6 Sale of Journal, Vol. VI 7 7 Sale of Journal, Vol. VII 12 6 Sale of Journal, Vol. VIII 15 8 6 Sale of Journal, Vol. IX 45 2 Sale of Journal, Vol. X.* 135 16 11 317 8 Sale of Library Catalogue 1 We have compared the Books and Vouchers presented to us with these Statements, and find them correct. J. S. BOWERBANK, l , ,. \ Feb. 6, 1855. ALFRED TYLOR, J ^^dttors. ^^g>ji i^ q * Due from Messrs. Longman and Co., in addition to the above, on Journal, Vol. X. ... ♀59 18 10 Due from Fellows for Corrections 36 12 6 Due from Fellows for Subscriptions .....,*.*.*. 67 5 6 ♀163 16 10 Year ending December Slst, 1854. EXPENDITURE. ♀ s. d. Invested in Exchequer Bonds 199 15 3 General Expenditure : ♀ s. d. Taxes 33 13 Fire Insurance 3 House Repairs 7 3 6 Furniture Repairs 10 8 10 New Furniture 20 3 10 Fuel 38 3 Light 29 12 5 Miscellaneous House Expenses, including "I ^q ^ ^ Postages J Stationery *. 14 10 3 Miscellaneous Printing 19 5 Tea for Meetings 23 6 8 249 16 1 Salaries and Wages : Assistant Secretary and Curator 200 Clerk 120 Porter 80 House Maid 27 13 4 Occasional Attendants 16 15 Collector 18 7 6 462 15 10 Library 42 3 6 Museum, including Assistant 32 15 6 Diagrams at Meetings 13 12 Miscellaneous Scientific Expenses 3 17 7 Publications : Transactions 15 4 Transactions, Vol. VII. Pt. 4 16 18 6 Journal, Vol. VII 1 6 10 Journal, Vol. VIII 6 6 Journal, Vol. IX 4 16 1 Journal, Vol. X 536 4 3 560 17 6 Balance at Banker's, Dec. 31, 1854 383 4 3 Balance in Clerk's hands 22 16 6 406 9 ♀1971 14 OOOCOOO 't o rt -< S3 l-H H X! P4 CO CO O O lO o o ^ ?0 00 ?n r-H r-( O t^ en r^OOOOOOOOOOOO j^ooooooooooo fjjOOcOOino^'^OOOOlM ^^*^ F-irHC -i i to . s a a Museu Diagra Miscel l-H l-H CO CO o !=-!=*/? o X o 2 o W^ ′ CA) ? - 0) cS VlH O ki 3 O > .?3 PQ < OS OS O O 00 t^ CO CO O CO -^ CO o T^ O CO Q H o ;^ w O o >. nS O (U ? u< to t< e o &H-CO 'u. ?- (o j:3 =^ 5 C? o c o o I! I ^^ " G .5 G o o ^ o o C O 00 ^ 00 ^ CO o o <0 O^ -H CO o ? o o lO CO O (♀) to -a fl ′^ S o G C s D G CQ o !h O^ CO cu c -G O 3^ CO CO CO W ?J S G ;-! 3 o c CO G --z! ?3 P G G G cu o; > -S OQ G ?i ctf ^ S G I! 1 !h . 3 CO O lo '^ CLd S O 3 OfS Ji ?+H >^. CO -3 O X) ^^ G q; D o CO f!t to l-H 09 *?! ? < X CO l-H o XXI PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUx\L GENERAL MEETING, 16th FEBRUARY, 1855. Award of the Wollaston Medal and Donation Fund. After the Reports of the Council had been read, the President, W. J. Hamilton, Esq., on delivering to Sir Roderick I. Murchison the Wollaston Medal, awarded to Sir Henry T. De la Beche, addressed him as follows : ! Sir Roderick Murchison, ! In the absence of Sir Henry De la Beche I address myself to you for the purpose of saying that it is with much pleasure that I now proceed to give effect to the resolu- tion of the Council already announced, awarding the Wollaston Palladium Medal for this year to our old associate and fellow-labourer. Sir Henry De la Beche. In requesting you to undertake the task of conveying to him this mark of the high opinion entertained by the Council of his labours, I trust you will inform him how sincerely we regret that he should be prevented by indisposition from being personally present amongst us to-day, and that you will also com- municate to him the considerations bv which the Council of the Geo- logical Society have been influenced in making this award. The necessary brevity of a resolution did not admit of our entering fully into the details of these considerations ; I will therefore now state that, in the first place, the Council desire to record their opinion of the merit of those communications which, as a private independent geologist. Sir Henry De la Beche has for a period of more than thirty- five years made to this Society, and which, printed in our Transac- tions, will ever remain a monument of his zeal, his energy, and his perseverance. The very earliest volumes of our Transactions show that since the year 1819 we have been chiefly indebted to him for the careful examination of the secondary formations of our southern coasts, particularly that of Dorsetshire, and for a description of the geology of the vicinity of Bridport, Lyme Regis, and Weymouth. It is difficult at the present day to estimate the effect of those commu- nications, which at the time gave such a stimulus to the study of our science. The nature and the abundance of the fossils contained in these beds gave them in those days an importance and an interest which has now been, in a great measure, transferred to the more ancient deposits of the Palaeozoic formations. In addition to these papers, which left but little remaining for future explorers, and in some of which he was assisted by Dr. Buck- land, we are indebted to Sir Henry De la Beche for a valuable paper VOL. XI. 6 XXU PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. on the Geology of Southern Pembrokeshire, in which I think we may trace the commencement of that system of geological illustra- tion which he has subsequently perfected in the maps of the Ord- nance Geological Survey, and of those views which have been lately confirmed by Mr. Salter. In Foreign Geology, Sir Henry De la Beche has contributed some interesting papers on the Northern and Southern coasts of France, particularly that of Nice. I must also mention his paper on the Geology of Jamaica, published in the 2nd volume of the 2nd series of our Transactions, as containing the first detailed information we have received respecting the geological structure and formations of that island ; and when we consider the difficulties attendant on such explorations, under a tropical climate and in the midst of a tropical vegetation, we cannot estimate too highly the merits of Sir Henry De la Beche. At a subsequent period, he added to his claims on our considera- tion by the publication of two admirable works ; ' The Manual of Geology,' and ' Researches in Theoretical Geology.' It is impossible to peruse the lucid development of geological phsenomena contained in these works, and particularly in the Researches in Theoretical Geology, without admiring the bold grasp and comprehensive view of the subject taken by the author ; and, although during the more than twenty years which have elapsed since those works were first pub- lished vast progress has been made in the knowledge of geological detail and the subdivision of formations, by none more than by yourself. Sir Roderick, in your investigation of the older palaeozoic rocks, the general principles contained in that volume have remained unaltered and unshaken. Some indeed appear to be absolutely pro- phetic. Every day's experience confirms and extends the remark that " the supracretaceous group apparently passes so insensibly into the present order of things, still viewing the subject on the large scale, that probably no line of demarcation will ever be drawn between them, particularly when we regard the whole superficies of the world, and not a particular portion of it*." But in awarding this Medal to Sir Henry He la Beche, the Council are also desirous of expressing their admiration of what he has done in his public capacity as Director of the Museum of Practical Geo- logy, and Director General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. They trust that it will never be forgotten that it is to the zeal and exertions of Sir Henry De la Beche that this country is indebted for the recognition by the Government and by Parliament of the import- ance of establishing in the metropolis both a Museum of Practical Geology and a School of Mines upon an enlarged and liberal scale. Urged by his recommendations chiefly, backed by the support of many other men of science, the Government at length consented, about fifteen years ago, to establish, at first on a moderate scale, a Museum for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of geological studies and of their application to agricultural and other purposes. The admirable paper on the formation of the Rocks of South Wales * Researches, &c. p. 365. ANNIVERSARY MEETING. WOLLASTON MEDAL. XXUl and South-Western England, published in the first volume of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey, is the best evidence of the fit- ness of Sir Henry to conduct the establishment over which he was appointed, and to carry out the geological survey entrusted to his superintendence. The success of this first experiment emboldened the Government to listen to his suggestions, that the Institution should be made worthy of the country. By pointing out the importance, not to say the absolute necessity, of establishing, in a country where mineral wealth was so abundant as in our island, an ofiice where mining records might be preserved, there being previously nothing of the kind in existence, he succeeded in inducing the Government to erect a special building for this purpose, and in having a School of Mines attached to the Museum of Practical Geology, where all the details and phaenomena of these important operations might be preserved*. To the duty of superintending these Establishments was added the geological survey of Great Britain, based on the Ordnance maps ; and not the least of Sir Henry's merits is the skill and impartiality he has displayed in the selection of the able staif of naturalists, geologists, palaeontologists, chemists, and mineralogists, who have assisted him in this great national work. With such a staff, the introduction of lectures for the purpose of teaching the application of these branches of science was not a work of difficulty. It became almost a necessary consequence, and the success which has attended them, the frequency with which they are followed by artisans and other working classes, is the best possible evidence of the propriety of their institution. But I cannot dwell any longer on this subject, ! and yet there is one point in the career of Sir H. De la Beche to which, on such an occa- sion as the present, I must for one moment allude. One of his greatest merits, and which I have little doubt has mainly contributed to his success in this achievement, has been, that in pursuing the fascinating charms of geological inquiries, he has at the same time cultivated, the more exact and mathematical study of mineralogical investigations. I cannot but regret that, as a body, English geologists have neglected them. It is Sir H. De la Beche' s greatest praise that he has never abandoned his first love for mineralogy. In requesting you. Sir Roderick, to convey this Medal, which I now place in your hands, to Sir H. De la Beche, I have only to ask you to assure him of the hearty good wishes of the Geological Society of London for his future prosperity and health. Sir Roderick Murchison replied, ! Mr. President, ! ^You have so truthfully and ably enunciated the services rendered to Geological Science by my valued friend Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche, that any one, however little acquainted with our pursuits, must at once perceive that this Society has truly done honour to itself in bestowing its highest reward upon so eminent a man. Permit me, in returning you his grateful thanks, to seize this * See Hopkins' Address, 1852, Quart. Journ, Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. hxix. 62 XXIV PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. opportunity of recording some sentiments of my own, wliicli are enter- tained, I feel certain, by all geologists who have witnessed the rise and progress of our associate, and which, if acted upon, will assuredly be most grateful to his feelings. The earlier years of Sir H. De la Beche having been spent in those labours in the field, and in the composition of many of those works to which you have adverted, the remaining portion of his life has, as you have stated, been devoted to the foundation, arrange- ment, and successful completion of a great National Establishment. Let me add, that this design, entirely his own conception, was begun, carried out, and matured by the combination of scientific skill with those practical evidences of the value of his project, in the absence of which he never could have commanded success in an undertaking which, though applauded by ourselves, was alien to the pursuits of the great body of Englishmen. And how did he succeed? ! At his own expense he traced the boundaries and relations of certain rock-formations, and, laying them down on the Ordnance Survey Maps, accompanied by illustrative Sections, he thus took the first step in leading public men (otherwise little versed in our science) to see the good which must result from the extensive application of such a scheme, in making all proprietors alive to the importance of obtaining a better acquaintance with the subsoil of their estates. Having gradually attracted the notice of the Government, and having obtained the use of rooms in Craig's Court, and the employ- m.ent of a limited sum of the public money. Sir H. De la Beche then attached to his new-born establishment able men of science, who could decipher formations in the field, describe the fossils they contained, or chemically analyze the structure of the rocks and their associated minerals. Soon filling to repletion the small space allotted to him with models of mines, illustrative drawings, and specimens of fossils, ores, and building-stones, he convinced our rulers, and particularly that illustrious statesman Sir Robert Peel, that the dignity and interests of the country required that an adequate and appropriate building should be erected, and exclusively devoted to the fulfilment of a project so lucidly devised, and thus far so well realized. Then arose, and very much after the design of the accomplished Director himself, that well-adapted edifice in Jermyn Street, which^ to the imperishable credit of its author y stands forth as the first Palace ever raised from the ground in Britain^ lohich is entirely devoted to the Advancement of Science ! Once possessed of halls worthy of so noble an object. Sir Henry De la Beche next rendered them practicall}^ useful to the public, and on a vastly extended scale, by embracing, as necessary adjuncts, me- tallurgy and mechanical science in addition to the branches of know- ledge previously cultivated. When we reflect on the eminence of the men of science with whom he surrounded himself, including our last and deeply lamented President Edward Forbes, and have seen how admirably they presided over their schools, what solid instruction they imparted, and all directly supporting geology, ! when we visit ANNIVERSARY MEETING. ! WOLLASTON MEDAL. XXV the galleries in which the shells, fossils, and minerals are so arranged as to illustrate the value of the maps, sections, and publications of the Survey, we geologists must feel more strongly than any other class of men the deep obligations of our country to Sir Henry De la Beche. In speaking of this Museum as a School of Mines, and in recollect- ing that the value of raw mineral produce extracted annually from the subsoil of Britain is not less than 25 millions sterling, you must be reminded of the practical and efficient manner in which Sir H. De la Beche was enabled, from long residence in mining tracts, to convey to many individual proprietors much useful knowledge in their own local language, and to send them away well pleased with his cheerful and friendly explanations. Here, however, we must extend our vision beyond our Islands, and, whether we look to Canada, Australia, the Cape, or Hindostan, we see that well-trained geologists have been sent or are going thither from our National School of Mines ; ! thus making our vast Colonial Possessions keep pace with the advancement of the mother-country. Now, as Sir Henry himself and many of his best officers have sprung from our own ranks, let me. Sir, as a former President of this body, and as a warm well-wisher to the progress of our Science, express my conviction, that it is our bounden duty to cleave closely to our offspring. Her Majesty's Geological Museum, ! nay, more, ! to use our most strenuous endeavours to have it maintained b}^ the British Government in that lofty position to which it has been raised. We must, in short, not only hold firmly to, but act upon the faith which is in us, and see that an Establishment like this, though it naturally branches off into highly useful and collateral subjects of Art, be never rendered subsidiary to them, but be permanently and independently sustained on its own solid basis of pure Science. This, our view, will also be taken, I feel confident, by every enlightened Statesman who may be placed in a station to enable him to provide for the future well-being of the admirable Museum, founded and completed by our Wollaston Medallist. The state of his health having alone prevented Sir Henry De la Beche from being present to-day, I am charged on his part to declare that, but for the knowledge he acquired, the friendships he formed, and the aid he received from his associates in this Society, he never could have realized his scheme. In returning to you. Sir, and the Council, his grateful thanks, I have only further to assure you, that this affectionate tribute from his old friends has cheered him up in his present feeble state of health, and that your appreciation of his services has made the deepest impression on his heart ; whilst on my part, allow me to say that I consider it a high and gratifying distinction to have been requested by my eminent friend to receive for him this Wollaston Medal. On delivering to the Secretary the Balance of the Proceeds of the Wollaston Fund, the President addressed him as follows : ! XXVI PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Mr. Godwin-Austen, ! In the absence of the Drs. Sandberger, to whom the Council of the Geological Society have this year awarded the balance of the proceeds of the Wollaston Fund, I must request you to inform them that the Council have come to this resolution in consideration of their valuable work on the Fossils of the Palaeozoic Rocks of the Rhine, in Nassau, and to assist them in its completion, as also in the publication of their intended work on the Fossils of the Mayence Basin. You, who with myself, have had an opportunity of appreciating the labours of these gentlemen, can testify to the zeal and industry, and the real scientific enthusiasm with which they pursue their geological investigations. You will, I trust, inform them that we are desirous of expressing our admiration at the manner in which the fossils illustrating their work have been represented, and at the accuracy with which they have been drawn. No one is better able than your- self to judge of and to appreciate this accuracy. At the same time, the Council also wish to testify their opinion of the talent and judgment shown in the description of the fossils, and in referring them to their respective formations. By this work they have greatly added to our knowledge of the Devonian System in Germany, and of the various forms of organic life by which the different members of that system are characterized in the Rhenish districts. The Council trust that by this award they will be better enabled to complete without much delay a work on which they have already expended so much labour, time, and thought ; and of which one part only is, I believe, still wanting. They also trust that they may look for- ward to the commencement, at no distant period, of the work, already announced, on the Fossils of the Mayence Basin. The labours of Dr. Fridolin Sandberger on this subject are already so well known to the cultivators of tertiary geology, that the Council entertain the fullest confidence that it will prove no less important and creditable to its authors than that which is now so near completion. I have now only to request, that in forwarding to these gentlemen this dona- tion, you will express to them our hope that they will see in it, however small, an earnest of our good wishes for their future pros- perity, and an evidence of our appreciation of what they have already done. Mr. Godwin-Austen replied as follows : ! Sir, ! I have much pleasure in accepting the balance of the proceeds of the Wollaston Donation Fund on behalf of the Messrs. Sandberger, inasmuch as I am one of the few Members of the Society who have the pleasure of being personally acquainted with these gentlemen. It is this which enables me to assure you, with peculiar confidence, of the high estimation in which they will hold the recognition by this Society of their services to geological science ; whilst, at the same time, I feel satisfied that the award was never made in stricter conformity with the views of the founder, than in the present instance. The work of the Messrs. Sandberger which has been more particularly noticed, ! the * Systematische Beschreibung und Abbildung der Versteine- ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XXTU rungen des Rheinischen Schichten- Systems in Nassau,' is not ex- ceeded, for the beaut}^ of its illustrations, by any work of the kind which has appeared ; and, in common with one or two other Members of this Society, I can add my testimony to the fidelity with which the objects represented have been described and reproduced. Such works as these necessarily involve a considerable expense to their authors, ! an expense which is often greatly disproportionate to the slender endowments of foreign academical professorships. With reference to what may be hoped from the future labours of the Messrs. Sandberger, I may state that they belong to a band of young and zealous brothers in science, whose object it is to investigate and make known the Geological and Natural History of the Middle Rhenish Provinces, and towards which they next purpose to con- tribute a critical work on the fossil forms of the tertiary basin of Mayence. THE ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Gentlemen, ! It now becomes my duty, in accordance with the practice uniformly adopted by my predecessors in this chair, to ad- dress to you some observations on the losses we have sustained during the past year, and it is with unfeigned sorrow that I have first to allude to one whose name can never be mentioned in these rooms without emotion. I need not say that I allude to Edward Forbes, who was endeared to us by every tie of social friendship and scientific merit, and who has been snatched away from us at the moment when he had reached the highest position his ambition could have coveted, or his admiring countrymen could have bestowed on him. Scarcely had a few short months intervened since he had been called by the universal voice of the science of Great Britain to fill the chair of Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, and while we were still regretting his departure from the metropolis, before we were astounded and overwhelmed by the unexpected announcement of his death. We felt not only individually that we had lost a valued friend, but that those anticipations of a brilliant scientific career, justi- fied by the position he had attained and by the opportunities placed within his reach, were doomed to bitter disappointment. These reflections are most painful, and, were I to follow my own inclina- tions, I would willingly forego all further allusion to the subject ; but such a course would be a betrayal of duty towards our departed friend, and would disappoint the justly-founded expectations which you entertain of hearing a more detailed account of the distinguished and amiable man whose loss we so deeply deplore. Edward Forbes was born in the Isle of Man, in the month of February 1815. He evinced, at a very early age, an unusual taste for the study of natural history, and began to form a small museum when scarcely seven years old. A few years later he commenced his geological studies with the perusal of Buckland's ' Reliquiae Dilu- vianse,' Parkinson's * Organic Remains,' and Conybeare's * Geology XXVm PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. of England,' exhibiting at the same time a more than usual taste for drawing. He visited London at the age of sixteen, and was then engaged in studying drawing under Sass, but this was not enough to occupy his eager and ardent mind. He proceeded in 1831 to Edinburgh, where he devoted his whole time and energies to the pursuit of his favourite subject of natural history, while professing to overcome his repug- nance for the study of medicine, the ostensible object of his matri- culation. But medicine as a profession had no charms for one whose w^hole soul was filled with a love of the beautiful, and with an intense admiration of the works of Nature in every varied form. He culti- vated his taste for natural history under the able teaching of such men as Professors Jameson and Graham. He delighted particularly in the botanical excursions of the latter, who was accustomed period- ically to lead forth his pupils to the Highlands ; thus making Nature herself, in her truest and loveliest garb, afford the practical illustra- tions of the teaching of the class-room. At this period of his life, scarcely a year passed without some botanizing or dredging excursion, and long before he arrived at manhood, he had made himself well acquainted with the Fauna of the Irish Sea, on the shores of his native island, i^t the age of eighteen, in company with a fellow student, he made an excur- sion to Norway, where he spent some weeks exploring the wild and romantic districts of the country', adding to his zoological and botanical observations. Already, at this time, Edward Forbes began to direct his attention to botanical geography, the forerunner of those deep and philosophical views respecting the geographical distribution of the Flora and Fauna of the world which he subsequently deve- loped, and which constitute one of the most interesting and leading features of all his writings. In 1835, Edward Forbes visited the iVlps ; in 1837 he was pro- secuting his studies at Paris under Prevost, Beudant, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, and De Blainville, and in May of the same year we hear of him at Algiers ; the result of this expedition w^as an account of the land and freshwater mollusca of Algiers and. Bougia, published in the * Annals of Natural History' for May 1839. With the same view of prosecuting his researches in natural history, he visited Styria and Carniola in 1838, his remarks on which were published in the ' Proceedings of the Botanical Society.* In the summers of 1839 and 1840 he delivered at Edinburgh, whilst still a student, a course of scientific lectures on zoology, as well as one of a more popular nature, in which he pointed out the bearings of zoology on geology. I mention this as a subject of peculiar in- terest to us, as indicating the commencement of those views which, by their subsequent development and their growing importance in the hands of Edward Forbes, have exercised such a iDeneficial and prac- tical influence on the study of geology. The time was now fast approaching when Edward Forbes was to find a wider sphere for the exercise of his brilliant genius. In 1841 he published his ' History of British Star Fishes and other Echino- ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XXIX derms/ a delightful volume, cliarmino;ly illustrated by his own pencil and from his own designs. There are many in this room who will recognize in these illustrations the same ingenious and playful fancy, and the same ready pencil which never allowed a sheet of pni)er to lie unused before him, while he had a chance of transferring to it the humorous and graceful forms which he realized without an effort, and almost without a thought. In this same year he obtained the appointment of naturaUst to H.M. surveying ship Beacon, Captain Graves, then employed in completing the survey of the coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands : an appointment more suited to his tastes and to his talents could not have been devised. He had here full })lay for the prosecution of his favourite pursuits of botan}^ zoology, and geology. Already well acquainted with the flora and fauna of the European Continent and their geographical distribution, he had now an opportunity of tracing their further extension to tbe East, and of examining the first appearance of that Oriental fades which they put on in the eastern portions of the Mediterranean. Nor was Edward Forbes the man to neglect such an opportunity. During this and the following year he pursued his botanical and zoological researches with unwearied energy, assisted by Captain Graves, who omitted no opportunity of enabling his scientific friend and companion to avail himself of every occasion for observation which the service afforded. It was during his various excursions in the Beacon and her boats that Edward Forbes followed out those researches with the dredge, amongst the islands of the ^Egean Sea and on the adjacent coast of Asia Minor, which alone would have immortalized his name. At the same time he neglected no occasion of studying the geology and botany of the regions wdiich he visited, but the dredge and its results will ever remain the chief glory of this expedition. The results of these researches were made known to the public in the ' Report on the Mollusca and Radiata of the j35gean Sea and on their distribution, considered as bearing on Geology,' made to the British Association at their meeting at Cork in 1843. From this report it appears that the data on which it was founded were entirely derived from personal researches during a voyage of eighteen months in the iEgean, w'hen but a few days passed by without being devoted to natural history observations. The calculations were based on more than 100 fully-recorded dredging operations in various depths from 1 to 130 fathoms, and in many localities from the shores of the Morea to those of Asia Minor. And with that modesty which ever characterized Edward Forbes in all his works, he adds, that the merit of the results is mainly due to Captain Graves. The chief objects of the report, as stated by the author, were, " to give an account of the distribution of the several tribes of mollusca and radiata in the Eastern Mediterranean, ex- hibiting their range in depth and the circumstances under which they are found ; to inquire into the laws which appear to regulate their distribution, and to show the bearings of the investigation on the science of geology." I shall not attempt to give an analysis of this valuable report ; I XXX* PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. shall content myself with reminding you of some of the more import- ant conclusions, as bearing on geological investigations, which are embodied in it. The most important fact which has resulted from them respecting the development and distribution of animal and vegetable life in the depths of the ocean is, that of the almost uni- form occurrence of particular species in particular zones of depth below the surface. This distribution of marine animal life is deter- mined by three primary, modified by several secondary influences. The primary are climate, sea composition, and depth ; of the many secondary influences, the most important is the character of the sea bottom. According as rock, mud, sand, weedy or gravelly ground prevails, so will the number of the several genera and species vary. The outline and geological nature of the coast is also an im- portant feature in modifying the marine fauna. Other secondary influences are tides and currents, the influx of fresh water, &c. We have then a full description of eight well-marked regions of depth in the Eastern Mediterranean, each characterized by its pecu- liar fauna, and when there are plants by its flora. These regions are distinguished from each other by the association of the species they severally include. Certain species in each are found in no other, several are found in one region which do not range into the next above, whilst they extend to that below, or vice versa ; certain species have their maximum of development in each zone, being most prolific in individuals in that zone in which is their maximum, and of which they may be regarded as especially characteristic. Every zone has also a more or less general mineral character, the sea bottom not being equally variable in each, and becoming more and more uniform as we descend. Again, the deeper zones are greater in extent, so that whilst the first or most superficial is but 12, the eighth, or lowest, is above 700 feet in perpendicular range ; its hori- zontal extent increases in a somewhat similar proportion. Another significant feature is, that as we reach the eighth zone the number of species and of individuals diminishes as we descend, pointing to a zero in the distribution of animal life as yet unvisited. Species disappear in depth which do not seem to be replaced by others. From other observations the following general inference is deduced ; that the extent of the range of a species in depth is correspondent with its geographical distribution. But these eight regions are themselves the scene of incessant change ; not only are the depths modified by the addition of fresh matter, but the very animals themselves, by their own increase, so modify the nature of the sea bottom as to render it unfit for their own existence, until a new layer of sedimentary matter, uncharged with living organic contents, has formed a fresh soil for similar or other animals to thrive on. It is impossible to overlook the im- portance of these observations in explaining many of the daily recurring pheenomena which are brought under the notice of the geologist ; in the last observation we may see an explanation of the phsenomenon of interstratification of fossiliferous and non-fossiliierous beds. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XXXI I must refer you to the report itself for an account of the phseno- mena which would be presented to us were the bottom of the ^Egean Sea to be elevated and converted into dry land, or to be filled up by a long series of sedimentary depositions. He concludes by observing, that, " supposing such an elevation to have taken place, a knowledge of the association of species in the regions of depth would enable us to form a pretty accurate notion of the depth of water in which each bed was deposited. A beautiful illustration of this argument is given from observations made on the island of Santorin, and under different circumstances the contrary observations might be made ; the geologist is thus enabled, by a careful examination of the successive overlying groups of species, to ascertain whether, in any given locality brought under his notice, the sea bottom was being elevated or depressed." But I have already dwelt too long on this report ; I must hasten to other scenes in the life of Edward Forbes. During his stay in the Mediterranean he made several excursions into Lycia, where he had an opportunity of combining his love of art with the pursuit of natural history. On one occasion, in company with Mr. Hoskyn, they discovered and fixed the sites of two of the Cibyratic cities. A second excursion undertaken with the Rev. Mr. Daniell and Captain, then Lieutenant, Spratt, was still more important ; the sites of eighteen ancient cities hitherto unknown to geographers were ex- plored and determined, and the names of fifteen were identified by inscriptions found amongst the ruins. During this expedition Mr. Daniell fell a victim to the malignant malaria of the countr}'^, and the life of Edward Forbes himself was at one time in danger. Indeed there can be little doubt that at this time were sown the seeds of that disease which has eventually deprived us of his services. He, how- ever, gradually recovered, and was on the point of proceeding to Egypt and the Red Sea on a dredging excursion, when he was in- formed that he had been elected to fill the Chair of Botany in King's College, vacant by the death of Professor Don. He returned imme- diately to England, and, on the 8th May 1843, delivered his in- augural lecture in that institution. But previously to this event. Professor Forbes had become intimately connected with this Society. At the close of 1842 Mr. Lonsdale, who for so many years had been the curator of our museum, resigned his ofiice in consequence of the state of his health. In the report of the Council read at the Annual General Meeting on February 1 7, 1843, 1 find the following passage, after alluding to the loss sustained by the resignation of Mr. Lonsdale : ! " In recording the election of his successor, the ('ouncil cannot omit to congratulate the Society on having secured the services of such a distinguished naturalist as Mr. E. Forbes." I may appeal to the recollection of every member of the Society for a confirmation of my statement, that the expecta- tions then entertained, great as they unquestionably were, were more than fulfilled by the manner in which Edward Forbes conducted the business entrusted to him during the period that he held this im- portant office. The report of the Museum Committee for 1844 will show how his labours were appreciated by the Council. But before XXXll PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. the close of the same year his talents as a naturalist and a palaeonto- logist called him to a more extended sphere of action. On the establishment of the Museum of Practical Geology in connection with the Ordnance Geological Survey under the direction of Sir H. De la Beche, Professor Forbes was appointed palaeontologist to that insti- tution, and resigned the curatorship of the museum of this Society. On the removal of the Museum to Jermyn Street he was appointed its Professor of Natural History. Here then his talents had full space for their development, and Edward Forbes was not slow in bringing to bear on his numerous avocations the knowledge he had so industriously collected. Com- bining as he did a lively and vivid imagination with a mature and well-disciplined judgment, he was enabled to employ with effect that power of generalization and abstraction which he so eminently pos- sessed. His enlightened and comprehensive views on the numerous branches of natural history which he cultivated, and which were founded mainly on his own experience, caused him from henceforth to be looked up to as one of the first of British naturalists, and the works which he now published bear ample testimony to his well- founded reputation. Nor was it in England alone that his merits were recognized. In France, in Germany, in Italy, wherever men of science were to be found, the name of Edward Forbes was equally acknowledged as deserving a place in the first rank of scientific merit. Towards the end of 1846, he published with Lieut., now Captain, Spratt an account of his travels inLycia, a work in which we are at a loss to know whether most to admire the admirable details of archaeology and art, or the equally graphic description of the botany, geology, and zoology which it contains. About this time appeared in the Proceed- ings and Transactions of our Society his Monograph on the South Indian Fossils sent to this country by MM. Kaye and Cunliffe and the Rev. W.H. Egerton. The report itself, independently of the description of the fossils, is short, but it is not the less important, and is eminently characteristic of the author. He points out the general resemblance of the fades of the fossils to that of the Cretaceous period of Europe, and more particularly the lower portions of that series. His arguments are drawn rather from similarity, than from identity of species; a subject to which he had particularly directed his attention during liis re- searches in the iEgean Sea. The report is pre-eminently suggestive, and I would particularly mention that portion of it which refers to the occurrence in these Cretaceous beds of certain forms which are usually considered as characteristic of Tertiary formations, and which very forms are now found in their greatest assemblages living in those eastern seas, ! a fact, which, he observes, goes far to support the theory, that genera, like species, have geographical birthplaces as well as geographical capitals. About this time, also, he wrote one of the most remarkable contri- butions to the science of Geology whick has appeared in this country. It is published in the first volume of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and is entitled " On the Connexion between ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XXXlll the Distribution of the existing Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, and the Geological changes which have affected their area." '* In this work," to use words already printed, " the happy combination of great botanical and zoological knowledge is made to bear on some of the most intricate inquiries with regard to the age and relationship of the rocks of Great Britain." Mr. Horner, when President of this Society, has borne his ready testimony to the merits of this work, when he says in his Anniversary Address in 1847, that this Essay "is an admirable example of the light to be derived from other branches of natural history in the prosecution of geological inquiries ; of the application of animal and vegetable physiology, and a knowledge of the habits and distribution of animals and plants to the elucidation of very difficult problems in geology." Mr. Horner, in the Address from which I have quoted these words, has given an admirable account of this interesting and attractive memoir, so suggestive as it is of great and enlightened views. I will therefore here only observe, that the principal theory which it is the object of this Essay to establish, is based on the assumption of the existence of specific centres^ that is, of certain geographical points from which the individuals of each species have been diffused, involving their consequent descent from a single progenitor, or from two, according as the sexes might be united or distinct. Prof. Forbes further declares, as his opinion, that the " abandonment of this doc- trine would place in a very dubious position all evidence the pala3on- tologist could offer to the geologist, towards the comparison and identification of strata, and the determination of the epoch of their formation." Having assumed the truth of the doctrine of specific centres, the problem which he proposes to solve is the origin of the assemblages of the animals and plants now inhabiting the British Islands. Within this limited area he considers that the united labours of British naturalists have shown that there are a great number of animals and plants which are not universally dispersed, but are con- gregated in such a way as to form distinct regions or provinces. The vegetation, for instance, presents five well-marked Floras, four of which are restricted to definite provinces, whilst the fifth, besides exclusively claiming a part of the area, overspreads and commingles with all the others. Prof. Forbes considers that, of the three given modes by which an isolated area may become peopled by animals and plants, "immigra- tion before isolation" of the area was the mode by which the British Isles have chiefly acquired their existing flora and fauna, terrestrial as well as marine, and that it took place subsequently to the Miocene epoch. It follows from this argument, that previous to the isolation of this area, it must have been in direct union with those portions of the European continent the floras of which are shown to be identical with one or other of the five floras of the British isles. I will briefly mention the five distinct floras which he has noticed, and the districts with which he considers they prove our former connexion. 1 . The West Irish Flora. ! The high lands in the north of Spain present the nearest point where a vegetation occurs identical with XXXIV PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. that which is characteristic of the mountainous district of the west and south-west of Ireland. Consequently, at some period or other, continuous dry land must have existed from the coast of Spain to that of Ireland. 2. The Devon Flora, connected with that of the Channel Islands and the neighbouring parts of France. 3. The Kentish Flora. ! The vegetation of the south-east of Eng- land is distinguished by the presence of a number of species common to this district and the opposite coast of France. 4. The Alpine Flora. ! On the tops of some of our most lofty mountains, particularly in Scotland, are plants not found elsewhere in the British islands, but which are identical with those of the Scan- dinavian Alps, thus pointing to a former connection in that direction. 5. The General Flora. ! This universal flora is almost identical as to species with the flora of central and western Europe, and may be properly styled Germanic. The arguments by which these views are maintained are clearly and satisfactorily developed, but must be read and studied to be appre- ciated. That portion of the paper, however, which relates to the distribution of the marine plants and animals now inhabiting the British seas is still more deserving of careful study. The account of the distribution of the British Mollusca is particularly so : it con- tains a mass of information on the subject, not to be found, at the time of its publication, in any one work, and of the greatest value to the student of Tertiary geology. I will only mention one or two of the more interesting points with which the memoir concludes. " That the flora and fauna, terrestrial and marine, of the British Islands and seas have originated, so far as that area is concerned, since the Miocene epoch. " The greater part of the terrestrial animals and flowering plants now inhabiting the British Islands are members of specific centres beyond their area, and have migrated to it over continuous land, before, during, or after the glacial epoch. " All the changes before, during, or after the glacial epoch appear to have been gradual and not sudden, so that no marked line of de- marcation can be drawn between the creatures inhabiting the same element and the same locality during two proximate periods." Of the many scientific papers of great merit which Prof. Forbes subsequently published, in our own and other Journals, I will only allude to one, which in this room cannot be passed over in silence. In his paper ' On the Fluvio-marine Tertiaries of the Isle of Wight,' published in the 9th Vol. of our Quarterly Journal, the result of the laborious investigations of several months, he has established, on data which cannot be questioned, the true order ot superposition of the upper tertiary beds of that typical locality, correcting the errors of previous inquirers, aud confirming a suggestion made by Mr. Prest- wich, that the strata composing a part of Hempstead Hill were pro- bably higher than any beds hitherto noticed. The result of Prof. Forbes' s inquiries has been to show that, taking the Yvliitecliff Bay section for an example, the lieadon Hill beds, instead of constituting ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XXXV the highest portion of the series, are overlaid by several other distinct formations, consisting of the St. Helen's 6r Osborne beds and the Bembridge series, the latter consisting of several distinct divisions, all characterized by peculiar fossils, chiefly, however, freshwater or brack- ish. He has, moreover, distinctly ascertained that the Hempstead Hill series constitutes another subdivision overlying the uppermost bed of the Bembridge Series, and characterized by a fresh set of fossils. *' Thus," to use the author's words, *' we find that the fluvio-marine Eocenes of the Isle of Wight are more than twice as thick as they have hitherto been regarded, and that the additional beds are even of greater geological importance than those hitherto recognized." The remarkable feature in this section is, that from the Barton series upwards there is no break in the series of deposits ; and as Prof. Forbes identifies the Hempstead series with the middle, and possibly the upper Limburg beds of Belgium, he is logically led to the conclusion, that the Limburg beds, and consequently the Wein-. heim beds of the Mayence basin, w4iich are unquestionably of the same age as the Middle Limburg, must be also Eocene. Other con- tinental beds are also referred to as necessarily belonging to this Eocene period. This is not the place to offer any criticism on Edward Forbes' s conclusions, but I may perhaps hereafter allude to the question, for the purpose of testing whether there may not exist some flaw in the argument, by which so many of the younger conti- nental beds are drawn into this Eocene vortex. During this period Prof. Forbes was not only most industrious with his pen, but he was unwearied in his arrangement and classification of the vast accumulation of fossils collected by the Ordnance Geolo- gical Survey, and now exhibited in the Jermyn Street Museum. He was no less active in the field with his hammer and his note-book. He not only explored various parts of England, Wales, and Ireland, but he visited, with the same observant eye and comprehensive glance, many portions of Belgium and of France, carefully comparing their various aspects and phsenomena, and procuring materials for his philosophical generalizations. It is unnecessary for me to remind you of the satisfaction with which we hailed his appointment to the Presidentship of this Society, looking forward to the influence of his profound knowledge of palae- ontology on the future progress of our science. But scarcely had he occupied this chair for half the allotted term, when the death of his old master. Prof. Jameson, was announced in this metropolis. The universal voice of science was not slow in recognizing Edward Forbes as the man who, above all others, both as a naturalist and a geologist, was most fitted to succeed him. At the same time, I am bound to say, that while we were all ready to congratulate him on the prospect of thus reaching the highest goal which a true naturalist could desire, we looked forward with regret to the prospect of his removal from our circle. Nor was this grief altogether free from a feeling of shame, that this vast city, with its wealth, its display, its riches, its public and private associations, its great collections, its lavish expen- diture, and in many respects its unbounded liberality, could propose XXXVl PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. no prize, no reward to the scientific man worthy to be placed in com- petition with that offered by the northern capitah Little did we then imagine that the regret we felt at his departure from amongst us was destined to be so soon merged in another, as overwhelming as it was altogether unexpected. Little did we imagine that the fond anticipations of a long and glorious career for our friend, in which we then indulged, were doomed to be so speedily destroyed. Prof. Forbes was appointed to the vacant Chair of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. He had thus obtained the great object of his life. An intimate friend, writing in one of the Edin- burgh journals, says that he considered all his plans, excursions, observations, &c., as preparatory to this one object. During his active and laborious life, all his hopes and future plans pointed to Edinburgh as the only appropriate place for developing that vast amount of natural history acquirement he had obtained. There he looked forward, amongst other things which his eager fancy had prepared for him, to the formation of a magnificent museum, arranged according to that system which for years he had been zealously ma- turing. Nor can there be any doubt, but that with the liberal sup- port of Government, assisted by that of private individuals, he would have been enabled in a few years to carry out his plans. But alas ! scarcely had he reached that goal which he had spent his whole life in endeavouring to attain, and which he was anxiously preparing to adorn with all the ornaments of science collected from every quarter of the globe, when he was suddenly carried off by the inscrutable decrees of Providence ; and the glorious fabric he had erected, ! that mental storehouse filled with the treasures of many years' col- lecting, fell to pieces before our eyes, and nothing remained but the broken fragments and the shattered scaffolding, to be again dispersed and scattered, without system and without order, until they should be again hereafter collected together with infinite labour and fatigue by some future master-mind. The fate of Sir John Franklin has long been a mystery to his countrymen : he has probably long ceased to be a member of this Society. It is, however, only during the course of the past session that any authentic inform.ation has reached this country that the gallant explorer of the Arctic regions, with his adventurous followers, had ceased to exist. Far from their ships, which, in the extremity of danger and a hard struggle for life, they must have abandoned, and after vainly endeavouring to reach a more southern and hospitable region through a trackless desert, their remains were discovered by travelling Esquimaux, from some of v/nom portions of their property were obtained. These were rescued by the intrepid Dr. Rae, who had gone in search of them overland, and who brought back the melan- choly certitude of their fate. Their bones now lie whitening on the Arctic shore, or beneath fields of eternal snow. By what means they reached that spot, or how they perished, will probably never be known ; but their memories will ever be cherished as of men who risked and sacrificed their lives in the performance of duty and of ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XXXVll scientific inquiry, and I trust I may also add, as the last instalment of valuable lives sacrificed to a vain and chimerical attempt to dis- cover that which, could it ever be discovered, would be alike unpro- fitable and unavailable. Rear-Admiral Sir John Franklin was born at Spiisby in the year 1786, and performed his earliest service in the navy in the first year of this century, as a midshipman on board of the Polyphemus at the battle of Copenhagen. Sailing afterwards with Capt. Fhnders to Australia, he acquired that skill in surveying and that power of ob- servation which characterized his subsequent career. After serving in the engagement against Admiral Linois in the Straits of Malacca, he next acted as signal-midshipman of the Bellerophon in the glorious victory of Trafalgar ; and, lastly, towards the conclusion of the great war, his gallantry was again displayed conspicuously in the naval attack upon New Orleans, for which conduct he obtained his lieutenancy . A peace being established which promised a long duration, Franklin sought to be employed in the most adventurous service in which a seaman could then be engaged. He obtained, through the patronage of Sir Joseph Banks, the command of the surveying vessel, the Trent, being one of two ships under the orders of Capt. Buchan, destined to penetrate into the Polar seas ; on that occasion Franklin not only reached the high latitude of 84< 34" N. lat. in the meridian of Spitz- bergen, but evinced a strong desire to be allowed to proceed onwards alone, in the endeavour to effect a thorough passage. The undaunted and inflexible perseverance which he exhibited in his explorations off the coast of North America, between the years 1819 and 1822, both inclusive, is well known to the public through the clear and emphatic productions of his own pen. As geologists, however, we must specially remember, that the rock-specimens then brought home by Franklin and his associate, the eminent naturalist, Richardson, first revealed to us the structure of those distant and inaccessible regions. On his return to England, however, Franklin felt so strongly the want of better geological knowledge on his own part and on that of his officers, that when appointed to the command of the next Arctic expedition, on which he sailed in 1825, he took his first lessons in our science at the museum of our Society, accompanied by his dis- tinguished companions. Back and Richardson. At these morning meetings our much-respected former President, Dr. Fitton, was the instructor, assisted by Mr. T. Webster, then our secretary ; Sir Roderick Murchison, who has informed me of these circumstances, being then also one of the learners. The intimacy thus commenced continued till Franklin's last depar- ture from the shores of Britain in 1845 ; for whether he was tread- ing unknown tracts of North America, or commanding the Rainbow frigate in the Mediterranean, or performing the duties of Governor of Van Diemen's Land, our deceased member, having been knighted by his sovereign and duly honoured by various public bodies, never ceased to correspond with his scientific friends, including Mr, VOL. XI. C XXXVlll PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Robert Brown, tlie enlightened botanist, and the old officers of this Society, Fitton and Murchison ; sending to them also any specimens or descriptions which might, he thought, advance human know- ledge. As Sir John Franklin united the warmest heart and kindest man- ners to a solid understanding, it naturally followed that his friends took an intense interest in promoting all those endeavours to rescue him and his followers from their last perilous voyage, and in encou- raging every effort directed to that end, whether made by the Govern- ment or by the magnanimous Lady of the missing chief. The suc- cessive Presidents of the Royal Geographical Society, and particularly Sir R. Murchison, stimulated our rulers to make every possible re- search which might lead to the timely discovery of the absent voy- agers. How some one of the earliest of these efforts might have succeeded, had it taken a southerly direction from Barrow's Straits, is indeed now established by the melancholy announcement made by Dr. Rae ; for, although the party was supplied with provisions for three years only, we now know that a large remnant of the force had certainly sustained life for five years. The late Professor Jameson was the third son of Thomas Jame- son, Esq., and was born at Leith on the 1 1th July, 1 774. In his early years he showed a strong desire to become acquainted with natural objects, the study of which he evidently preferred to that of books and letters. His first attempts were made in stuffing birds, and in collecting animals and plants on the beach of Leith and its vicinity. A strong desire to travel was the result of his favourite pursuits, and his father ultimately yielded to his often-repeated wish to enter on the profession of a mariner ; but his friends interposed, and suggested that by adopting the study of medicine, he might equally be enabled to study the works of nature. He yielded in his turn, and was appointed assistant to the late John Cheque Esq., surgeon in Leith. He commenced his study of natural history in 1 792, under Dr. Walker, then Professor of Natural History in the College of Edinburgh, and soon became a favourite pupil. In 1 793 he visited London, and became acquainted with the principal scientific men of the metropolis, and ever after spoke of the pleasure and benefit he had derived from his intercourse with Sir Joseph Banks, Mr. Dryander, Dr. Shaw, and other leading members of the Linnsean Society. With the exception of comparative anatomy, he now abandoned all idea of pursuing his medical studies. His attention was directed to that of ornithology and entomology, then of chemistry, and subsequently of mineralogy and geology, including a thorough knowledge of analytical chemistry. In 1797 Prof. Jameson paid his first visit to the island of Arran, and in the following year he published his work on the ' Mineralogy of the Island of Arran and the Shetland Islands, with Dissertations on Peat and Kelp.' It was the first good geological account of these places and formations, and soon acquired a well-merited celebrity. He subsequently visited other portions of Scotland, and in 1800 published his ' Mineralogy of the Scottish Isles,* in two vols. 4to, ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OP THE PRESIDENT. XXXIX illustrated with maps and plates. This work contained the first sketch of the geology of the Hehrides and the Orkneys. But the real period of Jameson's celebrity as a mineralogist and a geologist dates from the year 1800, when he left his native country for Freyburg, where he remained nearly two years studying mine- ralogy and geology under the famous Werner. Jameson fully ac- knowledged that it was from him he first derived clear and distinct views of the structure and classification of rocks. This opinion is confirmed by Couybeare, who says, *' We are chiefly indebted to the reports of Werner's pupils, especially to those of Jameson, for our knowledge of Werner's general views, so fully developed in his lec- tures, and there only." Jameson also observed, in a passage which is too important not to be quoted on this occasion, pointing as it does to the very fundamental principle of all our modern geological inves- tigations, that "Werner taught that mineralogical and geological characters, and characters derived from organic remains, were to be employed in determining formations, and that probably the same general geological arrangements would be found to prevail through- out the earth. But," he added, " the truth or falsity of this view in regard to the similarity of formations, can only be determined by the united labours of geologists continued for a long series of years." This, it may be observed, is the very position our science now occu- pies, tracing out geological formations from one hemisphere to the other, referring the fossils of India to the age of the Chalk of Eng- land, and comparing the Palaeozoic fossils of Australia with those of Great Britain and America. Thus, as Prof. Jameson admitted, it is to Werner that we are principally indebted for our present highly interesting views of the natural history of fossil organic remains ; and in confirmation of this opinion, Prof. Jameson at a subsequent period vindicated the geognosy of Werner from the attacks made upon it by the Edinburgh Review. In 1804 Jameson returned to England in consequence of the state of his father's health. Shortly afterwards, on the death of Dr. Walker in the same year, Jameson was appointed Professor of Natural His- tory ; and from that period, by his admirable lectures, founded in a great measure on the sound mineralogical and geological views of his friend and master the Professor of Freyburg, he raised the Edinburgh school of Natural History to the proud pre-eminence it has occupied for the last half-century. In the same year, he published the first part of the first volume of his * Mineralogical Description of Scot- land ;' his other labours, however, prevented the completion of the work. In 1808 he founded at Edinburgh the Wernerian Natural History Society, of which he was elected perpetual President. In 1809 he published the 'Elements of Geognosy,' a work which contributed more to introduce the doctrines of the Wernerian school into England than any other publication ; and from this time may be dated the antagonism between the Wernerian and the Huttonian doctrines, as advocated by the northern geologists. Nor was the spirit of partisanship thus engendered altogether useless, inasmuch as its final effect was to call attention to the study of, and to diffuse a c 2 Xl PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. more general taste for geology. Independently of this, the modifi- cation of the Neptunian theory as adopted by Werner, and in which form Prof. Jameson introduced it to the notice of his countrymen, has been proved by the test of modern science to be more consistent with the phaenomena of Nature than the Plutonian view^s of its ad- versaries. It has served to introduce a more methodical study of the different formations of the earth's crust, in harmony with the nume- rous organic remains which they contain, and which never could have been reconciled with the doctrines of the Huttonian theory. In 1813, at the suggestion of Professor Jameson, a translation of Leopold von Buch's 'Travels through Norway and Lapland in 1806, 1807, and 1808,' was published by Mr. Black, ! Jameson himself adding to the interest of the work by an account of the author, and by various notes illustrative of the natural history of Norway. In 1816, another edition of the ' System of Mineralogy ' made its appearance in three volumes ; and at the same time a new edition of his ' Cha- racters of Minerals' was called for. Other editions of both works followed. In 1819, he commenced the 'Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.' For the first six years he conducted it with Sir David Brewster, but since that period he was the sole editor. It extends to seventy volumes, and is one of the most valuable repositories of scientific information in Britain. It will ever form one of the most durable monuments of his talents and industry. But while Jameson was thus exerting himself in Edinburgh to propagate sound and correct views respecting the geological phse- nomena of the earth's crust, another distinguished naturalist was labouring in another capital to bring about the same results by the help of comparative anatomy. In 1821, the immortal Cuvier published his 'Discourse on the Theory of the Earth,' as an introduction to his ' Researches on Fossil Bones.' To Professor Jameson we are indebted for the publication of a translation of this work made by Mr. Kerr. On this work Jameson observes : ! " The notes I have added will, I trust, be found interesting, and the account of Cuvier' s 'Geological Discoveries' which accompanies them will be useful to those who have not an opportunity of consulting the great work." This popular work pro- duced an excellent effect in this country, for Cuvier was but partially known in England until this essay appeared. It rapidly ran through five editions : in the fifth. Professor Jameson entirely remodelled it, extending it from 190 to 5.50 pages. During this period he also contributed many articles to the * En- clopaedia Britannica' and to the ' Edinburgh Encyclopsedia ;' and on the return of Captain Parry from his Polar Expedition he drew up, from the specimens brought home, a sketch of the geology of the different coasts discovered and touched at by that enterprising navi- gator. But it would be occupying too much of your time, to enume- rate the various works w-hich flowed from his ever-ready pen. I cannot, however, conclude this notice without briefly alluding to one point respecting which Professor Jameson deserves the greatest praise, both for what he effected and for what he endeavoured to ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. xli effect. The present Museum of Natural History in Edinburgh is the result of Jameson's unceasing industry and efforts. The col- lections which existed before his time were almost entirely removed by the Trustees of his predecessor Dr. Walker ; and the nucleus of the present magnificent collection was Professor Jameson's private property, when he was called to fill the chair of Natural History. He laboured incessantly to render it worthy of the place ; but the means placed at his disposal, both by the Town Council and the Government, were inadequate to the task, and it was not without great private outlay that Professor Jameson raised it to its present state. In fact it may be said that the present Museum was founded, created, arranged, and exposed for public exhibition by the head and the industrious hands of Jameson alone. Professor Jameson died in Edinburgh, at the age of eighty, on the 19th of April, 1854. The name of Arthur Aikin is associated with the earliest days of the existence of our Society. In that Charter which forms the basis of our constitution, his name occurs as one of the founders of this Society. He was born at Warrington, in Lancashire, on the 19th May, 1/73. The grandson of John Aikin, D.D., eminent for his learning and abilities, he evinced at an earl}^ age a decided love for literature and science, and from his father derived a taste for Zoology, for Chemistry, and for English Botany. An early ac- quaintance with Dr. Priestley, of whom he subsequently became a favourite pupil, and whom he assisted in the arrangement of a new laboratory, confirmed him in his predilection for Chemistry. In 1797 he published an account of a tour in North Wales, made in the previous year in company with his brother Charles and another friend, under the title of ' Journal of a Tour in North Wales and part of Shropshire, with observations in Mineralogy and other branches of Natural History.' At a subsequent period, in con- junction with his brother, he delivered lectures on Chemistry and Chemical Manufactures, of which a syllabus appeared in 1799. In 1807 he published * A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy,' 2 vols. 4to ; and in 1814, 'An account of the most recent dis- coveries in Chemistry and Mineralogy.' But before this time Arthur Aikin had become conspicuous as one of that distinguished band of scientific men who contributed to the formation of the Geological Society of London, and founded it in 1807; soon afterwards his knowledge of mineralogy and chemistry must have contributed to his being appointed one of the Secretaries of the Society. In the first volume of the first series of our Trans- actions, published in 1811, his name appears as one of the Members of Council. In the second volume, published in 1814, he appears as one of the Secretaries, as well as in the third volume, pub- lished in 1816 ; but there is reason to believe that he became one of the Secretaries at a still earlier period. In the first volume of the first series there is an interesting paper by him, entitled " Observations on the Wrekin and on the Great Coal Field of Shropshire ;" and in the third volume is another with the title of Xlii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. " Some Observations on a Bed of Trap occurring in the Colliery of Birch Hill, near Walsall, in Staffordshire." These papers, like all those published by the Society at that period, were of a much more mineralogical character than those now constituting the bulk of our publications. Palaeontology had then made but little pro- gress. Its value and importance in assisting our knowledge of the relative ages of rocks was hardly recognized, nor amongst the illus- trations which accompany the early volumes are there any figures of organic remains. At a subsequent period he was appointed to the Secretaryship of the Society of Arts ; this circumstance is supposed to have led to his retirement from the office of Secretary to this Society ; but he continued for many years longer to serve on the Council, of which he was a member for the last time in 1830. One of the earliest members of the Society who knew him well thus writes to me of him : ! " He had a very logical head, and a calm and imper- turbable temper, and drew up abstracts of the papers read at the meetings with a precision that might stand in comparison with those of Dr. Wollaston at the Royal Society." As an instance of character it is mentioned that in early life he had been a minister of the Unitarian persuasion, but resigned his cure on conscientious grounds. He was a corresponding member of the Academy of Dijon, &c. He died in London, on the 1 5th April, at the advanced age of eighty. Dr. Stanger, the able and energetic naturalist of the ill-fated Niger Expedition, was born at Wisbeach, in Cambridgeshire, in 1812. He took his degree of Doctor of Medicine at Edinburgh, and subse- quently visited Australia. He afterwards superintended, under the direction of the Government, the construction of roads near Cape Town, then returned to England, and settling in London, commenced the practice of his profession. But the pursuit of natural history had greater charms for his enterprising character. In 1841 he joined the Niger Expedition under Captain H. Trotter, R.N., and was one of the few of that gallant but unfortunate band who were not struck down by the devastating fever of the country. It was mainly owing to his energy, assisted by Dr. M 'Williams, that one of the steamers was brought down the river. In 1845 he was appointed Surveyor-General to the new colony of Natal, where, with the exception of a short interval of two years passed at home, he continued until his death. In this young colony his time was spent between the conscientious discharge of the duties of his office and a zealous investigation of the natural history of the district. But the pressing calls of his official duties did not permit of his reducing to order his many observations on natural history. One of his last contributions to botanical science, to which he was particularly devoted, was the discovery of a plant belonging to the family of the Cycadese, combining many peculiar characters, and named after him Stangeria. There is now a plant of it in the Royal Gardens at Kew, producing fruit. Exhausted by fatigue and cold, after travelling from Maritzburg to Natal on horseback, he died on the 21st March, 1854, and was honoured ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. xliii with a public funeral as a mark of the respect in which he was held by the authorities and inhabitants of the district. His loss is the more to be regretted, inasmuch as it disappoints those hopes held forth by my predecessor last year, in allusion to the geological dis- coveries to be expected from Dr. Stanger, who was to have under- taken an official geological exploration of the province of Natal. The Rev. H. M. De la Condamine was a m.ember of the Council at the period of his decease. In him we have to deplore the loss of one who was taking an active interest in the progress of the Society, and who had communicated to us only a short time previously some interesting papers on the superficial deposits and drift beds in the neighbourhood of London. Mr. De la Condamine' s first paper read before this Society was, " On the Tertiary Strata and their Dis- locations in the neighbourhood of Blackheath." In this paper, read January 5th, 1850*, it was stated that the cuttings of the North Kent Railway had yielded some good sections of the plastic clay series, and had disclosed an important line of dislocation at Deptford. After describing the effects produced by this dislocation, he states that we have thus a distinct line of demarcation between the lower and middle Eocene periods ; and then observes that the date of the dislocation of the strata must have been posterior to that of the partial denudation of the London clay. A second paper was read by Mr. De la Condamine on the 10th March, 1852, *' On a reversed fault at Lewisham." It is accompanied by diagrams illustrating the action of the forces which may have pro- duced the dislocation. The profound mathematical knowledge of the Author, for which he was remarkable, is well exemplified in this paper. On the 4th May, 1853, Mr. De la Condamine read another paper, '* On a Freshwater deposit in the Drift of Huntingdonshire." He was actively engaged in preparing other papers for our Society, when we were suddenly deprived of his assistance. One great merit of Mr. De la Condamine was, his taking up some of those minute points which, while they involve very abstruse subjects, oifer less ap- parent attraction, but are not less necessary in solving important geological problems, than the grand phsenomena of igneous action, or the still more interesting labour of working on older beds abounding in the well-preserved remains of organic life. Mr. James Hall was the third son of the late Sir James Hall of Dunglas Castle, the President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, whose name can never be referred to without calling forth the grati- tude of geologists for his valuable experiments respecting the fusion of rocks under pressure. Our departed associate was the brother of the present Sir John Hall, and of the late Capt. Basil Hall, R.N. Instead of following his father's footsteps in the pursuit of natural science, he devoted himself to the study of the arts, and was more practised in the use of the brush and easel than of the geological hammer. He was, however, a constant attendant at our meetings. His pictures were exhibited at the British Institution and at the * Journal, vol. vi. p. 440. Xliv PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Royal Academy, of which he was a student. He was the author of some speculative letters on Binocular Perspective, published in the Art Journal ; but I am not aware that he contributed any papers to the Journal, or to the Transactions of our Society. He died on the 26th October last, at the age of fifty-seven. I can only briefly mention the names of other Members of our Society whom we have lost during the past year, and many of whom have done good sendee in the pursuit of geology. We deeply regret the loss of such men as the Rev. Thomas Egerton ; Mr. G. W. Aylmer ; Mr. W. Winterbottom ; Mr. Scobie ; Sir T. Frank- land Lewis, &c. The only loss we have sustained amongst our Foreign Associates is that of Dr. Gotthelf Friedrich Fischer deWaldheim, Pro- fessor of Natural History in the University of Moscow. He was born at Waldheim, in Saxony, on the 1 5th October, 17/1, and studied mine- ralogy at Freyberg, with Leopold von Buch and Baron von Humboldt, completing his medical studies at the University of Leipzic. At Paris he subsequently attended the lectures of Cuvier, and care- fully studied the natural-history collections of the French Museum. He had already given evidence of his extensive learning by numerous publications, when, in 1800, he was appointed Professor of Natural History at the Central School of Mayence. On his arrival there, however, he found that the chair had been given to another ; and with that power of adaptation which belongs to true genius, he at once accepted the office of Librarian, which for a time led him away to other studies, particularly typographical antiquities. On this sub- ject he published several valuable works until 1804. But he did not, in the mean time, neglect his favourite pursuit ; he founded at Mayence a Natural History Society, of which he became the Secre- tary, and in 1804 published his * Anatomic der Maki und der ihm verwandten Thiere.' In the same year he was appointed Professor and Director of the Museum of Natural Histoiy at Moscow, where a new field was opened to his talents, in which he laboured with zeal and energy during the remainder of his life. In the year 1805 he founded the Society of Naturalists of Moscow, and published the first volume of his ' Description du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' the copper-plates of which he engraved with his own hands. This Museum, for the establishment and improvement of which he had so strenuously exerted himself, was destroyed during the conflagra- tion of the city in 1812. Such a calamity would have gone nigh to overwhelm an ordinary man. Dr. Fischer rose above the circum- stances, and with redoubled ardour immediately set to work to replace, as far as possible, the treasures which had been lost. Such were his eiforts, and such was the success with which they were at- tended, that in a very few years the new Museum had again acquired a valuable collection of objects of natural history. He had now begun to direct his attention more exclusively to the study of fossil zoology, or as it is now called. Palaeontology. In the ' Bibliographia Zoologies et Geologise ' of Agassiz, published by the Ray Society, there are no less than 150 notices of separate works and memoirs in journals and ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. xlv Transactions published by him during the course of his long and laborious life. Among these are many bearing directly on our science, and which must have had considerable influence in directing the attention of the Russian Government to the mineral riches of the country, and of making its geological features better known beyond the limits of his own district. I will only mention a few of his more important works : ! " Oryctographie du Gouvernement de Moscou," 1837; " Bibliographia Maeontologica Animalium Systematica," 1810 ; a second edition in 1834 ; " Notice des Fossiles du Gouverne- ment de Moscou," 1809-1811; "Notice sur quelques Animaux fossiles de laRussie," 1829 ; *' Ueber verschiedene fossile Elephanten- species, die man unter dem Namen Mammouth begreift," 1831 ; " Recherches sur les Ossemens fossiles de la Russie," 1824; "Let- tre a M. Murchison sur le Rhopalodon, genre de Saurien fossile du Versant occidental de I'Oural," 1841 ; " Revue des Fossiles du Gou- vernement de Moscou," 1846; and many others. He was elected a Foreign Member of this Society, and of the Linnean Society, in 1820. He died at Moscow, on the 6th of October, 1853, having nearly completed his eighty-second year. Gentlemen, ! In proceeding to lay before you, in accordance with the established usage of our Society, a sketch of the progress of Geology during the past session, I shall not attempt, as some of my distinguished predecessors have done, to single out any particular subject for discussion, and to lay it before you in all its bearings ; I shall endeavour rather to bring together the principal events in the history of geology which have lately occurred, and to remind you of its general progress. Time, however, would be wanting to allude to every publication of interest on the subject which has appeared in our own or in foreign journals and publications. A mere list of names would be altogether unprofitable. I cannot even pretend to refer to all the papers read at our evening meetings ; I must refer you to the Journal itself for most of them, while I can only briefly allude to some which appear to me of more than ordinary interest. If I have devoted a more than usual proportion of space to the works of foreign, and particularly German geologists, I trust I shall be excused for doing so, on the ground that I thought such information would prove more acceptable to the majority of my hearers, and because my own attention had been more particularly turned in that direction. British Geology and our own Proceedings. Adopting then the ascending order, and commencing with the progress of Palaeozoic Geology in our own country, I must first con- gratulate you on the appearance of that truly standard work on this subject which has been lately published ; I allude to the ' Siluria ' of my old friend Sir Roderick Murchison. Every one who was acquainted with the previous labours of the author in this difiicult and extensive field, was looking forward to its appearance with eager interest ; nor have our expectations been disappointed. I am satisfied that I but xlvi PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. give utterance to the sentiments of all present, when I say that we owe a debt of gratitude to the author for having laid before us in such a comprehensive manner the vast amount of information con- tained in his two former works, * The Silurian System,' and ' Russia and the Ural Mountains,' enhanced by the addition of the results of subsequent investigations up to the time of publication. Our thanks are due to him, moreover, for having published his book in a form and at a price which make it accessible to every geological student. By a judicious method of condensation, which, while diminishing the bulk, has preserved the essence and character of the subject-matter, the author of * Siluria ' has brought before us in one comprehensive glance the whole phaenomena of the Palaeozoic rocks throughout the world. In alluding to this publication, however, I am happy to find that I have no occasion to tax my own powers, or to be suspected of par- tiality in analysing a work which has been so generally approved of. If the Geological Society had not been deprived of the services of my eminent predecessor by his removal to the University of Edin- burgh in the middle of his presidency, and if his valuable life had not been so prematurely cut short, it would have been his duty to perform a task for which he was so much better qualified than my- self. Fortunately, however, as respects ' Siluria,' we have the record of the deliberately formed judgment of our late President, as pub- lished last autumn, and which is the more valuable, inasmuch as some of his theoretical views were not in unison with those of the author. After giving a summary of the Silurian formations, the words of our lamented President, which, had he been alive, he would assuredly have addressed to ourselves, are these : ! " Now, when it is recollected that the * Silurian System,' that great work in which its author fully stated and co-ordinated the results of his researches on the Welsh border, was given to the world only fifteen years ago, and that the very epithet ' Silurian' was itself assigned to these formations no longer ago than in the year 1835, the influence of Sir Roderick Murchison's labours and generalizations in stimulating discovery, and leading to a clear understanding of the earlier sedimentary rocks, must be regarded as great indeed. And, be it observed, in this short sketch of foreign primaeval geology, we have used the word Silurian constantly, not of our own choice, or to do honour to its inventor, but because it is the term applied to the rocks in question by their explorers in all countries. The geologists of the continent, of Australia, and of America, have identified the older palaeozoic formations, whose structure and fossil contents they have so admirably described, with the * Silurian ' system of our own country, and with the types of its greater sections as defined by its first investigator. In fact, they have adopted as a standard that system which, being definite in its details, enabled them to obtain a distinct scale for the purposes of comparison. They have not chosen their nomenclature on account of its author, but because the model he had set before them is perspicuous and intelligible. " We question whether any practical geologist now living would ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. xlvii doubt for a moment that one of the greatest advances ever made in the descriptive section of his science was the estabhshment of the Silurian system. It matters not whether we hold, with its author, that the earliest manifestations of life and the commencement and inauguration of animated nature are included within it ; or, with Sir Charles Lyell, more cautiously interpret the relics of prim.aeval beings, and regard the Silurian fauna as the earliest yet demonstrated, though not necessarily the first. Whichever view we take, the im- portance of the discovery and definition of the Silurian system cannot be called in question. It was a grand reward of sagacity, perseve- rance, and well-directed skill ! no lucky chance, but a discovery deliberately sought, which threw a flood of daylight around a realm of geological darkness, and made the obscurest of rock assemblages one of the clearest and most instructive. A single man did this great and worthy task. The definition of the Silurian system, and the several members or sections of which it is composed, the invention of a nomenclature for the subdivisions, which, though essentially local, has become of universal application, the determination of a scheme of organic types upon which comparisons and identifications could be conveniently based ! all these good works were done by one inves- tigator, the illustrious author of the volume now before us*." I have also to notice a paper by Professor Sedgwick, "On the May Hill Sandstone and the Palaeozoic System of the British Isles." I am not about to attempt any discussion of the vexata qucestio be- tween Professor Sedgwick and Sir R. Murchison respecting the nomenclature of the earliest palaeozoic formations, or to explain what amount of error or of truth there may be in the respective views of these two distinguished men ; I will only observe that, in support of his views. Professor Sedgwick endeavours to show in this paper that there is no continuous unbroken section ascending from the Cambrian to the overlying Silurian groups, but that there is a physical break between them exactly on the horizon of the May Hill Sandstone, and that, in co-ordination with that break, there is a great change in the fossil species. The value of this evidence depends on its being shown to be general, and not a merely local phsenomenon. The Ordnance Geological Survey has been satisfactorily progressing during the past year, and it is gratifying to know that Sir H. De la Beche and his able staff have at length been enabled to direct their attention to the survey of some parts of Scotland. This has been rendered possible by the Trigonometrical Survey having now completed a sufficient portion of the map to admit of the geological features being laid down. In England the survey is being extended to the central counties, and here also we may expect some results of more than ordinary interest, inasmuch as its extension involves the question of the distribution of the Coal under the New Bed Sandstone. One of the most interesting results of the labours of the Survey during the past year has been Mr. Salter's investigation of the lower Carboniferous rocks in Pembrokeshire and North Devon, confirming views formerly held by Sir H. De la Beche, viz. that the upper part * Quarterly Review, No. cxc. Sept. 1854, p. 385. Xhiii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. of the Devonian formation, as shown in North Devonshire, is identi- cal with the lower beds of the Carboniferous formation in Western England. The probability of this being the case was pointed out by Sir H. DelaBeche in the * Report on Devonshire and Cornwall,' but the subsequent working-out of the fossils by Professor Phillips and Mr. Sowerby showed so many peculiar species identical with those from strata below the Carboniferous limestone on the Continent, that the beds in question (the Pilton group of Professor Phillips, ! the fifth group of Professor Sedgwick and Sir R. Murchison) have been regarded as the upper portion of the Devonian rocks, with which, however, they have very few fossils in common. A careful examina- tion of the Lower Limestone Shale by Mr. Salter during the past summer, in East and West Pembrokeshire, has led him to the con- clusion that these beds, interposed as a shaly series between the carboniferous limestone and the true old red sandstone, should be considered as a part of the Carboniferous system, all the more abun- dant fossils being characteristic of that formation. In East Pem- brokeshire these beds repose on the Old Red Sandstone, which con- tains but few fossils, and which in West Pembrokeshire loses its red colour, and consists of yellow sandstones and limestones, with Avicula Damnoniensis and CucullcEa trapezium overlaid by a pecuHar series of shales and sandstones, with frequent fish- and coprolite-beds. When Mr. Salter crossed the Bristol Channel and examined the upper beds of the Devonian rocks, where the red colour has been absent from a still larger portion of the upper Old Red, he found that the yellow sandstones and associated limestone were identical with those which he had seen in West Pembrokeshire. Here also the beds containing Avicula Damnoniensis, CucullcEa, and a peculiar trilobed Bellerophon were overlaid by a great shaly and slaty series full of the same Carboniferous fossils {Spirifer, Terehratula, &c.), with fish beds containing the same species, and made up of arenaceous limestone and shales, which, but for their more complete slaty cleavage, could not be distinguished from those of Pembrokeshire. Mingled, however, with the mass of carboniferous fossils, Mr. Salter found in abundance those pecuhar species Strophalosia caperata and Phacops latifrons, which characterize this district, and are not known in Pembrokeshire. The latter species, indeed, is a decidedly Devonian type, rising up in this instance for a considerable thickness (many hundred feet at least) into the lower carboniferous deposits. Mr. Salter therefore considers that, as already suggested by Mr. D. Sharpe, on fossil evidence alone, this group should be cut off from the Devonian and included in the Carboniferous system. It is the Carboniferous slate of Dr. Griffith, and occurs in great thickness in Ireland, with a highly cleaved structure. It will be a subject of congratulation to those who take an interest in the geology of Ireland, to learn that the Government has at length determined on introducing the one-inch scale of maps for the use of the Ordnance Geoloo:ical Survey of that country. The six -inch scale, however useful for a survey of landed property, or for registering minute geological features, is far too unwieldy and ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. xHx expensive for the practical purposes of the geologist. I am able to state, that the maps are now being engraved on the smaller scale, and that a commencement has already been made in the use of them. Mr. Jukes announced to the Geological Section at Liverpool that the northern part of the county of Wicklow was already completed and coloured geologically. The last Number of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey (De- cade III.) is devoted to the figures and descriptions of Trilobites, which, as our late President observes in the Introduction, are remark- ably characteristic of well-defined geological horizons. The study of these forms is consequently of great importance to the geologist whose labours are directed to the investigation of the more ancient rocks, to which they exclusively belong. The figures and descriptions in this Decade are by Mr. Salter. The question of the cleavage and foliation of the older crystalline rocks is one which has on several occasions occupied our attention at the evening meetings, and has given rise to many interesting discus- sions. To judge from the various opinions entertained on this sub- ject, the question still requires much careful examination, not only in a theoretical point of view as to the causes which may have produced these effects, but even as to the facts themselves on which these theories are to be founded. It would therefore be premature to enter fully into this question, but I will endeavour briefly to lay before you the evidence which has been brought forward, and the different views entertained upon the subject. Three papers have been lately read before the Society, describing the various phseno- mena observed by the different authors ; the first was a paper by Mr. Sharpe, '* On the Structure of the Crystalline Rocks in the neighbourhood of Mont Blanc ;" the second was by Mr. Evan Hop- kins, *' On the Laminated Structure of the Primary Rocks ;" and the third was read at our last meeting by Mr. David Forbes, " On the Foliated Rocks of Norway." The universality of the views entertained by Mr. Evan Hopkins, and the fact of his having already, in 1850, stated them partially to the Society, induce me to notice them first. On the former occa- sion, in his paper on the " Structure of the Crystalline Rocks of the Andes, and their Cleavage Planes," Mr. Hopkins endeavoured to show that in a section of many hundred miles, the crystalline rocks of South America were universally characterized by vertical or almost vertical lines of cleavage, and that these cleavage planes had a uni- form meridional direction or strike, thereby separating innumerable varieties of granites, gneiss, schists, hornblende, chloritic slates, porphyries, &c., into great meridional bands. In his paper of this session, Mr. Evan Hopkins has endeavoured to show, that in all countries, in all regions, in all quarters of the globe, the old crystal- line rocks have a vertical cleavage, with a north and south direction. This view he lays down with absolute universality, illustrating it by sections of many thousand miles made by himself in various parts of the world. Mr. Hopkins subsequently admitted exceptional cases, but maintained the generality of his law, stating that when these 1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. crystalline rocks were overlaid by horizontally or nearly horizontally- stratified sedimentary deposits, the latter exhibited at their point of contact with the older rocks evidence of undergoing the process of vertical cleavage or lamination, and that the lines of stratification were gradually obliterated. Mr. E. Hopkins does not, as far as I can understand, draw any distinction between cleavage and lamina- tion. Mr. Sharpe, avoiding the universality of Mr. E. Hopkins, confined his remarks to those portions of the chain of Mont Blanc which he had visited during the past summer. Having disposed of the erro- neous views of former authors, who, not sufiiciently attending to the differences of stratification and cleavage, had asserted that the gneiss or stratified granite of Mont Blanc overlaid the secondary rocks seen in the Valley of Chamounix and in Val Ferret, Mr. Sharpe pointed out that the chain of Mont Blanc consists of two lines of vertical foliation, about one mile and a half apart, having a strike parallel to the major axis of the chain, extending alon^ its whole length, and separated by a narrow anticlinal axis. This anticlinal axis, how- ever, appears to me to be the result of the fan-shaped arrangement of the two systems of radiation. The planes of foliation, which are vertical along the highest ridges of the mountain, radiate as it were outwards as they recede from the central vertical line. Thus, where there are, as here, two lines of foliation running parallel to each other, the southern radiations of the northern line diverge to- wards the northern radiations of the more southern line, and thus produce the appearance of an anticlinal axis. Mr. Sharpe also pointed out that where the crystalline rocks are overlaid on their line of strike by slates of sedimentary origin, the cleavage of the slates is on the continuation of the planes of foliation of the gneiss and mica schist, and that where the slates lie against the sides of the crystalline mass, their cleavage planes combine with the planes of foliation of the crystalline rocks to form anticlinal axes of considerable regularity ; thus confirming the opinion originally pronounced by Mr. Darwin, and subsequently confirmed by Mr. Sharpe himself, by observations in the Highlands of Scotland, that the cleavage of the slates and the foliation of the crystalline rocks were owing to the same cause. The observations contained in Mr. D. Forbes' s paper derive addi- tional importance from the many opportunities the author has had of studying the structure of the crystalline rocks in Norway and else- where, and from the corroborative evidence he has acquired in pro- ducing artificial gneiss out of clay-slate by long exposure to great heat, but not at such a degree as would produce fusion. Mr. Forbes insists strongly on the difference between cleavage and foliation, con- sidering cleavage to be the result of mechanical action, whilst folia- tion can only be accounted for as the result of chemical forces, but not necessarily requiring such a temperature as to produce fusion, or even semi-fusion. The following views are considered by Mr. D. Forbes as the result of his inquiries : ! 1 . That foliation and cleavage are two distinct processes not necessarily connected ; 2. That foliation ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. H is the result of chemical action combined with a simultaneously acting arranging molecular force, generally developed at temperatures below the fusion or semi-fusion of rocks ; also that when we find rocks which we know have been previously in a state of fusion, possessing a foli- ated structure, this structure has been induced subsequently to their solidification ; 3. That the arrangement of foliation may often be due to the intrusion or approach of igneous rocks ; and 4. That there is reason to suppose that the foliated rocks may be altered fossiliferous strata, from their chemical composition, from the presence of certain minerals, and on account of the changes known to take place in other fossiliferous rocks. Notwithstanding certain points of agreement between the respective authors of these papers, there is still such an amount of difference of opinion amongst them as to make it desirable that more information, based on careful and accurate observation in different districts, should be obtained on the subject, before we can venture to say that any satisfactory explanation of the many varied phsenomena connected with the cleavage and foliation of rocks has been obtained. The paper by Mr. O. Westwood, entitled " Contributions to Fossil Entomology," is one of great interest, and which, taken into consi- deration with another paper to which I shall briefly allude, is of importance in enabling us better to understand the progressive changes of organic life, and to unravel some at least of the causes which have led to the modifications of animal life during the different periods of geological time. Not being an entomologist, I have no pretension to speak about the details of the paper ; but I must at least call your attention to the admirable execution of the plates by which it is illustrated, and to the care which Mr. Westwood has bestowed on the description of the different remains submitted to him for examination. By far the largest portion of these numerous suites of fossil insects were obtained by Messrs. Brodie and Willcox from the lower Purbeck beds of Durdlestone B^y. They leave no doubt, whatever may have been the nature of the climate which they are supposed to indicate, that a vast assemblage of insect life must have existed in the imme- diate vicinity of the spot where they were entombed and preserved. This fact is peculiarly interesting when taken in connexion with the discovery by Mr. Brodie of mammalian remains in some of the members of the Purbeck formation, also at Durdlestone Bay. These remains were at first supposed to be reptilian, differing only in species from those of lizards of a somewhat similar size with which they were associated. We are indebted to Prof. Owen, to whom they were submitted, for the important discovery, after a careful removal of the matrix which concealed their most characteristic features, that they belonged to the Mammalian class. Guided by that accurate knowledge of osteology and comparative anatomy which he ever brings to bear on subjects of this kind. Prof. Owen was not slow to discover, on proceeding to examine the charac- ters and forms of the teeth, that these interesting remains not only belonged to the Mammalian class, but that they exhibited the general condition of the molar teeth of small insectivorous mammalia. Let Hi PROCEEDINGS OP THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. me call your attention to the important conclusions which he draws from the occurrence of this insectivorous mammal, to which he has given the name of Spalacotherium t?ncuspidens, in the very same formation in which such abundant remains of insect life had been already found by Mr. Brodie and Mr. Willcox. "The chief interest,'* says Prof. Owen, " in the discovery of the Spalacotherium is derived from its demonstration of the existence of Mammalia about midway between the older oolitic and the older tertiary periods," thus help- ing to fill up that enormous hiatus between these two periods in which mammalian remains had hitherto been found. He then alludes to the interesting fact of these insectivorous animals being found in such close neighbourhood to the insects themselves on which they fed. He adds, " Amongst the numerous enemies of the insect class ordained to maintain its due numerical relations, and organized to pursue and secure its countless and diversified members in the air, in the waters, on the earth and beneath its surface, bats, lizards, shrews, and moles now carry on their petty warfare simultaneously, and in warmer latitudes work together, or in the same localities, in their allotted task. No surprise need therefore be felt at the discovery that mammals and lizards cooperated simultaneously, and in the same locality, at the same task of restraining the undue increase of insect life during the period of the deposition of the lower Purbeck beds." We may here trace another beautiful instance of the adapta- tion of organic life to the conditions and circumstances in which it is to be placed. These adaptations are of two kinds : the one which shows us how those forms of life which have existed during long periods of time, cease when the conditions necessary for their exist- ence undergo such a change as to render them no longer suited to the life they have hitherto maintained, ! a phaenomenon which is constantly brought under the notice of the attentive geological ob- server. The second form of adaptation is that which points to the commencement or creation of new forms, when new conditions have been brought about agreeing with the requirements of their respective existences. No doubt these latter are also of frequent occurrence, but they more easily escape observation. It is seldom that the palaeontologist or the zoologist has such an opportunity of seeing cause and effect brought into such immediate juxtaposition as in this case, where we find the insectivorous mammal there making his ap- pearance where insect life was swarming, and when we may conclude that the laws which regulated the existence of animal life required the introduction of a fresh force to keep down the too rapid increase or development of another, and to counteract its tendency to exceed the functions for which it was intended. Our indefatigable colleague. Sir Philip Egerton, has contributed even more than his usual quota of palichthyological information ; he has in several papers described new species from various parts of the world. Amongst these, his account of the fish remains from the nummulitic limestone of the Mokattam Hills, near Cairo, is particu- larly deserving of attention, as pointing out the union of the typical characters of several families in one species, so as to render it doubt- ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. lui ful to which it should be referred. The fish in question had, as Sir Phihp Egerton observes, a close resemblance to the Sciaenoids and particularly to the genus Pristipomn, in the characters of the organs of locomotion, and in the general form of the trunk ; but in the opercular apparatus and osteology of the cranium, it more nearly approaches the Percoids. The dentition differs from both, and re- sembles that of some of the Sparoids. To the continued exertions of Mr. Prestwich we are indebted for several papers containing much valuable detail respecting the Ter- tiaries of the London and Hampshire basins. The first paper, on the thickness of the London Clay, is full of information obtained from the most authentic sources ; and the manner in which Mr. Prestwich has tested and checked the information he received, is deserving of the highest praise. The position and distribution of the organic remains throughout the whole series are carefully given, and the different zones in which they occur are well worked out. The value of this portion of the paper has been materially enhanced by the publication for the first time of the separate lists of fossils contained in these different zones. The principal zones referred to by Mr. Prestwich are, ! 1 . Isle of Sheppey. 2. Ilighgate. 3. Prim- rose Hill, Copenhagen Fields, Whetstone, Islington, Haverstock Hill, Hornsey, Holloway, and Hampstead. 4. Bognor. It must be borne in mind, however, that Mr. Prestwich restricts the term "London Clay" to one of the lower deposits of London and of Hamp- shire, excluding therefrom the Bracklesham and Barton beds. The next paper by Mr. Prestwich is on the distinctive physical and palseontological features of the London Clay and Bracklesham Sands, and on the independence of these two groups of strata. The object of this paper is to confirm, chiefly on the evidence of the organic remains, the opinion already pronounced by the author in a former communication, that these two formations are not sjaichronous; and to endeavour to disprove the opinions of other geologists, espe- cially those on the continent, who have considered that the differences in the characters of the fauna of these several beds v/ere dependent on geographical distribution, depth of water, or variations of sediment. The author points out the confusion which has arisen in the com- parison of the London and Paris basins, in consequence of this di- stinction not having been sufficiently attended to, and the characteristic fossils of the London Clay proper and the Bracklesham Sands having been grouped together as belonging to one formation. -After de- scribing the different lithological characters of the two groups, Mr. Prestwich enumerates the number of species of the different classes of organic remains occurring in the two formations, and points out how few species are common to both. Thus ! Mammalia. . . London Clay. 2 .. . Bracklesham. 1 . . . Common, . . . Birds 4 . . . 1 .. . . .. Reptiles . . . VOL, XI. 21 . . . 7 .. . . .. 2 d liv PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. London Clay. Bracklesham. Common. Fish 83 28 10 Mollusca 224 372 56 Articulata 27 13 4 Echinodermata .... 17 1 Zoophyta 10 16 Foraminifera 23 9 Plantse 106 3 2 Total 515 450 72 In a second portion of this paper the author draws attention to a very remarkable and significant circumstance ; viz. the amount of agreement between the lower Loudon Tertiaries and the upper beds of the underlying Chalk. He particularly instances the Thanet Sands and the lower Landenian system of Dumont in Belgium, the faunae of which have a general fades so closely resembling that of analogous groups in some of the cretaceous strata, that they, and particularly the Belgian beds, have by some been considered as cre- taceous rather than tertiary. Other cretaceous fossils are shown to range upwards into still younger formations of the London basin. I shall not pretend to go through the arguments brought forward by Mr. Prestwich ; the paper is one which deserves the particular attention of every palaeontologist. I will only make one observation on the concluding statement, *' that the London clay presents in many of its generic forms a closer approach to those now existing in our climate than the Bracklesham sands." This remark appears to me to offer additional difficulties to our endeavours to define with any- thing like accuracy, on palseontological grounds alone, the respective limits of the different tertiary epochs. If we find, in consequence of the physical and geographical features of the seas in which these tertiary organisms were deposited, that the fossils of the older forma- tions resemble living forms more closely than those deposited during the intervening period, how can we attempt, on fossil evidence alone, where superposition does not come to our assistance, to determine the relative ages of formations situated at a distance from and indepen- dently of each other 1 Physical changes influencing the conditions of life must have occasioned numerous oscillations of the earth's surface ; and if this observation is confirmed, we must conclude that they have so modified the character of the ancient seas as to have brought back forms of an older date, hitherto supposed to have died out. We have thus impoeed upon us a task of more than ordinary difficulty, and one requiring no ordinary caution before we can hope satisfactorily to unravel the order of creation, or to define the relative periods in which many of the European tertiary formations were deposited. In a subsequent paper, of which as yet a short abstract only has been published, Mr. Prestwich has communicated to us his views on the correlation of the lower tertiaries of England with those of France and Belgium. The author is known to have had so many oppor- tunities of examining these different formations, that his opinions are entitled to the greatest consideration ; they are put forward with a ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Iv clearness which ensures attention, and with a simpUcity which dis- arms all criticism. For my part, at least, I must disclaim all idea of such a proceeding. I will merely state the principal conclusions at which he has arrived. Beginning with the lowest tertiaries, he corre- lates the Thanet Sands of the south-east of England with the Lower Landenian, and the Woolwich and Reading series with the Upper Landenian of M. Dumont in Belgium. The former of these is wanting in the Paris basin, and of the latter the middle division only, the Argile plastique^ is represented at Paris lying immediately on the Chalk. The London Clay corresponds with the Lower Ypresian of M. Dumont, and occurs near Dieppe, but dies out southward towards Lille. This is succeeded by the Bagshot series, the lower portion of which is represented by the sands below the Bracklesham beds in Hants, by the lower Bagshots of the London district, by the upper Ypresian and Panisilian combined in Belgium, and by the Lits coquilliers in the Soissonnais district. The middle portion is represented by the Bracklesham beds in Hants, the middle Bagshots in the London district, the Systeme Bruxellien of M. Dumont, and the Calcaire grossier of the Soissonnais and Paris, which itself rests on the Argile plastique. Mr. Prestwich does not appear as yet to have carried his compari- sons any further. I trust he will not omit to complete a work which he has so well begun, although in some respects, I fear, he will find a difficult task before him in proportion as he approaches those beds which are supposed to mark the limits between the Eocene and Miocene periods. I am bound, however, to state, that, although Mr. Prestwich does not recognise the existence of the lower division of the Woolwich beds in the Paris basin, I am informed by M. Deshayes that in the course of last summer he found at Billy, near Epernay, a bed of brackish water and other shells, underlying the great marine deposits, exactly corresponding with our author's Woolwich beds. M. Des- hayes has not yet published the results of his last year's excursions, but I hope we shall soon have from him the evidence on which this identification has been founded. I regret that in consequence of some delay in the preparation of the plates, the volume of the Palseontographical Society for 1854 should not have yet made its appearance. It would be premature to allude to the works which it will contain ; but there can be no doubt that when it shall be in the hands of the members it will be found fully to maintain the high reputation acquired by its predecessors, and vdll be a valuable assistance to the students of British geology. I will only mention that it is to contain the first part of the MoUusca of the London Clay, the publication of which has been undertaken by Mr. F. Edwards. This has been long expected by the subscribers, as it must be in the recollection of many who first came forward as pro- moters of this publication, and as I know it was the prevailing idea in the minds of some who first suggested it, that this was one of the great desiderata which led to the formation of the Society. It is a subject of hearty congratulation to all students of Palseon- d2 Ivi PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. tology that tlie second edition of Mr. Morris's Catalogue of British Fossils, on which he has been so long and laboriously employed, and respecting which my predecessor in this chair so fully expatiated last year, has been at length published. Its contents fully justify those remarks. Independently of the vastly increased number of species recorded in this volume as compared with the first edition, the addition of synonyms which the author has given in a great majority of in- stances has infinitely increased its value ; and yet even in this respect much still remains to be done, which I trust the author will not forget when he shall be called on for another edition. Foreign Geology. Since the publication of his great work ' Siluria,' Sir R. Murchison has again visited some of the Palaeozoic formations in the north of Germany, of which he proposes to give a full account to the Society, in continuation, as it were, of his fourteenth chapter, in which he has discussed the Primseval Succession of Rocks in Germany. A short account of his recent observations, made in company with Mr. Morris, was laid before the Geological Section of the British Asso- ciation during the last meeting at Liverpool, from which I make the following extracts. After alluding to M. Barrande's great work on the Silurian System of Bohemia, so ably described by my predecessor in this chair last year, the author stated that in the Southern Thii- ringer Wald, and in parts of Saxony further east, the great unfossili- ferous base (chloritic and quartzose grauwacke slate) is succeeded in ascending order by Lower Silurian beds, described as such by Naumann, Geinitz, Richter, Engelhardt, and other local geologists, because it is charged with Nereites, Graptolites, Ogygia^ and other Silurian fossils, which occur in black slates, with some limestone and shale, Mr. Salter, having examined the fossils, stated that one of the remarkable Annelides was identical with a species which Professor Harkness had discovered in the Lammermuir Hills, and that even the Vrotovirgularia of the same tract of Scotland occurs also in Thii- ringia. As several of the species of Graptolites of the two countries are identical, there can be little doubt that the Lower Silurian of Saxony is the equivalent of the graptolitic series of Dumfries and Kirkcudbright. Here the ascending series in the Thiiringer Wald ceases, there being no traces of Upper Silurian or even of Lower Devonian. The Lower Silurian rocks are t?iere at once covered by the Upper Devonian, viz. the Cypridina-schist and the Clymenia- limestone ; and these are surmounted by a considerable expansion of the Lower Carboniferous strata, viz. micaceous brown and yellowish sandstones, with plants well known in the deposits of that age. The sedimentary rocks of the Hartz, the chief object of their visit this year, and which Professor Sedgwick and one of the authors had examined together on two previous occasions in 1828 and 1839, are so dislocated and are so often inverted in position, that their physical order can but seldom be detected amid the confusion which has been pro- duced by the eruption of granites, porphyries, diorites, hypersthenic ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ivii and other igneous rocks, as well as by the metamorphism which large masses have undergone. ? Sir R. Murchison, however, expressed his belief that all the members of the Devonian group of the Rhenish Grauwacke of the Germans, from the Spirifer Sandstone and Slate upwards, through the Stringocephalus and Eifcl Limestone, to the Upper or Clymenia Limestone, are there present ; and that they are succeeded by schists often in the siliceous state of Kiesel Schiefer, and by others containing the well-known Posidonomya Becheri of Herborn ; whilst rocks of this Lower Carboniferous age occasionally contain a dark limestone, with characteristic fossils of the Mountain Limestone. M. Adolphe Roemer, who has partly worked out this comparison, is still engaged on that work, and in completing a geological map of the district. The chief object of Sir R. Murchison's last visit to the Hartz was to determine whether certain rocks in its eastern extremity, which have been laid down and mapped as Silurian by M. A. Roemer, were really of that age or not ; an interesting question, inasmuch as it was precisely in this portion of the district that Professor Sedgwick and the author anticipated fifteen years ago that the oldest rocks of the chain would be found. It appears that in one small boss of lime- stone, not exceeding ten feet in thickness, and subordinate to the slates on the north-east flank of the mountain, M. Jasche of Elsin- berg has discovered many fossils of the genera Orthis, Terebratula, Leptoina, Spirifer, Pentamerus, Trilobites, &c., some of which are undoubtedly British Upper Silurian species, while others are identi- fied with Bohemian fossils described by Barrande as belonging to his uppermost stages. Looking to the mineral aspect of these schists and limestones, which differ from all others in the Hartz, and judging from the fossils, the greater number of which are of types apparently more ancient than those of any known Devonian rock. Sir R. Mur- chison suggests that the grauwacke round Harz-gerode may be re- ferred to the uppermost Silurian rock of the Continent, and be placed on the same parallel as one of the highest stages of M. Barrande. In the Rhenish country Sir R. Murchison and Prof. Morris found that the Wissenbach and Caub Slates had been perfectly identified by Dr. Sandberger and his brother by means of a community of fossils, and that Chjmenia had been detected in the Cypridina Slates of Nassau, thus identifying these rocks with the Krammenzel-stein of Westphalia. But the most striking new discovery in this region was one which Sir R. Murchison regretted he was unacquainted with when he published his *Siluria,' viz. that the quartz rocks of the Taunus, about whose true place in the series there has been so much discussion, prove to be the youngest of all the older rocks on the right bank of the Rhine. In their trend to the E.N.E. they part with this highly metamorphosed character, and, being regularly bedded and interstratified with shale, have been there shown by ]M. Ludwig of Nauheim to overlie the series of Devonian rocks, con- sisting in ascending order of slates, Spirifer sandstones, Wissenbach slates, Eifel limestones, &c. In these overlying quartzites large plants like Calamites have been discovered, and as they lie trans- Iviii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. gressively on the Devonian rocks, they are probably of the Lower Carboniferous age. The author then proceeded to give an account of the Permian rock round the Hartz and the Thiiringer Wald, specially pointing out the enormous thickness of their base or bottom rock, the rothe todte Liegende or Lower red sandstone of England. No coal of any consequence is found in this deposit, although thin seams have been found in Saxony, which have afforded the remarkable Permian flora described as such by Gutbier and Geinitz. On the other hand, these rocks have been pierced at Rotheburg, near Eisleben, to a depth of 1200 feet, and at Eisenach to a still greater depth, without reaching the carboniferous rocks or finding any trace of coal. The uppermost beds of this rothe todte Liegende are well exposed in natural sections on the N.E. flank of the Thiiringer Wald, where they are overlaid by bituminous schists, and by the Kupfer Schiefer with its fossil fishes. Alluding then to the Zechstein or Magnesian Limestone, the author explained why, in proposing the word Permian, from the spread of these rocks over the Russian province of Perm, he had also included in this group a certain portion of schistose and partly calcareous red rocks which everywhere overlie the Zechstein, and often constitute ridges separated from the Bunter Sandstein, properly so called, or the base of the Trias. Thus he considered the Permian (which in Russia has copper-bearing sandstones, with plants and conglomerates far above the Zechstein) to be an under-Trias, having the Zechstein lime- stone intercalated in a great red formation. After commenting on the spread of the Triassic formation through Europe, the author specially called attention to the recent discovery, by M. de Verneuil, of true Muschelkalk in several parts of Spain, containing numerous fossils. This communication concluded with a general resume, in which the author directed attention to a map showing, that, whilst the rocks of the Silurian basin of Bohemia, the Silurian and Devonian troughs of Saxony, and the great Palaeozoic region of the Rhenish provinces (composed of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks) have a main strike from N.E. to S.W., coincident with the major axes of their geograp})ical range, the sedimentary deposits of the same age in the Hartz, the North Thiiringer Wald, and the Riesen Gebirge have been thrown by great subterranean forces into transverse geographi- cal chains, accompanied by the eruption of granites, porphyries, green- stones, &c., which have not only wrenched the original strata into abnormal directions, but have also metamorphosed them in a remark- able manner. Nor can I omit, whilst alluding to these remarks by our own countryman on the structure of the palaeozoic rocks of Northern Germany, to notice an interesting memoir on the geology of the Thiiringer Wald by Prof. Credner of Gotha, whose geological map of the Thiiringer Wald was so highly spoken of by Sir R. Murchison at the meeting at Liverpool. The memoir to which I allude will be found in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Erfurt, published on the centenary anniversary of its foundation, 1 9 th July, ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. lix 1854. It is entitled *'An attempt at an historical account of the geognostic conditions of the Thuringer Wald." It describes in a clear and easy manner the different formations which occur in that district, and the many disturbances which hare been effected in the stratified beds by the protrusion of igneous rocks. The author divides this history into three periods, the first two of which are the most important. The first period commences with the oldest de- posits, extending to the commencement of the deposition of the Carboniferous rocks ; the second extends from the commencement of the Carboniferous period to the commencement of the Trias formation ; the third period embraces all the changes which the Thiiringer Wald has undergone since the commencement of the Trias formation. With regard to this latter period, however, the author observes, that the great catastrophes on which depended the chief outline and extent of the Thuringer Wald ceased at the close of the Zech- stein formation. At this time the Thuringer Wald stood as an island in the midst of the Secondary Ocean, round the shores of which were gradually deposited the various Triassic beds, and from which the ancient sea was gradually retreating. Other minor changes subsequently took place, which influenced the form of the surrounding hills and the formation of its valleys. I may here also mention, that in the forthcoming geological map of Germany, one of the chief ob- jects to which the attention of the German Geological Society is now directed, and the preparation of particular districts of which has been allotted to those members best acquainted with the respective locali- ties, and who are all working on a given scale and with a fixed system of colouring, M. Credner has undertaken the difficult task of pre- paring the Geological Map of the Thiiringer Wald. I am happy to state that the valuable work of Drs. Guido and Fri- dolin Sandberger, to whom, as you have already heard, the Council have this year awarded the balance of the proceeds of the Woilaston Fund, has made considerable progress during the past year. Two additional fasciculi (Nos. 6 & 7) of this work, entitled *' Systematic Description and Illustration of the Fossils of the Rhenish (Palaeozoic) Formation in Nassau," have appeared since our last meeting, and I understand that one more will complete it. To all students of the Devonian formation on the Continent this publication will be invaluable. No- thing can exceed the beauty and correctness of the illustrations, or the judgment and talent shown by the authors in identifying the several strata by their respective fossils. The literature of the dif- ferent genera and species is carefully worked out, and great care and acumen have been shown in comparing fossil families with their living analogues. I might particularly instance the remarks on the genus SchoUostoma, several species of which show in their last whorl the peculiar turned-up character of Strophostotna amongst the ter- tiary Cyclostom.acea and of Anostoma amongst living Helices. In the form of the mouth, too, some of these species have a remarkable resemblance with several species of Cyclostoma from the West Indies, Ix PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. and particularly from Jamaica. May not this genus, after all, be that of a terrestrial mollusk, thus indicating the propinquity of dry land, and the existence, during the deposition of the Stringoce- phalus limestone in which they are found, of a terrestrial flora, on which they must have lived ? The authors of the work before us, while still referring the genus to the marine fauna, and placing it near Scalaria or Rissoa, allude to the remarkable resemblance between Schol. crassilabrum and Tomigerus, particularly T. turbinatus (Pfr.). At the last meeting of German Naturalists and Phj'-sicians at Got- tingen. Prof. Ferd. Koemer of Bonn made an interesting communi- cation respecting the comparison between the Devonian formations in Belgium and in the Eifel. After describing the Belgian series as the most perfect and the best worked out, he gave the following ascending series of its principal formations: ! 1. Unfossiliferous lower quartz rocks. 2. Lower grauwacke beds of the Rhine near Coblenz. 3. Limestone. 4. Clay-slates with Bryozoa and CaJceolma (called also Calceola-schists). 5. Dolomitic limestone resembling that of Paifrath. 6. Marl beds, also called Tentaculite-marl. /. Clay slates easily decomposing, full of Goniatites and Cardita retrostri- ata. 8. Dark marly slates, remarkable for containing Spirifer dis- junctus = S. Verneuillii. In Belgium and at iiachen these beds are everywhere immediately overlaid by the Coal-measures containing Productus in great abundance. In Prof. Beyrich's work on the Eifel, he has noticed the existence of only two members of this series, the same as are observed by Murchison and Sedgwick. At a sub- sequent period, however, a third corresponding bed or horizon had been discovered near Gerolstein, viz. Goniatite-beds near Riidesheim, where a bed of marl-slate occurs with Cardiola retrostriata and Goniatites. Other localities have been since found containing the fauna of the Paffrath Limestone. Since then. Prof. Roemer has found Spi- rifer Verneuillii in the Eifel, and marls associated with dolomitic limestone. The result at which Prof. Roemer has arrived is, that, with the exception of the Tentaculite-marls, all the Belgian subdivi- sions mentioned above have now been clearly made out in the Eifel. We are indebted to the same author for an excellent work on the first period of the Palseozoic rocks, published in the third edition of Bronn's 'Lethaea Geognostica.' Whether the title Kohlen-Ge- birge (Coal formation) is the most appropriate that could have been chosen, I will not now stop to inquire. The work professes to give a general account of the distribution of the Palseozoic rocks through- out the w^orld, with their various subdivisions, and the general cha- racter of the organic remains of their faunae and florae. The author adopts the general divisions of Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian, and has inserted some valuable tables showing the parallelism of various formations in different countries. In communicating to this Society a new geological map of the country about Christiania in Norway, by M. Kjerulf, Sir R. Mur- chison has given us some additional information respecting the Silu- rian and Devonian rocks in that district, confirming the views he had ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixi already stated in a former communication (see Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. viii. p. 182), and pointing out how completely the whole sequence of the Upper and Lower Silurians of Great Britain is represented in this thinner development of the Norwegian district. Even the great Russian empire, he observes, does not exhibit so per- fect and clear a succession of the Paleozoic formations as this Nor- wegian trough in the parallel of Clnistiania. Since this communication was read, I find that M. Kjerulf s views have been fully published at Christiania by Adolph Strecker in a work entitled ' Das Christiania-Silur-Becken' (the Silurian Basin of Christiania) chemically and geologically examined, by Theodor Kje- rulf. The map communicated by Sir R. Murchison belongs to this work, the greater portion of which is occupied with chemical analyses of the different rocks in the district. The results of these inquiries, instead of clashing with the geognostic observations, as some persons might perhaps have feared, have not only confirmed them, but have established the universality of the law respecting the formation of volcanic rocks already laid down by Prof. Bunsen *, who has divided all igneous rocks into two classes, the trachytic and the augitic or pyroxenic. Amongst the many valuable additions to paleeontographical geo- logy, I must mention the memoir of MM. de Koninck and Le Hon, *'0n the Crinoidea of the Carboniferous Formation of Belgium," originally published in the Collection of Memoirs of the Royal Aca- demy of Belgium. So rapid has been the progress of discovery in this branch of our science, that whereas in 1842 one of the authors of this paper could only procure from these beds fifteen species of Crinoidea, they have now been able, partly by their own exertions and partly by the aid of numerous friends, to bring together fifty- three species. These belong to eleven genera, four of which are entirely new. They are derived partly from the Carboniferous lime- stone, which forms the basis of the formation in Belgium, and partly from the overlying beds of limestone and its associated clays. The perfect state of preservation in which most of them were found, has enabled the authors to correct and modify the opinions which have hitherto prevailed respecting the organization and habits of these singular animals. The authors commence their work with a most imposing list in chronological order, commencing with 1558, of authors who have written on the Crinoidea. No less than 346 works are quoted, con- taining more or less reference to the subject. A mass of literature so overwhelming was probably never before quoted in reference to one single subject. This is then followed by a special historical ac- count of the progress of knowledge on the subject of the Crinoidea in general, in which the authors confess that, notwithstanding all that has been written, the question is still involved in obscurity on many points, the removal of which they leave to those who may have more materials at their disposal. * " Ueber die Processe der vulkanischen Gesteins-bildungen Islands." Pogg. Ann. vol. 83. p. 1. Ixii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. This history of the progress of the discovery of the true character of these singular forms, ! how, from being first looked at in an in- verted position, and being considered as marine plants, they came to be regarded as corals, ! and how the illustrious Blumenbach first assigned to them their true position in the scale of organic life, ! is one of the most remarkable and most interesting in the range of palaeontographical literature. But I must refer you to the memoir itself for the details. Before describing the different species, the authors enter into ge- neral considerations respecting the structure, habits, and movements of these animals, derived partly from a careful examination of the numerous fossil remains, partly by analogy from the investigation of their two living congeners, pointing out the different families and genera, and the special arrangement, forms, and number of the differ- ent plates of the cup, by which they are respectively characterized. One of the authors promises in a future work to apply the terminology here adopted to all the Crinoidean genera, and to distribute them into natural families. The eleven genera described in this memoir are, ! Cyathocrimis, Poteriocrinus, Rhodocriniis, MespiJocrinus, Gra- phiocrinus, Forbesioct^inus, Actinocrimis, Dichocrinus, PlatycrinuSy Lageniocrinus, and Pentremites. This is followed by a short descriptive notice by M. De Koninck of a new genus of Crinoidea from the carboniferous beds of England, to which he has given the name of Woodocrinus macrodactylus. Prof. Hans Bruno Geinitz has added to the stock of information on fossil botany for which we are already indebted to him, by the recent publication of his work, entitled ** Darstellung der Flora des Haini- chen-Ebersdorfer und des Flohaer Kohlenbassins," 4to, with a folio atlas of fourteen plates, as also by a larger work on the fossils of the Carboniferous formation in Saxony, illustrated by thirty-six large engravings of the well-preserved fossil plants of that region. His examination of this palteozoic flora has confirmed the observations already made by Prof. C. F. Naumann on geological evidence alone, that the Coal formation of Hainich-Ebersdorf is older than the Coal basin of Floha-Gliickelsberg. The former belongs to what the Germans still persist in calling upper Grauwacke, the equivalent of the Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone. The investigations of Prof. Geinitz have shown that the carboniferous deposits of Zwickau, to which the work in question principally refers, are of the same age as the younger Coal-beds of Floha-Gliickelsberg. The author has endeavoured to exhibit the result of his investiga- tions by the establishment of four distinct zones of vegetable life (Vegetation's Giirteln*), each of which is characterized by a different flora. 1st Zone. ! Hainich-Ebersdorf; characterized by a preponderance of ^agenaria^ particularly ^. Veltheimiana : he calls it the Sagenaria-coal. 2nd Zone. ! Planitz and Zwickau ; chiefly characterized by SigiU laria, ! therefore called the Sigillaria-coal. * There is something quaint in this use of the word * gtirtel,' from which our synonymous word * girdle' is derived, to express a * zone/ ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixui 3rd Zone. ! Russ-coal beds, peculiarly characterized by an abun* dance of Calamites, ! therefore called Calamite-coal. 4th Zone. ! Oberholmdorf and Ilmenau, the peculiar feature of which is the great abundance of Ferns, ! therefore called Fern-coal. M. Rossler of Hanau, Director of the Wctterau Society of Natural History, who has for many years directed his attention to the sub- ject, has given a short notice on the organic remains of the Zechstein, or Magnesian Limestone, in the Wetterau, in the last Annual Report of that Society ; and Prof. Reuss of Prague has, in the same volume, described the Entomostraca and Foraminifera which occur in the same formation. On the Position of the Fossiliferous beds ofSati Casciano. ! Much has been done, during the past year, to remove the great uncertainty which has long prevailed as to the precise position to be assigned to the fossils found in the San Casciano beds. This difficulty has arisen partly from the fossils themselves, many of which are peculiar to these beds, and partly from the singular intermixture of forms which has been found amongst them. In consequence of these anomalies, the geologists who visited the district (and amongst them are many of the most distinguished, both of our own countrymen and of foreigners) have come to various conclusions as to their true position in the somewhat complicated series of Alpine stratification. While some wished to place them in one or other of the formations of the Triassic system, others referred them as unhesitatingly to the overlying Lias, and not even to the lowest beds of this system, some even going so far as to refer beds now ascertained to belong to this San Casciano series to the Brown Jura*. The exertions of Sir R. Murchison went far to disperse the mists which hung over this subject. In his paper " On the Geological Structure of the Alps, Apennines, and Carpathians," read before this Society in 1848, he states that this obscurity has been principally cleared away by the memoir of M. Emmerich, who, working out the details of a district rendered classical twenty-five years before by the researches of Leopold v. Buch, has clearly exposed the order of the strata ; thus leaving little or no doubt that the chief and peculiar group of fossils of those Alps (Southern Tyrol) belongs to the Trias. The researches of other geologists, and particularly of some of the Austrians attached to the Imperial Geological Institute of Vienna, amongst whom I may mention MM. v. Hauer and Siiss, have esta- blished the existence, in the Salzburg Alps, of fossils identical with those which occur in South Tyrol ; thus establishing, as Sir R. Murchison observes in the paper already quoted, the existence of true Muschelkalk types in the northern zone, where they had not before been recognized. In a memoir on the Triassic, Liassic, and Jurassic formations * The " Brown Jura" of the Germans is represented in England by the Middle and Lower Oolites, ! from the Oxford Clay to the Inferior Oolite, inclusive. ! See Fraas on the Jurassic Series, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. 2nd Part, Miscall, pp. 42 e/ seq. Ixiv PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. in the N.E. Alps, read by M. v. Hauer before the Imperial Geo- logical Institute of VienDa, at the close of 1853, he has gone into great detail on these formations, some portions of which, as refer- ring to this question, I will here briefly allude to. The author com- mences by dividing the Triassic group of the N.E. Alps into two formations : 1 . The Werfen, and 2. the Hallstadt. The first or lowest of them he again divides into ! a. the Werfen slates or variegated sand- stones, and b. the Guttenstein limestone, which he considers as pro- bably equivalent to the Muschelkalk. Ke considers the Hallstadt strata as upper Muschelkalk. I may here remark that the author has excluded from this Triassic group the Dachstein limestone, which he had formerly considered as lower Muschelkalk, and has placed it as the lowest member of the overlying Liassic group. As far as the order of superposition is concerned,this correction appears, from the subsequent investigations of others, to be perfectly correct. But it is not equally certain that he is correct in placing the Dachstein limestone in the Lias. With regard to the Werfen slates, the author states that all recent inquiries have confirmed the correctness of the position origin- ally assigned to them, viz. that they immediately overlie the Grau- wacke beds, and underlie the whole of the Alpine limestone. The principal fossils found in them are. Ammonites Cassianus (Quenst.), Turho recticostatus (Hauer), Naticella costata (Miinst.), Myacites Tasserensis (Wissm.), very common, Myophoria, sp. unc, Posidono- inya Clara (v. Buch), Posidonomya aurita (Hauer), Avicula striato- punctata (Hauer), Av. Venetiana (Hauer). The Ammonites Cas- sianus is of rare occurrence, and it may be a question whether it has not been derived from the overlying Dachstein ; for it is a remarkable fact, that one of the causes of the apparent intermixture of fossils in some of these Alpine collections, particularly those of S. Casciano, has arisen from the fact of their having been obtained from rivulets which descend through Jurassic as well as Triassic deposits. These Werfen slates are constantly overlaid by dark grey limestones, called by the author Guttenstein limestone or Muschelkalk, and frequently assume the form and character of Bauchwacke limestone. Fossils are almost unknown in them, with the exception of Ammonites (or Ceratites) Cassianus (Quenst.) and Monotis Salinaria. The upper portion of this limestone is occasionally dolomitic, and passes into the second or upper subdivision of the Triassic group. The Hallstadt Limestone or upper Muschelkalk is remarkable for its beautiful and curious Cephalopods. The author here explains that his recent investigations have led to the conviction that his former statements respecting the position of the Dachstein limestone, which he had placed below the Hallstadt limestone, required correc- tion : the sections found by M. Siiss and himself in various parts of the Alps showed that the Dachstein Limestone should be placed above that of Hallstadt. With regard to the Cephalopods, which constitute the greater portion of the fossils found in this formation, the author refers to a distinct memoir in which they are described ; the new forms discovered since the publication of that work will be published in the 2nd vol. of the Transactions of the Imperial Geolo- ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. IxV gical Institute. He observes, however, that five of the most charac- teristic forms, viz. Ammonites Aon (Miinst.), A. Riippelli (Klipst.), A. Gaytani (Khpst.), A. Johannis-Aiistrice (Klipst.), and A. larhas (Miinst.), all occur in the S. Casciano strata, which consequently, notwithstanding great lithological differences, may be safely paralleled with the Hallstadt beds. The author then proceeds to state that the true position of the Hallstadt limestone is now clearly made out to be between the lowest Liassic group (to which he supposes the Dachstein limestone to be- long) and the Trias, ! and that the fossils contained in it do not afford sufficient evidence to place it with either of these groups, as no spe- cies peculiar to it has yet been found beyond the region of the Alps ; nevertheless its intimate connexion with the Guttenstein limestone is a fair indication that it should be grouped with the Trias. He con- siders it, however, to be a still more difficult question to decide whether the dolomites which occur extensively beneath the Dachstein lime- stone are Triassic or Liassic. Before leaving the Triassic group, the author states that his present object has been to establish the correct parallelism between the formations of the Northern and those of the Southern Alps belonging to the Trias. Without going into detail on the subject, he briefly proceeds to disprove the arguments of M, Klipstein on the one hand, who wishes to place the San Casciano beds in the Middle Jura, and, on the other hand, those of M. Eich- wald, who claims for them a much more ancient position, referring the Neptunian formation of Southern Tyrol to the Mountain Lime- stone. He observes, in reference to this question, that the San Casciano and Hallstadt beds are not to be considered as exact equi- valents of the true Muschelkalk, but as a more recent portion of the Triassic group deposited above it. The author next proceeds to describe the Liassic group, the lowest member of which he considers to be the Dachstein Limestone, so called from its constituting the principal portion of the Dachstein Mountains. Y/ith these are associated the Stahrenberg strata. Above these are the Kossen beds, the Gresten beds, and then, constituting the Upper Lias formation, the Adneth and Hierlatz beds. The only one of these formations to which I shall here allude is the Dachstein Limestone. This is described as frequently immediately overlying the Werfen or Guttenstein beds ; sometimes it is deposited on dolo- mite, or united with it above the Hallstadt beds ; and sometimes it rests on the Hallstadt beds themselves. Amongst the fossils found in the Dachstein Limestone, Megalodori triqueter of Wulfen, also called M. scutatus, is by far the most abundant. It is found throughout the whole bed, and has been called the Dachstein bivalve, and is so peculiar to this bed as to throw some doubt on M. von Hauer's generalization that the Kossen beds which immediately overlie the Dachstein, and contain a large proportion of genuine Liassic fossils, are to be considered as forming with it only one formation, notwithstanding their obvious petrogra- phical differences. This Megalodon triqueter^ which occurs univer- sally throughout the Dachstein Limestone, has only been found Ixvi PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. sparingly in one locality out -of thirty-seven in which the Kosseh fossils are found. M. Siiss has also communicated a paper on the Brachiopods of the Kossen beds, read before the Imperial Geological Institute so far back as the 23rd June, 1853. One of his objects is to show that these beds belong to the inferior Lias, both by palseontological com- parison and by geographical extension. He considers them to be the same as the Gervillia beds of Emmerich and Schaffhiiutl, and the Upper S. Casciano of Escher and Merian. This author then proceeds to state that the fauna of the Stahrenberg and Dachstein Limestone is identical with that of the Kossen beds, and adds that the whole mass of these beds lies on the Hallstadt beds, containing the fossils of San Casciano, and belonging to the Upper Muschel- kalk. After describing other beds connected with these formations, M. Siiss concludes by discussing ''the reasons given by some geo- logists for identifying some members of them with the formations of San Casciano. The whole series of Kossen fossils gives us but three species identical with those of San Casciano, viz. Cardita crenata, the so-called Spondylus ohlicjuus (the identity of which seems doubt- ful even to M. Emmerich), and ActcEonina alpina, quoted by Prof. Merian, but without giving its locality. The Avicida gryphcEata is found in the Lias of England, as well as in the San Casciano beds ; and according to Mr. Peters, one of our species may probably prove identical with A. contorta (Portl.). " The stratigraphical relations, at least as far as they exist in the Vorarlberg, do not appear to warrant a separation of the Kossen strata from the Lias. What has been already stated is enough to show that M. Escher's No. 13. Limestone with Megalodon trique- ter (the equivalent of the Dachstein Limestone), and his No. 14. San Casciano formation (identical with our Kossen strata), cannot conveniently be considered as members of different formations. Since the investigations respecting the Cephalopods of the Salzkammergut have been made, there can no longer be any doubt that the Hallstadt beds are the equivalent of the S. Casciano formation, nor is there any reason for considering the former as only representing a portion of the S. Casciano group." A further step towards clearing up the difficulties which prevented the satisfactory explanation of the position of the S. Casciano beds has been made by Prof. Merian of Bale, who has lately visited some of the localities of the Vorarlberg Alps, and has communicated the results of his inquiries, first, in a letter addressed to Sir R. Murchi- son, and, secondly, in a paper read before the Geological Section of the Meeting of German Naturalists held last year at Gottingen. In the former communication Prof. Merian states that, having visited the Vorarlberg with his friend M. Escher, they found immediately under the Lias beds which are well developed, the Dachstein Lime- stone, characterized by numerous corals and the Megalodon sciitatus of Schiiffhautl. Below this Dachstein Limestone they found the Gervillia beds, lately called Kossen beds by M. v. Hauer. These they at once referred to the S. Casciano formation, in consequence of their ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixvii containing Cardita crenata (Goldf.), Aviculce of the family of the Gryphseatse, and small turreted shells. Below these are thick masses of dolomite, which are again underlaid by sandstones with impressions of Keuper plants. The Gervillia-beds also occur in the vicinity of the Lake of Como, forming a good geological horizon below the Lias. The author states that they have given the name of San Casciano formation to the whole series of beds situated between the Keuper and the Lias. It is a marine formation which appears to be wanting in the North of Europe, and is only developed in the Alpine chain and in Eastern Europe. In a palseontological point of view it is distinguished from the overlying Lias by the absence of Belemnites, and from the Trias on which it reposes by the occurrence of Ammonites a cloisons persillees. After alluding to the previous erroneous opinions entertained by various geologists respecting the position of the Dachstein Limestone and the Gervillia beds. Prof. Merian observes that the Austrian geo- logists are now of the same opinion as himself and his friend respecting the order of superposition of these beds. The only difference is that the former wish to refer these two groups to the lower Lias, whilst he and M. Escher refer the beds with Ammonites globosus and the beds of S. Casciano to a separate formation, which they call Upper Muschelkalk, In the communication read at Gottingen the Pro- fessor repeated these arguments, adding that the S. Casciano beds below the Dolomite alternate in some spots with some of the Keuper beds, and particularly with the Letten coal beds ; and that he considers that the whole formation, which is essentially marine, should be looked on as a marine Keuper in the East and South of Europe, correspond- ing with or equivalent to the land or terrestrial Keuper of the West, ! that they are in fact the marine representatives of the Keuper*. It is perhaps one of the most interesting features in the considera- tion of this question, and one which has added greatly to the difficulty of unravelling the true relations of this part of Alpine geology, that we here find a regular unbroken sequence of beds lying conformably one over the other, from the lowest member of the Triassic group into the Liassic and the Jurassic formations. Not only do the dif- ferent beds of sandstone, shales, limestones, and dolomites pass into and sometimes even alternate with each other, thereby producing what may be almost called an inosculation of the strata, but we also find a gradual passage of organic forms from one formation to another. If each new successive stratum as we ascend presents us with new groups and new associations of organic life, we still find them accompanied by some of the forms which characterized the beds below. Thus, while on geognostical and mineralogical grounds we are prevented from drawing very exact lines of demarcation be- tween one formation and another, we are equally debarred, on palae- ontological grounds also, from defining with absolute accuracy or correctness the respective limits of the different groups. The Keu- * For further details see also a Memoir by M. A. Escher von der Linth on the Geology of the Vorarlberg, published in the thirteenth volume of the Memoires de la Societe Helvetique des Sciences Naturelles, 1853. Ixviii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. per sandstones alternate with the lower San Casciano beds, according to Prof. Merian. Ammonites occur in the Hallstadt limestone, sometimes called Upper Muschelkalk, and considered the equivalent of the San Casciano beds, thereby connecting these truly Triassic beds with those Liassic beds above the Dachstein, in which numerous species of Ammonites abound. In the intermediate dolomites no fossils have yet been found. Nor have Ammonites yet been discovered in the Dachstein limestone, yet they abound in the overlying Kossen strata, which are considered to be the equivalents of the lower Lias by M. Siiss, and to be upper San Casciano by Prof. Merian and his friend M. Escher. Thus, wherever we find the strata conformable, we have a confirmation of the well-known saying, "Natura non facit saltum." In fact, all natural changes are gradual under these cir- cumstances. The conditions of life gradually change, and the organic forms are modified to meet these changes ; certain species disappear, while others, adapted to the altered circumstances, are called into existence, and continue to flourish side by side with some of the pre- existing forms ; thus confirming the view already stated, that where the strata are conformable, no line can be drawn between successive formations, ! the gradual change is not marked by sudden breaks in the series of animal life. In fact, we must not forget that our no- menclatures are for the most part only relative. Nature ever acts on one long unbroken plan, and knows as little of sharp limits between Trias, Lias and Jurassic, as between the families and genera of existing organic life. These terms are at best but temporary shifts to assist our memories, and to enable us to register our facts and our knowledge ; and we must be careful not to give too much importance to nomen- clatures which deserve at the best but a secondary consideration. I may have occasion to allude to this question again when referring to the progress of tertiary geology. I will only here observe, that I think M. Merian has exercised a wise judgment in making the San Casciano beds for the present a separate group, intermediate between the Trias and the Lias. I cannot conclude these remarks without alluding to what I am sure every British geologist will consider an oversight on the part of the two Austrian geologists I have mentioned, in having omitted all allusion to the exertions on two separate occasions of Sir R. Murchi- son, and to the credit he deserves for having been the first to point out the true relations of these great Alpine formations. In the Geo- logical Map of the Eastern Alps, the first ever constructed, and pub- lished in the third volume of our Transactions (2 Ser.), Sir R. Mur- chison and Prof. Sedgwick clearly laid down on the northern flank of the Alps a distinct series of rocks between the older slaty rocks (Verrucano) and the Liassic and Oolitic groups. To these they gave the name of Keuper, Muschelkalk, Bunter Sandstein, and Rauchwacke. This zone is also laid down on their map on the south flank of the Alps, passing through San Casciano, thereby showing that at that early period they had recognized the identity of the beds on the north flank with those of San Casciano and its vicinity, although San Casciano itself was not then alluded to. Again, in ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixix his paper " on the Geological Structure of the Alps, Apennines, and Carpathians," Sir R. Murchison fully explained the triassic character of the San Casciano beds, ! an explanation which is now confirmed by the more recent discoveries of Merian and others on the northern flanks. To M. E. Renevier of Lausanne we are indebted for a geological memoir on the Perte du Rhone and its vicinity. The author was induced to undertake this work by the reflection, that, however often this curious phaenomenon had been visited and quoted by geologists, no special description of it had yet been given, nor any geological map of it published on a scale sufliciently large to understand the details. After referring to De Saussure for an account of the scene, the author describes the different formations which are visible at this locality resting regularly and conformably on each other in an almost horizontal position. These formations are. Diluvium, Molasse, Upper Chalk, Gault, and the Aptian and Trigonian formations below the Gault, the two latter belonging to the Neocomian system. The lowest bed, in which is cut the narrow passage where the Rhone is almost lost to sight in dry weather, is the Caprotina limestone. The vertical and horizontal distances are given in the sections in their natural proportions. Two memoirs by M. Bosquet of Maestricht, published in the second volume of the " Memoirs of the Committee for the Geological Map and Description of the Netherlands," are deserving of notice in connexion with secondary geology. The first is an account of some new Brachiopods from the Maestricht beds. The fossils described are, two new Cranics, C. comosa and C. Bi'edai ; the former is ex- tremely rare, and only the lower valve has been as yet discovered ; Argiojpe Davidsoni, Rhyncora plicata and R. KonincM. The second memoir is of far greater extent, and is entitled " The Fossil Crustacea of the Cretaceous Formation of Limburg." With the exception of a few species of Cirripedes and some few Decapods, the work is devoted to a description of the numerous Entomostraca abounding in this formation. Some of these, like Bairdia subdeltoidea^ are so universally distributed throughout formations of different ages, that their geological value as a means of distinguishing strata is subservient to their importance in a natural-history point of view ; several of the other cretaceous forms also are still found living in the Mediterranean and other seas. With regard to the genus Cy there, the most abundant of all, M. Bosquet in this work describes thirty-four new species from the cretaceous formation of Limburg, in addition to thirteen already described by him in 1847 from the Maestricht beds. He adds that he is also acquainted with about 114 species in the diff^erent beds of the tertiary formation. The species described are all beautifully figured, and some of the forms represented are of a curious and un- usual character. Many are identical with, those already figured and described by Mr. R. Jones in his " Monograph on the Entomostraca of the Cretaceous Formation of England," published in 1849 by the Paleeontographical Society. Prof. Bornemann, in his " Account of the Lias Formation in the VOL. XI. e IXX PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. neighbourlioocl of Gottingen and its organic contents," has also published some plates of the Foraminifera found in that formation. I am indebted to Mr. R. Jones for the observation, that, although the general fades of these German Lias forms as compared with the Foraminifera of the English Lias is very similar, the specific identities are but few. Out of fifty species from the liminster series, he can only find seven which can with certainty be considered as identical with any of the thirty-three species from the Gottingen Lias. An interesting memoir by Prof. Reuss appears in the seventh volume of the 'Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen- schaften' of Vienna, '' On the characteristic features of the Cretaceous Formations in the Eastern Alps, particularly in the Valley of Gosau and on the Wolfgang Lake." Li the first place the author shows that the whole of the Gosau beds belong to the Upper Cretaceous period ; ! they belong neither to the Lower Greensand, where they have been placed by some writers, nor to the Flysch or Eocene, to which others have been disposed to refer them. He points out a remarkable connexion between the beds of conglomerate and the Hippurite limestone : wherever these latter occur in abundance, and as it were in their natural position, the conglomerates form the bottom bed, and the Hippurite banks appear to have settled themselves on the solid conglomerate and gravel beds. These Hippurite and Coral limestones form such an important member of the Gosau formation, that the author goes into great detail respecting them, pointing out the errors respecting their relative positions committed by former geologists. The Hippurite limestone alternates with the more marly beds at various levels throughout the whole formation ; but the beds with Actceonella and NerincBa also occur throughout the same portion of the deposit, sometimes lying below, sometimes alternating with the Hippurite limestone. Another remarkable feature of the Gosau beds is the almost entire want of coal, whereas it occurs abundantly in other parts of the Cretaceous deposit. In concluding these general remarks, the author observes that the Gosau beds, which belong without exception to the Cretaceous forma- tion, represent one connected inseparable whole, and form a system of marly-conglomerate, limestone, and sandstone beds, irregularly alternating with each other, and which it is impossible to subdivide into separate independent formations. The study of the fossil remains contained in it shows that such a separation cannot be justified on palseontological any more than on geognostic grounds. This, how- ever, only refers to the lower fossiliferous beds ; the upper portion contains no organic remains, but the petrographical characters oppose the possibility of their being referred to a different system. The next question raised by the author is with which of the various cretaceous beds of other countries the Gosau beds should be com- pared. An accurate knowledge of the fossils is necessary to answer this question. The author is of opinion that it is more correct to refer them to the Chalk above the Gault^! the upper chalk, but in comparing the Gosau fossils with those of other districts, the author only takes such as are common to other Chalk formations. The whole ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixxi number of Gosau fossils is 443, amongst which are 34 Foraminifera, 140 Anthozoa, 14 Bryozoa, and 15 Entomostraca. The Gasteropods have 135, and the Conchifera 80 species. The remaining number is made up of Radiaria, Brachiopods, Cephalopods, Annehdes, and Rudista. After showing that the Gosau beds have the greatest affinity with D'Orbigny's Systeme Turonien, the author describes the geological features of the beds near the Wolfgang Lake, which, although their organic contents are not so abundant as in the Gosau Valley, evi- dently belong to the same system. In the second part of his memoir^ viz. paloeontological observations on the Gosau beds, the author prm- cipally directs his attention to the Foraminifera, Anthozoa, Bryozoa, and Entomostraca, with the study of some of which he had been occupied for many years. These are fully described, and the figures by which they are illustrated, particularly the Corals, are admirably executed. But time would not permit me to give, nor would you have patience to listen to, the long list of recent papers and publications on different branches of geological investigation to be found in the various scientific periodicals of Germany. The Journal of the Imperial Geo- logical Institute of Vienna, the Journal of the German Geological Society, as well as the Jahrbuch of Leonhard and Bronn, and the Palseontographica of Diinker and Herman v. Meyer, are full of new and valuable information. I must, however, specially allude to the last two numbers of the last-mentioned work, which have appeared during the last year. The memoir by Dr. Jordan and Herman v. Meyer on the Crustacea of the Coal Formation of Saarbriick, and particularly the account of the fossil insects of the same formation by Dr. Goldenberg, are most interesting ; the latter especially, as it is only very recently that organic remains of this class have been found in these beds, the oldest in which they have hitherto been met with. Tertiary Geology. M. Hebert, so well known for his numerous and valuable com- munications on the tertiary formations of the continent, has, in con- junction with M. E. Renevier of Lausanne, published in the Bul- letin of the Statistical Society of the Department of the Isere, an interesting *' Memoir on the Fossils of the Upper Nummulitic Forma- tion in the neighbourhood of Gap, the Diablerets, and other locali- ties in Savoy." The fossils with which the Nummulites are associated in these localities, which M. Renevier has himself explored, are such as are generally considered to belong to a more recent period than that to which the Nummulites have been hitherto referred. The beds in general show a remarkable identity and analogy as to their fauna with that of Ronca, already described by M. Brongniart in his " Memoir on the Vicentin ;" on the other hand, it shows great discrepances with the nummulitic beds of Nice, Corbieres, and Biaritz. The authors do not consider the subject as yet sufficiently exhausted e2 Ixxii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. to explain the many difficulties with which it is associated, but they observe that these nummulitic beds contain a certain number of species more recent than those of other localities which are generally considered as the type of the Nummulitic formation, and that these more recent species are the most abundant. This has led them to consider these beds as the upper portion of the Nummuhtic forma- tion, and to call them the Upper Nummulitic formation ; and they think that it will turn out eventually that the nummulitic beds here described are more recent than any hitherto known. *' Perhaps," they say in conclusion, " it may be supposed that some data are given in this memoir to determine the age of these upper nummulitic beds, and that they should be placed between the sands of Beauchamp and those of Fontainebleau. We consider such a conclusion would be too hasty, and that our work, however con- scientiously carried out, is not of sufficient importance to lead to such a conclusion." The object of the authors was to call attention to new facts, desirous only to be of use in solving the difficulties which they had pointed out. In the second volume of the " Memoirs of the Commission for the Geological Map and Description of the Netherlands," is published a list of the fossils found in the tertiary deposits of Guelderland. They have been principally found in variegated marls along the frontiers of Guelderland and Oberyssel, between Miinsterland and Bentheim. The bottom of these marls has not been reached, but they are sup- posed to rest on the chalk which crops out near Bentheim and Miinsterland. They have been penetrated by borings to a depth of seventy yards, and are overlaid by a thick deposit of diluvium, con- sisting of sand and gravel containing fragments of granite and other plutonic rocks, together with others belonging to the primary and secondary periods. After giving the list of fossils from these clays, in some of which septaria, gypsum, and iron pyrites are found, the Commissioners con- clude with the follo^;vdng remarks : ! " From the geographical po- sition, the mineral composition, and particularly from the fossils, we must conclude that the tertiary formations of Guelderland belong; to the Miocene division of North Germ.any, according to the nomen- clature of Bey rich. When the work of Prof. Bey rich shall be more advanced, we shall see with which of the North German localities the Netherland beds have the greatest connexion ; but it will probably be with those of the marls of Bersenbriick, north of Osnabriick. A great number of the fossils are identical with those of Dumont's Tongrian and Rupelian systems of Belgium (Upper Eocene of Lyell, = Miocene of Beyrich, Hebert, and others) ; but it is remarkable that about a twentieth of them are the same as those of the Scaldisian system of Dumont (the Antwerp crag of Lyell), and these belong to the Pliocene period, a remark which has also been made by Beyrich respecting the fossils found at Bersenbriick." It is impossible to overlook the importance of this discovery as affording fresh evidence of the close connexion between the forma- tions of Belgium and North Germany. The occurrence, too, of a ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRlJSlDENT. Ixxiu certain proportion of Antwerp crag fossils, supposing them, as is here stated, to be really intermixed with the others, would also tend to prove the correctness of the views of those geologists who have been disposed to consider the fossils of North Germany to belong to a system extending upwards into beds of a newer period, rather than to one which should be classed with the Eocene beds below ; ! nor would this view be invalidated, even should it be found, on closer examination, that these Antwerp crag fossils belong to a more recent formation than the other North German fossils. They all belong evidently to a series of beds the sequence of which is uninterrupted, and would thus equally prove the existence of a gradual passage upwards rather than a connexion with Eocene beds below. This same volume of memoirs also contains much interesting matter respecting the overlying drift beds and diluvium, some of which are referred to the action of the Rhine, while others are con- sidered as of Scandinavian origin. Here, then, we have a wide field open for inquiry, as the two beds appear to be easily distinguishable. In reference to the geology of the Netherlands, the ' Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de France,' vol. xi. p. 21, Nov. 7, 1853, contains an in- teresting notice, *' Sur la Constitution geologique des environs d' Am- sterdam, &c., par M. P. Harting." The author gives the particulars of seven artesian wells at Amsterdam, one of which was carried to the depth of 174 metres, or 172 metres beneath the mean sea-level. All these wells gave approximatively the same result. They showed that the surface-bed was composed of a peat 1^ to 5|^ metres thick, formed of freshwater plants and fallen trees. Beneath this is a series of marly clays, with subordinate sands. In mineral struc- ture these beds were found to agree with the silt now brought down by the Rhine and Mcuse, whilst their organic remains show them to have been deposited in the sea. The mineral debris are examined with great care and skill, as are also the organic remains. Of the latter the author determines nine species of Gasteropods, thirteen species of Lamellibranchiates, several Zoophytes, nine species of Foraminifera, and one Annelid, mostly of recent species. One bed is composed in great part of the siliceous carapaces of Diato- maceae, of which M. Harting enumerates thirty-three species, whilst dispersed in the other beds are nine additional species. Only a few remains of plants are found ! fragments of Finns sylvestris, Zostera marina., he. Beneath this argillaceous series is an immense mass of sand, through which none of the borings have penetrated, and conse- quently its thickness exceeds 117 metres. This deposit shows traces of stratification; but no traces of organic remains, with the exception of a few fragments of plants, have been found in it. It is composed chiefly of fine sands, but contains also pebbles of quartz, sandstone, syenite, limestones, flints, &c., mostly minerals not found in the upper beds. Another well at Gorinchem reached a depth of 182 metres ; here organic remains were found all through. To the depth of 121 metres they are land and freshwater remains, including bones of three Ixxiv PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, species of mammals, one fish, nine land and freshwater shells (which, although so fragile, are preserved entire), and traces of plants. Beneath this the beds contain marine remains, amongst which are ten recent species of shells. With these are associated a con- siderable number belonging to the Campinian, Tongrian, and Brux- ellian Systems of M. Dumont, the Crag of England, and the Cal- caire grossier. The author arrives at the conclusion that this great mass of sand and clays, as well as the lower sands of Amsterdam, belong to the Campinian system of Belgium (or our Crag), and that the upper beds belong to the Lehm period of the Rhine. Further examination is necessary before we can conclude that this opinion is correct. In the island of Urk in the Zuyderzee, M. Harting discovered a low hill of diluvial clay full of fragments and boulders of the older rocks, some two metres in diameter- ! all rolled. Many of them belong to the rock-masses of Scandinavia, and others to those of England and Scotland. The author contrasts this with the deposits from the south of Amsterdam and Gorinchem, the debris of which he considers solely derived from the hills of the Rhine and the Ardennes. He also touches upon the subject of the gradual subsidence of the land in Holland, and considers the fact of the base of the peat being two to three metres beneath the present mean sea-level, a strong proba- bility in favour of this ^iew. There are indications of this subsi- dence being at the rate of two inches in the century. iVt his sug- gestion a Commission has been appointed to inquire into and deter- mine this question. M. Hebert has also communicated (Bulletin, p. 419) a notice on the " Plastic Clay" of Paris, and its relations to the beds in the north of the Paris basin. The puddingstones of Nemours, which attain a thickness of thirty or forty feet, he now agrees with M. de Roys (p. 453) in placing at the base of the Tertiary series, and he con- siders them to result from an extensive denudation of the chalk and calcaire pisolitique which took place after the deposition of the Rilly beds. The mottled and pure plastic clays which next succeed, form, according to this author, a distinct and separate zone, always under- lying the fausses glaises and the lignites of the Soissonnais ; and in this respect these mottled clays would differ from those in this country, which Mr. Prestwich has shown to be intercalated with the lignites and fossiliferous sands. The upper sands of the Soissonnais are, as it is well known, wanting in the neighbourhood of Paris. He then proceeds to show what were the conditions under which this series of beds were deposited, and remarks that probably large brackish water lagoons extended from Paris to Reading and Brussels, among which were here and there freshwater lakes of greater or less extent. He offers no positive theory to account for the origin of the pure plastic clay, but suggests that it may possibly have been ejected in the same way as the gypsum beds. On this, however, he does not insist. M. d'Archiac and M. de Roys differ on this subject from M. Hebert. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. IxXV M. Hebert has also given (p. 647) some further development to his vievrs respecting that curious deposit of Rilly, with its large Physa and numerous land and freshwater shells. This travertine with the underlying white sands M. Hebert, in a previous memoir, had placed at the base of all the tertiary beds, considering it a lake deposit of which the greater part had been swept away prior to the deposition of the marine sands of Rheims, which latter underlie in this district the lignite and plastic clay series. In a paper communi- cated to the Geological Society of France, Mr. Prestwich contested these views, and endeavoured to show that the white sands of Rilly were merely an altered and local condition of the marine sands of Rheims, that the Rilly travertine was consequently newer than these, and that it belonged to the base of the lignite and plastic clay series. As the group of organic remains belonging to these beds is one per se, the solution of this question depends upon stratigraphical evi- dence. M. Hebert now adduces further arguments in support of his opinion, and shows that this travertine has a far wider range than before known, having found it at Dormans, and extending to the confines of the department of the Oise. M. Ami Boue gives (Bulletin, vol. xi. p. 61) the result of some curious researches on which he has been engaged respecting the depth of former seas and the height of former mountains, and con- cludes that, taking the mean depth of the present seas to be from 12,000 to 18,000 metres, there is a gradual decrease from that depth to the seas of the older geological periods ! the Tertiary seas having averaged 10,000 to 16,000 metres, the Cretaceous 8000 metres, and finally the Permian and older seas 3500 to 9000 metres. At the same time he estimates that the mountain chains of the earth have now attained their greatest elevation, or a mean which he makes exactly equal to the depth of the present seas given above : in the same proportion he fixes the height of the older moun- tains, making those of the Permian and Silurian period 3500 up to 9000 metres in heia;ht. He also estimates the mean elevation of the present general surface of the land (mountains excepted) to be 300 metres, gradually decreasing to 100 and even 60 metres during the Permian and older periods. My predecessor in this chair alluded in his address at our last anniversary to the " Treatise on the Tertiaries of the Mayence Basin," by Dr. F. Sandberger of Wiesbaden, but delayed entering on the consideration of its contents, as well as of those of the works of other German writers, especially of Beyrich and Diinker, until the paper by myself on the same Mayence tertiaries, and which was then announced, should have been read before the Society. This paper having now been read, as well as another paper on the Tertiaries of Hesse Cassel, I shall endeavour to fill up the hiatus left by our late lamented President by putting together, as well as I can, the infor- mation already obtained respecting the Tertiary formations of Ger- many. Our late President would have done full justice to this interesting subject ; I can only attempt to follow his footsteps at a distance. Ixxvi PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The formations described by Dr. Sandberger, Prof. Beyrich, and myself belong to the oldest marine tertiaries yet observed in Germany. Dr. Sandbere;er refers solely to those of the Mayence basin, the di- strict to which the observations in my first paper are chiefly confined. The work of Prof. Beyrich treats of the tertiaries of North Ger- many, extending from Silesia, the mountains of the Hartz and the Tentoberger Wald, to the shores of the Baltic ; my second paper refers mainly to the tertiaries in the neighbourhood of llcsse Cassel. I will endeavour to point out the principal geological features of these three districts, and to explain some of the points on which differences of opinion still exist. I will take Dr. Sandberger's '* Memoir of the ]\Iayence Basin " as m.y text for that formation. The lowest member of the tertiary series in this district is the marine sand of Weinheim, near Alzey. These sands repose on hard red sandstone belonging to the Carboniferous formation of the Don- nersberg, and lie in the hollows between several spurs of red sand- stone extending in a W.N.W. direction from that mountain. Near the edge of the basin they are unfossiliferous, but at the distance of one or two miles organic remains are found in great abundance. Here the sands become mixed with innumerable fragments of com- minuted shells, and bands of hard calcareous rock alternate with the shelly sand. The organic remains are purely marine. The sands are overlaid by blue marls of considerable thickness, w^hich, while preserving to a certain extent their marine character, show, by the great preponderance of Cerithia of several species, together with Cyrena, the first indications of a brackish-w^ater formation. Traces of brown coal have been found in some portions of this lower blue marl. Above this is a vast accumulation of limestone beds, divided by the German geologists into three groups ! 1st, Freshwater lime- stone ; 2nd, Cerithium limestone ; and 3rd, Littorinella limestone; both of which latter are characterized by the abundance of these respective forms. The lower portion of the Cerithium limestone contains, in particular localities, a great variety of Helices of several species, besides other land shells, which have led Dr. Sandberger to give it the name of fresh w^ater limestone. I cannot agree to this denomination ; the brackish-water shells still pervade the whole formation, and the land and other freshwater shells have evidently been drifted in by rivers pouring their waters into this probably vast gestuary basin. In the same way the mammalian bones found in these formations have been washed in. These limestone beds, which abound more and more in freshwater shells as we ascend, are again overlaid by a second blue clay formation, containing in some districts, and particularly in the Wetterau, thick deposits of brown coal, which are extensively worked. These are supposed by Dr. Sandberger to be of the same age as the brown-coal beds of the Wester Wald. The blue marls still contain in places a few brackish-water forms, as Cyrena Faifjasii and a small Cerithium. In the neighbourhood of Hesse Cassel the most remarkable feature is, that the blue marls and sands containing the remains of a marine fauna overlie the extensive brown-coal deposits there worked. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixxvii This marine fauna is supposed by Dr. Philippi and Dr. Sandberger to be newer than that of Weinheim. Again, in the neighbour- hood of Magdeburg marine formations occur in two locahties : ! 1 st, the Westeregehi sands, which also overhe the brown coal ; and 2nd, the Magdeburg beds, which are considered identical with the Septaria clay of Brandenburg and Berlin. Of these the Westeregeln sands are considered the oldest. Septaria also occur in the blue clays in the neighbourhood of Hesse Cassel underlying the bed of shelly sand, evidently belonging to the same system. In my second paper I have stated the reasons why I consider it not improbable that, not- withstanding certain slight differences in the organic contents, these three deposits of Magdeburg, Cassel, and Weinheim belong to one formation, corresponding as nearly as possible with the Middle Limburg beds of Belgium. They appear to mark the commence- ment of a tertiary marine fauna in the North of Germany, and being thus evidently the commencement of a system, I have been inclined to look upon them as older Miocene rather than younger Eocene. Our late President, in describing the youngest tertiary deposits in the Isle of Wight, mentioned two facts, viz. that they rested con- formably on the older Eocene deposits, and must therefore be taken as a part of that formation ; and secondly, that some of the beds contained the same organic remains as Avere found in the Weinheim sands and marls. He consequently concluded that these Weinheim beds must also be Eocene. Now it must be observed that the species on which he founded this opinion are not strictly speaking marine, but brackish-water species, principally Cyrena subarata and certain forms of Cerithia, I hardly think that such evidence alone justifies this conclusion. The species have a very considerable vertical range, and hence it would perhaps be rash to argue on any contemporaneity from them alone ; and, moreover, being brackish-water forms, it is impossible to show any connexion between the aestuarine or brackish- water areas at such a distance. A similarity in the condition of life may have led to the appearance of these forms in different places at dificrent epochs ; and it is therefore possible, notwithstanding the identity of species, that the two brackish-water deposits of the Isle of Wight and Weinheim may not be contemporaneous. But even if they were so, we have every day brought before us additional evi- dence to show that we must not look for those breaks or inter- ruptions in the regular succession of strata, which are considered as marking the transition from one formation to another, everywhere at the same point. While local convulsions were causing an inter- ruption in one district, the regular sequence of deposits was being continued unbroken in another ; and thus the Eocene deposits may have continued in the Isle of Wight for some time after those changes in the relative level of land and sea had taken place, which in the North of Germany marked the commencement of the Miocene epoch. We may therefore have here one of those anomalous de- posits between two hitherto supposed distinct formations, combining some of the characteristic features of each, and which must be con- sidered as marking the transition from the one to the other. IxXViii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. But besides these Magdeburg and Westeregeln sands, other ter- tiary deposits occur in the North of Germany which belong to a younger period. They occur along the shores of the Baltic, and through the N.E. portions of Holland, and have been by some identified with the crag of Antwerp. Their exact extent and super- position to the Miocene beds does not appear to have been yet fully made out. Turning our attention now to the more Eastern and Southern parts of Germany, it may be observed that some of the tertiary de- posits of the Vienna basin which have been long known for the abundance of their fossil contents, are probably of an older age than the Antwerp crags. My lamented predecessor in this chair alluded last year to the valuable work by Dr. Homes, describing the fossil mollusca of the Vienna basin. This is generally subdivided into three groups, the Lower Tegel, the Upper Tegel, and the Leitha Limestone ; and although no marked distinction or break can be pointed out, the lower beds are generally described as Miocene, and the upper as Pliocene. The difficulty of marking any separation has led some German geologists to describe the whole under the new name of ''Neogene." The fact, however, appears to be, that we have here the undisturbed passage from the Miocene to the Pliocene formation, thus filling up the gap between the Septaria clay of Brandenburg and the Crag of Antwerp. Of late years the progress of geological inquiry, and perhaps also the extension of railway cuttings, have pointed out many localities in North and East Germany where tertiary deposits have been dis- covered containing fossils which bear a remarkable identity with those of Vienna. A short time ago Prince Schonaich Carolath com- municated to Professor Beyrich the discovery of numerous tertiary fossils in Upper Silesia, in the neighbourhood of Konigshiitte and Gleiwitz, near the village of Mikultschiitz. Their appearance at once suggested an identity with those of the Vienna basin. Prof. Reuss of Prague has since published in the ' Journal of the Geological Society of Germany*,' an account of a critical examination of the specimens forwarded to him for that purpose. His attention was principally directed to the Foraminifera, the Bryozoa, and Entomo- straca, and the result has been to show a remarkable identity with those of the Vienna basin. The spot where they have been found is on the direct road from Breslau to Cracow, and about sixty miles north of the Carpathian chain. After describing the species. Prof. Reuss observes, that out of 139 species sent to him, there are only thirteen which were not already known from the Vienna basin. The Silesian fossils are referred to two principal localities, Miechowitz and Mikultschiitz. With regard to the former. Prof. Reuss observes, that " the calcareous marl of Miechowitz cannot well be paralleled with any particular group of the Vienna basin, but may rather be looked upon as representing the whole three groups together. At the same time it must be observed, that the fossil remains rather seem to point * Vol. iii. p. 149. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. IxXlX to a connexion with the uppermost group, the Leitha Umestone ;" he adds, that this opinion is solely founded on an examination of the forms of Foraminifera, Bryozoa, and Entomostraca. With regard to the other formation, that of Mikultschiitz, Avhich is not so rich in organic remains, he observes, that, considering the total absence of the Bryozoa, so characteristic of the Leitha limestone, the proba- bility is that the clay beds of Mikultschiitz are the equivalent of the Vienna Tegel, with a somewhat greater tendency to the upper rather than the lower group. With regard to the further extension of this formation north of the Carpathian hills, I may observe, that Prof. Kuh has ascertained, by the discovery of fossils, that the gypsum deposits of Upper Silesia, in the neighbourhood of Ratibor and Troppau, also belong to the Tegel of the Vienna basin. Amongst the fossils which occur at Schreibersdorf, between Troppau and Ratibor, Prof. Kuh men- tions, besides several species of Foraminifera, Natica glaucinoidesy Sow., and Coi'bula riigosa, Lam., both abundant in the Vienna basin. Prof. Labecki of Warsaw, in describing the Brown-coal and Salt deposits of Poland, observes, that the Brown-coal beds, which Leopold v. Buch had already identified with the Brown- coal of Upper Silesia, and considered as a Middle Tertiary forma- tion, extend into the kingdom of Poland, thus showing a connexion between the Miocene deposits along the foot of the Sudetes (the Erzgebirge and the Riesengebirge), and those in Poland at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, and that they are generally connected with the Salt deposits, such as those of Wieliczka, ?&c. It does not appear that the Miocene fossils have yet been found in Poland ; but in the neighbouring province of Gallicia, on the N.E. slope of the Carpathian chains, the Brown-coals and Saliferous clays are overlaid by a bed 12 feet thick, containing in abundance the fossils of the Leitha limestone and the Tegel of Vienna*. I must, however, observe, that the statement of Prof. Labecki, confirming the remark of L. v. Buch, that there is only one Brown- coal formation in Europe, appears to me to require some modifica- tion. In one respect indeed it may be correct, viz. that they all belong to the Miocene period. But the Brown-coal formation which extends from Brandenburg through Silesia into Poland, must not be confounded with that which occurs so extensively in the neighbour- hood of Magdeburg and Westeregeln. The latter underlies the fossiliferous sands of Westeregeln and of Magdeburg, which belong to the oldest tertiaries of Northern Germany, whereas it appears from the statements of Herr Plettner of Berlin, that the Brown-coal of Mark Brandenburg overlies the Septari[i clay of Magdeburg and Berlin, which again overlies the sands of Westeregeln. Plettner, however, considers the Septaria clay as forming the lowest member of the whole Brown-coal formation of Brandenburg. We have thus the following sequence in ascending order : ! 1 . Brown-coal of Magdeburg, resting on blue clay. 2. Westeregeln sands. * L. v. Buch, Archiv, v. Karsten u. v. Dechen, vol. xxv. p. 164. IXXX PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 3. Septaria clay of Magdeburg, Berlin, Stettin, &c. 4. Brown-coal of Brandenburg, Silesia, Poland, &c. 5. Tertiary beds of Gallicia, ! the equivalents of the Vienna basin. The recent investigations of the Austrian geologists, encouraged by the establishment of the Imperial Geological Institute of Vienna, and the admirable publication of the fossils of the Vienna basin by Homes, have led to the more perfect examination of other beds con- taining an identical fossil fauna in other portions of the Austrian empire, and especially in Hungary and Transylvania. In the 5th vol. of the * Journal of the German Geological Society' is an interesting account by Prof. Neugeboren of the fossil remains found at Ober Lapugy in Transylvania, in the valley of the Marosch, not far from the Banatic frontier. Prof. Neugeboren describes this locality as one of unusual interest. A bed of clay upwards of 300 feet in thickness, occupying the small extent of 1 000 square toises, about 40,000 square feet, represents the whole of the tertiary de- posits of the Vienna basin. In the formation of these deposits there has been no interruption or break whatever. The whole has been formed in one long period of continued repose ; almost every species from the different groups of the Vienna basin has been found here in the most perfect state of preservation, together with many others not yet found near Vienna, viz. Conus nocturnus. Lam. ; Cyprcea rugosa, Grat. ; Cyprcea Hdrnesi, Neugeb. ; Marginella Deshayesii, Michelotti ; Mitra striato-plicata, Bellardi ; Colmnhella Bujardiniy Homes, &c. Thus we have here a gradual passage from the Mio- cene to the Pliocene formation without any break, the upper beds of the Vienna basin being considered the equivalents of the Subapen- nine formation in Italy. This opinion is confirmed by Prof. Reuss, who, in his examination of the Foraminifera, &c. of Upper Silesia, found many forms identical with those of the Subapennine formation of Castell'arquato, besides others still living in the Adriatic. We also learn from the reports of the meeting of the Imperial Geological Institute of Vienna, that Dr. Homes visited Hungary and Transylvania last summer, principally for the purpose of ascertaining how far the tertiary deposits in those countries coincided with those of the Vienna basin. He has reported that the mineralogical and palseontological points of resemblance between these two widely separated regions are so complete, that there can be little doubt, if any, of their perfect identity. The sea, which, during the period of their deposit, occupied the Vienna basin, seems, as Dr. Homes reports, to have been the connecting link between two large con- temporaneous oceans, the one covering the upper Danubian basin, the other the plains of Central Hungary, as in the present day the Sea of Marmora forms the connexion between the Black Sea and the ^gean. The tertiary deposits of Korod and Lapugy in Transylvania, of Remesert in Banat, of Baden, Steinabrunn and Oltnanz in Austria, together with those of Vilshofen in Bavaria, of S. Gallen in Switzerland, and of Montpellier, Bordeaux, andTouraine in France, whose faunas (with the exception of local modifications) have all the same character, may serve to point out the extent of the ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixxxi ocean which, during a portion of the Tertiary period, covered a con- siderable portion of Middle and Southern Europe from east to west. Dr. Homes confirms the statement of Prof. Neugeboren respecting the remarkable ahundance of fossils in the tertiary beds of Lapugy, where some of the shells still retain traces of colour. In another report he mentions that the Vienna basin has now produced 1300 species of animal remains, of which COO are mollusca. He has also stated, that on comparing a collection of sixty-five species of ter- tiary fossils from Girgenti in Sicily, no less than forty-five are identical with those of Vienna. On this subject I will only further add, in reference to the remark of Prof. Homes respecting the former extent of the Miocene-Plio- cene ocean, that Prof. Bianconi of Bologna, in his Latin essay " De Mari olim occupante planities et colles Italise, Grsccia3, xlsise Minoris, &c., et de ^tate terreni quod geologi appellant ' Marnes bleues,' " has some interesting details on the subject ; and for this reason, although not exactly relating to the progress of geology during the past year, I venture briefly to allude to it on this occasion. After describing the extent of the marine tertiaries of Italy, and along the shores of Greece and of the Archipelago, in which he observes, that the usual characteristics of the formation are blue clays beneath, overlaid by yellow sands, the latter abundantly rich in fossils, chiefly the equivalents of those now living in the neighbouring sea, he pro- ceeds to describe the valley of the I)anube, and shows, that as Vienna is only 480 feet above the level of the sea, a very slight depression (less indeed than that required in many parts of Italy) would bring the whole valley of the Danube in connexion with the Mediterranean waters, thus forming a vast bay in the ancient Pliocenic ocean. He then shows, chiefly on the authority of A. Boue, that this vast Plio- cene sea extended over Gallicia, Podolia, Bukowina, and even over parts of Southern Russia, where it is now covered by a younger formation, through the Crimea and to the very confines of the Cas- pian Sea, referring to the works of De Verneuil on the geology of the Crimea, published in the ' Memoires de la Societe Geol. de France,' t.iii. 1 ser. 1838, p. 12. But I must not pursue this subject any further. The further ex- amination of these Miocene formations throughout the North of Germany may perhaps enable us to have a better idea of the former limits of the Miocene sea, and of the connexion between difl'erent portions of it, than was entertained by those who looked only to the Bosphorus as the means of communication between the Mediterra- nean and the Daiiubian Miocene-Pliocene deposits. Every year now adds rapidly to our knowledge, and I trust we may look forward to more complete details from the efforts and zealous cooperation of the geologists of Germany at no very distant period. Prof. Kaup of Darmstadt has taken advantage of the recent dis- coveries of photography to illustrate his last publication on the Fossil Mammalia. The organic remains thus illustrated are those of several species of Rhinoceros, a family to which Prof. Kaup has for many years devoted his attention. It is well known that the Ixxxii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Museum of Darmstadt holds high rank for its valuable collection of fossil bones, a very large proportion of which have been collected by- Prof. Kaup himself. The photographic illustrations are, I believe, the first instance of the application of this process to such a pur- pose, at least on such a scale as is here given ; the result is highly satisfactory as far as correctness of delineation and general effect are concerned, though it might be a question how far it would answer to produce the necessary number of copies required for a large sale. From Italy we have also received interesting contributions to ter- tiary geology, in a memoir describing the fossils of Monte Mario, near Rome, collected by the Count de llayneval, M. Van den Hecke, and Prof. Ponzi. The section of Monte Mario given by the authors con^ sists in descending order of ! 1. a bed of volcanic tufF, which forms the capping of the hill ; 2. sands and concretions ; 3. fossiliferous sand; 4. fine sand; 5. blue marl, probably Subapennine. The beds dip slightly to the N.W. The authors insist on the care with which they have confined their remarks exclusively to the fossils of the sandy beds, excluding altogether those of the Subapennine marls, which are the marls of the Vatican, and form the basis of the hill. The great feature of the whole deposit is the preponderance of La- mellibranchiate bivalves. The general arrangement is described as follows : ! The lowest bed contains Panopcea, Terebratula, and Cla- vagella in its natural position. Above these is a compact zone of Ostrea, Pecteriy &c. This is followed by a bed in which Pectimculus is most abundant ("en quantite prodigieuse "). Above them, in a fine sand, are Cardium, Tellina, Venus, Syndosmya, Lucina, with myriads of Venus ovata, Mactra triangula, Leda minuta, Corbula striata, with Lutraria and Area mytiloides in the upper portion. Above these is another Oyster-bank (Ostreafoliosa), with a few species of Pecten; after which all trace of organic remains disappears. The authors then proceed to point out the relations which exist between the ensemble of these fossil remains and the existing fauna of the Me- diterranean, 210 species out of 270 collected being still found in the neighbouring sea. However correct the conclusion may be to which the authors have come, that the sea in which this fauna lived must have been differently constituted from the present, some of the data on which that conclusion is founded will require modification in their future publication, inasmuch as they place Psammobia ferroensis, Venus ovata, and others, amongst the shells which are rare in the living state ; and in arguing on the absence of other forms, now abun- dant in the Mediterranean, they overlook the fact that such forms as Mitra, Columbella, Murex, Bucciniim, Purpura, &c., are generally only found on rocks and a rocky coast, and do not abound on soft and sandy bottoms. With regard to the age of this formation, the authors consider it to be intermediate between the plutonic action which caused the elevation of the Apennines, and the volcanic action which formed the chain of volcanos of Italy and Sicily parallel to the axis of the central chain. According to the section which they have published, these fossili- ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. IXXXui ferous sands overlie conformably the blue Subapennine marls, but it may still be doubted whether they belong absolutely to the same for- mation. They appear to correspond, to a remarkable degree, with a formation which I have described in an account of the geology of some parts of Tuscany *, where it forms the capping of the hill on which the town of Volterra is built, and has received from Savi the name of Panchina ; the only difference being that some of the Panchina beds have a more calcareous composition, which, however, is only local, and I have also described these calcareous beds as alternating with others of an arenaceous character. Bivalves also greatly preponderate in the Panchina, particularly Ostrea and Pecten ; I also found the upper bed of shelly limestone equally full of Cardium^ Pecten^ and Ostrea, but in a comminuted state. I think it would be desirable, that the authors, in publishing a more detailed account of the fossils which they promise for this year, should revise their list of extinct species, for I find amongst them several which are given by different authorities as still living ; amongst these I may mention Syndosmya Renieri, a living Sicilian species. Tapes vit'ginea, Ostrea edulis, Nassa musiva, N. semistriata, and Dentalium coarctatum. In the ' Giornale dell' I. R. Istituto Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' for 1854, is an interesting account of the fossil flora of Sini- gaglia, by Prof. Massalongo of Verona. The formation is described as Miocene ; the general geological features of the country are Sub- apennine. I will only observe, that the memoir is illustrated by four plates, of vegetable remains, executed in coloured lithography with a degree of perfection and effect which is beyond all praise. The same journal also contains an account of the P achy pleura Edwardsii, Cor., a new species of Acrodont Saurian from the triassic strata of Lom- bardy, by Emilio Cornalia. Parts of several individuals of this species have been found, chiefly in the schists of Besano. The work is accompanied by two illustrations, showing the broken fragments of the organic remains as found, together with a representation of the animal restored. The observations by M. de Verneuil and M. de Loriere on the geology and physical geography of Spain (Bull. Fr. p. 661) form an important contribution to our knowledge of a country of which so little on these points is known. They record above 400 barometrical and thermometrical observations, and establish generally the altitude of the extensive table-lands and mOuntain-chains which constitute so large a portion of that country. Asia. M. Pierre de Tchihatcheff has published in the 'Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France' some interesting additions to our knowledge of the geology of Asia Minor. His memoir embraces three subjects : ! 1st. The tertiary deposits of a portion of Cilicia Trachsea, Cilicia Campestris, and Cappadocia. 2nd. The tertiary deposits of the south of Caria and of a portion of the north of Pisidia. * See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 278. Ixxxiv PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 3rd. The Palaeozoic deposits of Cappadocia and of the Bosphorus. Having myself had an opportunity of exploring the geology of some parts of Asia Minor, I am the more anxious to lay before you a short notice of the results of M. de Tchihatcheff's inquiries, which may be considered as supplementary to his paper published in 1850. In the first portion of his memoir, M. de Tchihatcheff, starting from Karaman, a large town of Lycaonia, sixty miles S.E. of Iconium, describes an interesting and extensive tertiary deposit abounding in fossils, and which he attributes to the Miocene period. This formation commences within six or eight miles south of Karaman, and has been traced, more or less developed, to the coast of the Mediterranean. In fact, commencing on the northern flank of the Taurus, it is found in thin horizontal beds amongst the highest peaks of the mountain chain, capping with its perfectly level deposits the highly inclined lime- stones, marls, and schists of the cretaceous rocks, whilst on the southern flanks of the Taurus it constitutes to an enormous thickness the broken and rugged country which intervenes between it and the sea. In an easterly direction he has traced it for upwards of seventy leagues, occupying almost the whole country between the southern crest of the Taurus and the Mediterranean. In the rich diluvial plain of Tarsus and Adana it is found in river-sections under the diluvium, whilst nearer the mountains it is itself occasionally under- laid by tertiaries of an older epoch, viz. the nummulitic limestone of the Eocene period. The occurrence of this extensive Miocene deposit on the shores of the Mediterranean is a fact of considerable interest, agreeing as it does with the observations made by Prof. Forbes on the shores of Lycia, who, in the 2nd vol. of his ' Travels in Asia Minor,' describes the marine tertiaries met with at four loca- lities. The principal of these is at Saaret, near Antiphellus, where he and his companions collected thirty-four species of MoUusca in good preservation. From a careful examination of these species, tfav late President had already come to the conclusion that these Lycian tertiaries belonged to the Miocene age, and were contemporaneous with the formations of Bordeaux and of Touraine, and with the Miocene tertiaries of Italy. There is, however, one very remarkable difference between the fossils found by Prof. Forbes and those of M. de Tchihatcheff, in the different proportions of univalves and bivalves. Out of the thirty-four species of Prof. Forbes, five only are bivalves and twenty-nine univalves. M. de Tchihatcheff, on the other hand, out of forty-one species found in the valley of Kudene, gives only twelve univalves, the remainder, with the exception of one Echinoderm, being bivalves. It is well known that highly fossiliferous beds of the Pliocene age occur in the islands of the ^gean, on the shores of the Morea, and at Lixouri in the island of Cephalonia, besides other places on the shores of the Mediterranean. It is therefore to be hoped that with the assistance of these Miocene formations in the Eastern Mediterra- nean, some future geologist may be enabled to make out the exact relations between the Pliocene and Miocene and earlier tertiary deposits. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. IxXXV The second portion of M. de Tchihatcheff's memoir refers to the tertiary deposits in the south of Caria and in a portion of the north of Pisidia. In the first place he describes an interesting sec- tion from Melassa to Geramo, situated on the northern shore of the Gulf of Cos. The nucleus of the country, as in most of the other mountain-chains which I have seen in that part of Asia Minor, con- sists of clay-slates and crystalline limestone, capped on its northern flanks by tertiary lacustrine deposits resembling those formed in other parts of Asia Minor. On the southern slope, however, close to the sea-shore near Geramo, M. de Tchihatcheff describes the existence of marine tertiaries, which he refers to the same Miocene formation already mentioned as occurring in Cilicia ; they extend some way along the coast eastward from Geramo. But the most remarkable instance of their occurrence is the steep and isolated hill of Davas or Daous, situated some fifty miles inland from the Gulf of Cos, to the N.E. Here M. de Tchihatcheff found an isolated hill consisting of almost vertical beds of indurated marls and sandstones, capped by horizontal beds of tertiary formation abounding in fossils ; from the collection he made, M. de Tchihatcheff ascertained that they also belonged to the Miocene series. Thus it appears that the Miocene seas here extended considerably inland, and to the north of the present coast. From Daous eastward to the Lake of Buldur, M. de Tchihatcheff found no further trace of tertiary marine remains. The third portion of the memoir refers to the Palaeozoic rocks of Cappadocia and of the Bosphorus. M. de Tchihatcheff had already briefly alluded to his discovery of Devonian rocks in the range of the Anti-Taurus south-eastward of Csesarea in a letter addressed to Sir R. I. Murchison, and read before the Society in 1849. M. de Tchihatcheff again visited these regions in 1853, and not only ascer- tained the very extensive development of the Devonian formation, but also the existence of the carboniferous or mountain limestone, as proved by the fossils submitted to the inspection of M. de Verneuil. Ascending the banks of the rapid Sihun, after quitting the district of the mountain limestone abounding in true Carboniferous Pi'oduc- tus, the author found that it was replaced by a blue unfossiliferous limestone associated with clay-slates, mica-schist, and quartzites. The nature of the country and its excessive vegetation did not enable him to detect the exact relative position of the two beds, but at no great distance he again came upon a blue crystalline limestone abounding in Devonian fossils. This formation extends for more than ten leagues up the valley, gradually becoming less rich in fossils as the valley is ascended ; at length all organic traces disappear, and the blue limestone passes into a white marble, still preserving the fetid odour which characterizes all the fossiliferous limestones above men- tioned. This rock is frequently associated with clay-slate and mica-schist, and is penetrated occasionally by melaphyre. M. de Tchihatcheff concludes this portion of his memoir with a general sketch of the palaeozoic rocks of Asia Minor, and particularly of the Bosphorus. The localities where they have been observed are the following : ! the Bosphorus, the northern shore of the Gulf of Nico- VOL. XI. / ^ IxXXVi PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. media, the southern shore of Cilicia between Seleucia and Alaya, and the Anti-Taurus, and he refers them to the three following systems, ! Silurian, Devonian, upper and lower, and Mountain Limestone. With regard to the Silurian rocks, however, it must be observed that M. de Tchihatcheff only admits their existence on the Giant's Mountain near Constantinople, on the authority of the notice published by Mr. Strickland and myself in the Transactions of this Society. He himself considers them to be Devonian. Now on this point I have only to observe, that I am far from wishing to insist on the fact of these beds being Silurian. The fossils are, I believe, still under the consideration of M. de Verneuil ; but it must be remembered that at the time when Mr. Strickland published his paper describing the numerous fossils we had collected on the Giant's Mountain, the limits between Silurian and Devonian were not then so sharply defined as at present, and that the term Silurian was generally used to express the greater portion of the lower fossiliferous grauwacke beds below the Old Red Sandstone. The paper by Mr. W. K. Loftus, " On the Geology of the Turco- Persian Frontier, and of the district adjoining," of which an abstract has been already published in our Journal, derives additional interest from the fact of its confirming the existence of the nummulitic and other formations from the western shores of Europe through the Alps, Bulgaria, and Asia Minor, to the very heart of India and the mountains of Scinde. Mr. Loftus was attached to the joint commis- sion of the English, Russian, Turkish, and Persian Governments appointed for the purpose of fixing the boundaries of the respective territories of the Sultan and the Shah. In this capacity he had numerous opportunities of making repeated traverses across the mountain range of Zagros and through the districts which form the boundary of these two powers. Beneath the more recent deposits of sand, gravel, and fluviatile clay, partly freshwater and partly of marine character, Mr. Loftus describes the real tertiary deposits, which he subdivides into two groups, the uppermost being the gypsiferous, and below that, the nummulitic group. In both of these, characteristic fossils occur, and both series of rocks are greatly disturbed. These again are succeeded by the secondary rocks, the upper beds of which contain cretaceous fossils. Masses of highly crystalline fetid blue limestone which are found beneath the cretaceous rocks are referred by "Mr. Loftus to the Lower Secondary Series. From what I have seen of the fetid blue limestones in Asia Minor, I should have been disposed to refer them to an older period. We then have in con- tinued descending order, Palaeozoic rocks, metamorphic schists, granite, and trap rocks. Our knowledge of the geology of India has made some progress during the past season, although, I must confess, not equal to what it might have been ; I had hoped that the introduction of railways into the three Presidencies of India would long ere this have pro- duced more fruit than it has yet done. We have received no in- formation from these sources. But, on the other hand, one of our own members, who has never visited India, has greatly contributed ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. IxXXVU to our means of making ourselves acquainted with the general geology of Hindostan. The Geological Map of India by Mr. Greenough is a worthy counterpart of his Geological Map of England. We all know the careful and systematic manner in which Mr. Greenough has for a long series of years collected and arranged information respecting the geography, geology, and other kindred branches of knowledge from every portion of the globe ; and many have been the regrets which I have heard uttered, that with such a mass of syste- matically-arranged information as he possesses, greater than that of any other individual, he should not already have enabled us to benefit by its publication in some form or other. Mr. Greenough has at length come forward, and the geological map of India is a splendid proof of the value of his materials, and of his power of making use of them. In exhibiting this map before the Geological Section at Liverpool, Mr. Greenough accompanied it with remarks on the different forma- tions which have been observed in various parts of India. All the principal formations 'as known in Europe appear to have been met with in that vast country, from the tertiaries of the Punjaub and the Siwalik Hills, whose interesting fossils were described by Col. Cautley and Dr. Falconer, to the Silurian formation of the Himalaya, which affords many forms of Trilobites, Mollusca, and Zoophytes charac- teristic of the Silurian period, and very similar to those of Europe, though none are probably specifically identical. I must also mention some interesting communications received from the Rev. Messrs. Hislop and Hunter, respecting the geology of the neighbourhood of Nagpoor. Communications on this subject had already reached us, partly from Mr. Malcolmson many years ago, and lately from Lieut. Sankey, but the details now furnished are more complete and satisfactory. The basis of the country is gneiss, quartz- rock, mica-schist, and granite, on which reposes a sandstone observed over a great extent of country ; with this are associated in some districts shales and argillaceous sandstones, rich in vegetable remains, the age of which is not yet satisfactorily made out. These are over- laid by trappean rocks, separated into two divisions by an inter- mediate layer of a cherty and argillaceous character, abounding in some places with land and freshwater fossils, amongst which, how- ever, the latter greatly preponderate. This bed is chiefly seen along the escarpments of the trap hills, and has a very extensive range. It has been traced more or less uninterruptedly to a distance of 1050 miles in a direct line from Rajmahal to Bombay, and 660 miles from N. to S. to the neighbourhood of Padpangali, near the mouth of the Godavery. It is apparently a lacustrine deposit, but its age has not yet been made out with any degree of certainty, though the flora is supposed to have some resemblance to that of the London Clay. It is almost superfluous to say, how cautious we must be in attempting to assign comparative ages to such distant localities ; a caution which is all the more necessary when it refers to lacustrine deposits, which, being naturally isolated, cannot be expected to afford the same terms of comparison with similar formations at a distance, as we might /2 IxXXviii PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. naturally look for in marine, or even subaerial deposits, with respect to marine or terrestrial forms. It may, I think, also be doubted how far we should adopt the conclusion at which the authors of this memoir have arrived, that both the trap-formations, the one below as well as the one above the freshwater deposit, are of more recent date than the freshwater formation itself, and that the lower trap has been protruded from below, and forced in between the freshwater bed and the underlying sandstone. Prof. Owen has described the cra- nium of a reptile obtained from these underlying sandstones by MM. Hislop and Hunter ; of this fossil he observes that the characters of the skull, as far as he could judge from its condition, leave no rea- sonable doubt of its nature and affinities as allied to the labyrinthodont batrachians, and he has given it the name of Brachyops breviceps. A paper in the * Bulk de la Soc. Ge'ol. de France,' 1854, p. 500, on the Geology of the provinces of Oran and Algiers, is important on account of the careful comparison which has been made by M. Bayle of a large collection of the fossils brought by M. Ville from that part of Africa with their European analogues. Several Jurassic forms belonging to the middle oolitic series are identified, but a still greater number of lower cretaceous fossils have been recognized in the next overlying series. Amongst these fossils, however, are found several which have a close analogy with oolitic forms, and two oolitic Ammojiites are especially mentioned. The nummulitic series is of considerable extent, and is characterized by the Nummu- lites Icevigatus. In the tertiary beds which follow next, almost all the fossils are identified with Molasse species, and are referred there- fore to the Middle Tertiaries. These are overlaid by some upper tertiary beds, which, in the proviuce of Algiers, are very rich in organic remains. A long and important list (p. 511) of these fossils is given, most of which belong to the Sub-apennine period. The beds of the drift period are also of considerable importance, both from their extent, thickness, and the fossils they contain. The upper beds are characterized by land and freshwater shells, whilst along the sea-board the lower beds containe marine shells. All these appear identical with living species. To Dr. Foetterle of Vienna, acting under the suggestions and with the assistance of M. Haidinger, the Director of the Imperial Geolo- gical Institute of Vienna, we are indebted for the first attempt to construct a Geological Map of Central, and of by far the greater part of Southern America, extending from lat. 5< north to lat. 3b^ south. We have thus an opportunity of judging of the general ensemble of the numerous rocks of which that vast continent is composed. For the last three years the desire for such a map has been prevalent in Vienna, and its want has been long acknowledged. The first impetus to its construction was given by the Brazilian Consul, M. Sturz, who, while the subject was under deliberation, offered a prize for the best geological map of Brazil. At the same time M. von Martius was preparing a map for his ' Flora Brasiliensis.' We have therefore now two maps ready for colouring. That of Dr. Foetterle is ^jo^o proportion, and is accompanied by a slight notice of the different for- ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. Ixxxix mations found in this portion of South America. This notice is highly interesting, though in some respects the work of Dr. Foetterle must be considered as a compilation, since he has not himself visited this country. The formations which he describes are as follows : ! 1. Granite and gneiss granite, very extensively developed. 2. Gneiss with mica-slate, very abundant on the east shore of Brazil. 3. Itaco- lumite, partly clay-slate and partly sand. 4. Talc slate, remarkable for the occurrence of diamonds. It forms some of the most extensive mountains in Brazil. 5. Grauwacke formation. 6. Transition lime- stone. 7. In Bolivia D'Orbigny has found slaty sandstones, with remains of Cruciana, Orthis, Lingula, Calymene, Asaphiis, and Grap- tolites ; these belong to the Silurian system. 8. Devonian formation, consisting chiefly of quartzose sandstones, with remains of Spirifer, Orthis, and Terebratula. 9. Coal formations, with several peculiar European fossils, as Spirifer Pentlandi, Sp. Roissiji, and Productus Villiersi. 10. Trias, consisting of variegated clays and sandstones. 1 1 . Chalk, the most extensive formation in South America, extending from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego. 12. A red sandstone, the po- sition of which is uncertain, 13. Volcanic formations. 14. Tertiary formations : fossils do not appear to be abundant in this formation, and hence the difficulty of assigning it to its proper period, ib. Diluvium. General Works. Amongst the many works of a more general character bearing on the progress of geology which have appeared during the past year, I must not omit to mention the magnificent publication of Prof. Ehrenberg entitled ' Mikrogeologie.' The microscopical discoveries of infusorial remains made by the author of this work during the last fifteen or twenty years are too well known to require any special notice on this occasion. In his present work the author professes to describe the infusorial results of the microscopical examination and analysis of 836 different formations derived from every quarter of the globe, from almost every region between the poles and the equator, and comprising the rocks of every geological formation from the ear- liest periods down to the present day. The author states as one of the most important geological results of his inquiries, that the arrange- ment of these microscopic forms does not confirm the laws which have been recognized with regard to the larger fossil organisms, which regularly become more and more peculiar and divergent from existing forms in proportion as we descend lower in the series. On the con- trary, he finds the same genera and sometimes the same species ex- tending downwards to the Carboniferous period, and possibly even to the Lower Silurian and the so-called unfossiliferous sands of St. Petersburgh. Amongst the general conclusions which have resulted from this investigation, the author states that all these microscopic forms may be divided into two groups. 1. Forms of fresh water and dry land. 2. Forms of salt water and its products. Sometimes the mixture of these two groups indicates the existence of ancient sestuaries and XC PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. river mouths. Another result is that in all the formations of the world, in the air, on land, and in or under the water, only six great classes of microscopic forms are to be found. These are, 1. Siliceous, of which there are four classes, viz. Polygastrica, Polycystinise, Phytolithariee, and Geolithise, and 2. Calcareous, of which there are two classes, viz. Polythalamise and Zoolitharise. But I must refer you to the work itself for the further distribution of these classes, where each preponderates, and how certain forms serve in many cases to designate one formation or another. The work is illustrated by forty-one plates, executed with great ability. I will only mention that the separate results of the analytical examinations of the 836 substances are given in this work, and that in most cases the author appears to have made from five to ten analyses of each. These are generally arranged geographically in the first instance, and the results of the general examination of each district are separately given. I may also mention that a second edition of Bernhard Cotta's agreeable and instructive work entitled * Geologische Bilder,' Geolo- gical Pictures, has appeared during the last year. The French * Bulletin' for the last year contains several interesting papers bearing on the application of Chemistry to Geology. A paper by M. Delesse (Bull. p. 127), entitled, *'0n the action of alkalies on rocks," points to the fact that as silica in a soluble state is now found in a great number of sedimentary rocks, and as, equally, the alkalies or the alkaline salts exist in small quantities in almost all spring waters, the action of the latter on the former, " although feeble, having been continued throughout all geological time, has necessarily contributed powerfully to the formation of pseudomorphisms" (p. 141). Granite and quartzose porphyry are but slightly attacked by alkaline solu- tions. Lava, basalt, melaphyre lose under 20 per cent, by their action. Trachyte, retinite, perlite, and obsidian are the rocks which are the most readily attacked, losing sometimes to the extent of 40 per cent. Further, decomposed rocks are much more readily acted upon than the same rock when undecomposed. " Cceteris jjaribus, the action of alkalies on rocks is the greater according as the rocks are richer in silica, less crystalline in structure, or contain less hyaline quartz" (p. 140). As bearing on this sam^e subject, some observa- tions by M. Saemann (p. 143) are also interesting. M. Delanoiie (p. 562) suggests several very necessary cautions in the application of the theory of metamorphism. He is willing to admit to their full extent the important influence of heat and gaseous emanations in rocks, but not the intrusion throughout entire masses of substances entirely foreign to the composition of those rocks. He contests the possibility of dolomitization by metamorphic action, also the introduction of felspar into rock-masses by the same action, contending in either case that the chemical elements necessary for the change pre-existed in the rocks, and that they have only been modified by heat. M. Delanoiie contests (p. 569) also some expla- nations that had been brought before the Society by MM. Delesse, Deville, and Durocher, accounting for the presence of sulphur in thermal waters, and passes in review the various changes brought about by the percolation of rain-water through the earth. anniversary address of the president. xcl Conclusion. It only remains for me, in conclusion, to make one or two ob- servations on a subject which, in the present condition of our science, appears to me too important to be lost sight of, and which, if neg- lected, may lead to many useless discussions and unfortunate mis- conceptions. However paradoxical it may sound, I believe that, as our knowled^-e of geological formations advances, some of our diffi- culties increase. We have found during late years that, in proportion as we extended our knowledge of different formations, we have been compelled not only to introduce a greater number of principal forma- tions, but to subdivide these again into groups, and again to sub- divide the groups into distinct beds. This process has long con- tinued. We are no longer satisfied with primary, secondary, and tertiary epochs ; it is not enough that we have introduced the Per- mian, the Neocomian, and similar terms to designate different periods, or that we have subdivided the Secondary rocks into Triassic, Liassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous ; all these divisions are again subdivided, I might almost say, " ad infinitum.^'' As the investigation of geologists has extended itself over distant countries, and has brought fresh con- tinents under our notice, new and at first sight anomalous combina- tions have been brought to light. The limits and breaks already assigned to different formations in the countries where first observed, have not been found always to hold good. The marked unconforma- bility of stratification and the distinct differences of paleeontological evidence, on which the limits of formations were first grounded, have in other countries either disappeared altogether, or have required to be greatly modified. It has been found that between these respective limits, as at first laid down, certain fossils of the lower beds extend higher up into those above, while some of those hitherto supposed to be characteristic of the overlying formation are found extending downwards into beds of an older age. On the other hand, that unconformability of strata which was supposed to mark the limits of epochs, and to point out the breaks occasioned in the successive deposition of strata by great natural convulsions, is often found to disappear when the investigation is extended and the strata are traced into other countries. In this dilemma the first step has been to intercalate new beds as intermediate between the different formations, connecting them as it were by a certain community of animal life, marking the passage from one condition of existence to another ; as, for instance, the S. Casciano beds are now introduced between the Triassic and the Liassic, the Carboniferous shales between the Old Red Sandstone and the true Carboniferous beds, and others which will readily occur to you. But the difficulty does not cease here. As we extend our inquiries, we find that the gradual passages from one formation to another become more frequent, and that the breaks in the conformability of strata, instead of being the normal condition of the passage from one formation to another, are mere local phseno- mena, and we are thus almost forced to the conclusion that such marked separations between the different formations as we have been XCU PROCEEDINGS OE THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. fondly trusting to, do not really exist in nature. I believe the time will come, when, having brought before us a greater amount of sections all over the world (if indeed it is not possible to do so already), we shall find that there exists a gradual passage from the very oldest to the newest strata ; that from the earliest fossiliferous rocks to the most recent post-pliocene formations there has been one unbroken sequence of deposits, modified only by local disturbances, showing the gradual change of organic life according to the different conditions of existence ; that in every case a certain number of species existing in the beds below have been continued upwards, mingled with new forms specially created to suit the new state of things ; and that this progress has ever been going on in some part of the earth's surface, undisturbed by other local changes and convulsions. We know that as the conditions of life varied, new forms were called into existence, while former ones were gradually disappearing ; but Ave shall, I think, be more and more forced to give up that view which led us to subdivide the countless myriads of ages of geologic time into epochs, forma- tions, groups, and subdivisions, and to look upon the whole series as one grand group modified in time by a slow and imperceptible pro- gress, and affording breaks and interruptions of conformability of strata only as local phsenomena. This difficulty, as I said before, is gradually increasing, and to guard against it we require not only caution with regard to ourselves, but toleration towards others who are disposed to place the local limits of those formations, to the nomenclature of which we must still adhere for the sake of con- venience and description, otherwise than where we are inclined to place them ourselves. Again, although it may sound to some like a geological heresy, I would add one observation more, in the shape of a caution against our allowing ourselves to be led to trust too implicitly to mere paleeontological evidence. The errors which may proceed from this cause are twofold ; either we conclude on the contempora- neity of strata at a distance from each other on the sole ground of real or supposed identity of species, or vice versd^ we maintain that they are not contemporaneous, because they contain a certain pro- portion of different species. The conclusion may possibly be correct in both cases, but the grounds on which it rests are not necessarily sufficient. We have only to examine the existing faunas round the coasts of Europe and in the Arctic Seas to be struck with the remark- able difference in their contents. Even the shores of our own island at no great distance from each other present very great divergences of typical forms, dependent no doubt on numerous extraneous agencies, many of which we can ourselves detect, but of which many have as yet escaped our notice, and will probably continue to do so for ages to come. Why then should we not admit the same phsenomena in former ages ? why must we necessarily jump at the conclusion that, because different strata contain different species, they must belong to different periods ; or vice versa, that because they contain the same species, they belong to the same period ? Local features and local phaenomena may account for this difference or identity. Nor can we ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. XCllI depend with safety on petrographical characters alone. Identity of structure does not prove identity of age. I do not mean to say that such palaeontological or petrogra[)hical evidences are not available to the geologist. They are often all that he can find, and it is impos- sible to rate too highly the assistance which palaeontology has ren- dered to geology. But what I would venture to observe is, that without the aid of stratigraphical evidence they cannot be implicitly relied on. This, after all, will be found to be the master-key to enable us to unlock the mysteries of ages, and to explore the secret and long-hidden paths of geological progression. Gentlemen, my task is finished. I have only to entreat your in- dulgence for the many imperfections contained in this Address. I am aware that much has been omitted which might fairly have been expected in it, and probably much has been inserted which a more experienced geologist than myself would have deemed super- fluous. I trust you will receive it as an earnest of my best wishes for the prosperity of our Society, and of my interest in that science which in common with yourselves I have cultivated for so many years. If I have been in any way successful in meeting with your approbation of what I have done, and of the manner in which I have endeavoured to discharge my duties as your President, I am bound to say that that success is mainly owing to the able assistance I have received from every Member of the Council, and from your partiality in overlooking many deficiencies. VOL XI. g THE QUAETERLY JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. November 1, 1854. John William Dawson, Esq., William Cunnington, Esq., William Henry Mortimer, Esq., and John Henry Murchison, Esq., were elected Fellows. The following communications were read : ! 1. On the Occurrence o/'Gold in the Trap Dykes intersecting the DiCYNODON STRATA of SoUTH AfRICA. By R. N. RuBIDGE, Esq., M.B. [In a letter to Sir R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S.] In the early part of this year some rumours arose of the discovery of gold near Smithfield, a newly established town in the Orange River Sovereignty. It was stated, that some persons, riding over a flat, had seen some fine specimens of quartz, turned up by a jackal in scratching a hole in the earth. The quartz brought in as a curiosity was recognized by a person who had been in Australia as similar to that found in the gold regions of that country. This induced search, which was at length rewarded by the finding of gold in several spots ; and, a portion of the quartz first found being broken, a piece of gold vol. XI. ! PART I. B 2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 1, was obtained from it. A pit was sunk in the centre of a large shal- low valley, and some gold was found at a depth of 1 5 feet in the gravel. These accounts excited great interest in the colony. Mr. Bain happened to be on the frontier at the time, and a deputation waited on the Governor in Graham's Town and suggested the propriety of sending him to the spot, to report on the alleged discovery. His Excellency, however, appears to have doubted the truth of the re- port, and declined detaining Mr. Bain from his duties ; he accord- ingly returned to his post in the western districts. Gold in small quantities continued to be found; and some nuggets reaching this place, with greatly exaggerated accounts of the success of the diggers, caused great excitement, particularly among the younger and more unstable part of the community. Several clerks gave up their situations to repair to the " diggings," and many rash specula- tions were entered into. Merchants and tradesmen raised the price of their goods. An affidavit from a person in Smithfield who has some local reputation as a chemist, to the effect that he had examined some mineral containing 20 per cent, of copper and 10 per cent, of gold, occasioned still more interest, for it was stated that the mineral in question was to be obtained in waggon-loads quite near the surface. Under these circumstances the desire for more accurate informa- tion gained ground, and a subscription was set on foot, by the mer- chants and others in this place, for raising the means of sending some person or persons, possessed of some geological and mineralogical knowledge, to the spot, to report on the truth of the accounts re- ceived, and to discover, if possible, what probability there might be of gold or other metals being found in such quantities as to make mining profitable. The choice fell on myself, a medical practitioner known to have made geological collections, &c., and Mr. Paterson, the editor of one of the local papers, not a geologist, but a man of general intelligence. We left this on the 27th of March last and arrived in Smithfield eight days after. I presume that the writings and map of my friend Mr. Bain* have made you familiar with the geology of this country, more especially with that interesting formation the " Dicynodon strata," which will ever be associated in the minds of geologists with his name. This singular series of strata of enormous extent, probably exceeding three times the area of Great Britain and Ireland, and perhaps thousands of feet in depth, yet apparently presenting evidence of lacustrine origin, is penetrated everywhere by dykes of igneous rock, varying from less than a foot to some hundreds of yards in breadth ; sometimes of a com- pact basalt-like character, at other times (in the larger dykes) like coarse granite, or composed of hornblende and quartz with felspar (syenite) or zeolite. Yet, excepting near the western border of the Zeurbergen Range, the strata are rarely disturbed more than ten degrees from the horizontal plane, and even such disturbances * Forming a part of the 7th vol. of the Geological Transactions now in the press. ! Ed. 1854.] RUBIDGE ! GOLD IN SOUTH AFRICA. 3 are rare and of extremely limited extent. The only alteration I have observed in the structure and chemical composition of the strata adjacent to a dyke is a little increase of hardness, and numerous vertical fissures, giving the rock an appearance of being cut up into cubical masses. The dykes cut each other in all directions, so that we have been unable to refer them to any system or systems as to age or direction. They form the central masses of the mountain- ranges, which are crowned with precipitous escarpments of the igneous rocks ; the sloping sides of the mountains being due to the unequal wearing of the horizontal strata (see fig. 1). With the exception of Fig- 1 ? ! Diagram of the Structure of the Mountains of Stratified Rock capped with Basalt, ^c. in Southern Africa, iron, which is abundant in both the igneous and aqueous rocks, and manganese, we have not yet found in the Colony any metal in this formation. On my arrival at Smithfield, I found the formation to be the " Dicynodon strata" just spoken of, still horizontally disposed, and with no traces of metamorphic action ; fossils, both animal and vege- table, being found quite uninjured at 3 or 4 feet distance from even the larger dykes. The stratified rocks were a hard, greenish-white, com- pact sandstone (becoming brown on exposure), forming good build- ing-stone, and in layers 10 or 15 feet thick, alternating with other layers of nearly the same thickness, of a bluish-brown and much more perishable sandstone, which is common in the whole extent of the formation. Where concretions of hard blue limestone are found in this rock, it is generally fossiliferous ; these concretions or nodules seeming to be connected in some way with the fossil bones of the Dicynodon, which are often imbedded in them. I did not see any fossils in the harder sandstone on this spot, though some very like it contained vegetable impressions in other places. The plain, or rather the broad shallow valley, in which the gold was found was bounded on either side by a low range of hills ; the small brook escaping to the south by a gorge in hills of 1000 or 1200 feet in height. (See fig. 2, p. 4.) The first spot I examined was the hole where the gold was first found in the quartz turned up by a jackal, (A) in the sketch-plan. There were a number of the usual rounded masses of igneous rock lying about in apparent confusion, which, on close examination, I found to result from the disintegration of two dykes which formed a junction just at the spot selected by the jackal for his domicile, at A B 2 4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 1, in the sketch. One of these dykes (P Q) ran nearly due magnetic north and south, the other (R S) crossed it at an angle of about 50<. Fig. 2. ! Sketch-plan of the Valley in which Gold was found in Southern Africa, *''^^f^l L, S. V Dykes of ,U.J Stream. P, Q R T trap-rock. A. Place of the jackal's hole where auriferous quartz was first found. B, C. Pits sunk in one of the dykes. D. Hole sunk in the gravel of the valley. Several parties had been engaged in digging on this spot ; and, on turning up the masses of igneous rock, some fine specimens of cry- stalline quartz were found, several of which, when broken, were found to contain small nuggets of gold in their cavities. These masses of quartz were peculiar in appearance *, consisting of a plate of opake white quartz with masses of crystals growing from one side over that which lies undermost in the earth. The gold was in the cavities of the plates. It appeared to me that the plates were veinstones, which had been detached in the decomposition of the dyke with its contained vein, for, although I could not detect a regular vein, such as I shall have to describe presently, yet I believe there was one, but the partial de- composition of the surface prevented me tracing it. Just at the junction (A), a mass of blue rock was found, some of which had been * I have never seen anything like them in the Colony, though quartz abounds everywhere. 1854.] RUBIDGE ! GOLD IN SOUTH AFRICA. 5 hammered to pieces by a party from Burgher's Dorp, and a small piece of gold had been found imbedded in the mass. On examina- tion I found it to be a mass of hard calcareous sandstone imbedded in the igneous rock. The stratified rocks adjacent to the dyke were the brownish-blue perishable sandstone described above, without any lime. Was this lump a mass of the nodules altered by heat ? Small veins of calcareous spar intersected it, as usual in the nodules. I rode across the valley, about a mile and a half broad, to examine the other dyke (T U). I found its direction to be 4< west of mag- netic north. Like the former, it was cut through by a more recent E. and W. dyke, not quite so broad, the N. and S. dyke being about 12 feet broad, the other 8 feet. About 60 feet from the junction two Englishmen had sunk a pit (B) which gave one a good view of the structure of the dyke. It was composed of the usual compact blue syenite of the narrow dykes of this formation. The first 5 or 6 feet of the rock was somewhat decomposed, but lower down it was but little altered. A vein of quartz, varying from 2 inches to 2 feet, traversed the dyke longitudinally nearly in the middle. This quartz was opaque, and had numeroiis small cavities in which little masses of gold were occasionally found ; but so poor was the vein, that a large sackful, part of which was knocked out with a hammer by myself, yielded only two little bits of gold, not weighing together 10 grains. At about 300 yards to the south was another pit (C), sunk by a party from Burgher's Dorp, on the same vein. They too had found several nuggets, but the quantity gained was so small that the pit was abandoned after reaching the depth of 15 feet. The stratified rocks were the same as those at the other dyke, unaltered in position, and with little or no traces of the action of heat. They were visible only by digging away the soil, as the dyke pro- jected merely a few feet above the level of the plain, so that only a narrow ridge of igneous rock formed the margin of the valley. It appears to me quite certain that the gold must be in situ in the quartz vein ; for, beside the fact that no other than " Dicynodon rocks " are found within 200 miles, at least, of the spot, I cannot conceive that the metal could get into the vein by mechanical means, especially as the dyke is in some parts the most elevated land in the neighbourhood ; and the valley is separated from the Caledon River, the only source of convection from a distance (at present existing), by a high range of hills, at least 1500 feet high. Besides, in all the spots pointed out to me as sources of gold in situ, I found the dykes meridian-directed. The sketch shows this to be the case at Smith- field ; it was so at the Kraai river near Aliwal, and at the Kroomberg. It was only in northern-directed dykes that I found quartz in regular veins. At the Kraai river the gold was found in quartz surrounding a mass of the calcareous sandstone, like that at the junction of the two dykes at the jackal's hole (A). There was no vein. Near the centre of the valley (D), a hole had been sunk through the alluvial soil to the depth of 1 5 feet, when a layer of coarse gravel was found, resting on clay. This layer yielded several nuggets. Another hole was in progress of digging near the former, the water 6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 1, having proved troublesome, and I have heard since I left that five nuggets, weighing 96 grains, have been obtained. I cannot anticipate any great success for the diggers, as the only primary sources of gold in the valley appeared to be the two dykes above described. The result of my inquiries is the conviction that the gold may be found in small vems over a large extent of country, that no large or rich veins have yet been seen, nor do I think that such exist. I cannot agree with my friend Mr. Bain in thinking that the gold has been conveyed from a distance, for the reasons above given. I believe too that gold in masses of 50 grains' weight is never transported by water so far as 100 miles from its source. It has been mentioned, that, though the ranges of mountains in the Dicynodon-strata of the Colony take a north-easterly direction, yet no distinct lines of igneous action can be referred to diiferent dates. In the Sovereignty, on the contrary, it appeared that the meridian- dykes were decidedly the more ancient, as, wherever I had an opportunity of examining them, they were distinctly cut through by the north-easterly ones ; and, though there were some dykes which seemed to take directions which were difficult to refer to either of these systems, I thought that most of the igneous rocks in the country might be referred to two sets. 1st. A northerly or meridian- directed set, which form the centres of many ranges of hills and moun- tains extending from the Stormberg westward for some hundreds of miles, running in their northerly course to Horrismith at least, and, according to some accounts, to Megalies-Berg. The Wittebergen and Koesbergen belong to this system. 2nd. A north-easterly set, crossing the others, and in the Sove- reignty giving ranges subordinate in size to the last, but to the eastward greatly larger, so as to give their direction to the Quath- lambo or Draakenberg. I find great confusion in the diiferent maps of this region, some making the main range of the Quathlambo to take a north-easterly course, though others make it take a bend northward about the lower third of its course ; some of the names too (such as the Wittebergen) are applied to two or three ranges in different places, and taking different directions. Mr. Bain tells me that the geology of the Draakenberg is the same as that of the Sovereignty, viz. horizontal Dicynodon-strata, pierced by syenitic dykes. This I know to be the case in the Wittebergen and Stormbergen, which are in reality its southern terminus. But the Orange, Caledon, and Kraai rivers have in their beds pebbles which can belong to no such rocks as they pass in the lower part of their course. A trader told me that he had seen them in the river 200 miles above Aliwal, but had never seen the rocks they came from. They are masses of amygdaloid, with a red or brown-red coloured felspar basis, with crystals of a circular zeolite (stilbite, I presume). There are no such rocks in the Cape Colony. Whether with this change of igneous rock might exist greater metallic deposits in these regions, can, I imagine, only be determined by inspection. The Umyinvost or St. John's River would, I think, be a good point of departure for an expedition to explore the Quathlambo. I 1854.] RUBIDGE ! GOLD IN SOUTH AFRICA. 7 found the difficulties of reaching the eastern part of the range from the westward so great, owing to the uncivilized state of the country, that I was obliged to abandon all thought of the undertaking in the limited time I had at my disposal. Indeed, I fear it will be a long time before anything effectual will be done without assistance from home. South Africa is a poor country ; there are few or none who have the means of spending their time in such researches. As I could not find any other probable source of native gold than the veins of the meridian-directed dykes, in which, for reasons before given, I believe that the gold is found in situ, and as they appeared to be poor in quality and remote from each other, though extending through a wide range of country, I gave it as my opinion, that though small quantities of gold might be found occasionally in all that region, yet it seemed improbable that it could ever be a source of profit for mining operations. If I could have traced a tendency to convergence of the northerly ranges in any point, I should have thought that a more extensive igneous action there might have occasioned larger gold deposits, but all my inquiries led to the belief that the ranges continue to run parallel for several hundreds of miles. From the eastern ranges of the Stormbergen to some distance beyond Aliwal, there occurs through that country a layer of anthra- cite, which is incombustible, although it deflagrates with nitre. There are some fine vegetable impressions in the sandstone covering it. I regret to say I could not get any specimens sufficiently portable to enable me to bring them away. Where the dykes pass through this coal-like substance, it is converted into an inferior plumbago. Throughout that country also there are numbers of agates and cornelians, some of them of good quality. They do not appear to be the produce of the spot where they are found, and are generally met with in the lower grounds near the course of the large rivers, and asso- ciated with the amygdaloid pebbles above referred to. Some agates are found on the eastern coast also, near the mouth of the Sunday river. These too appear to be associated with the amygdaloid of the Zeurbergen. I thought of sending specimens of the rocks and minerals alluded to in this letter, but have deferred doing so until I hear that they will be acceptable. Mr. Bain has gone to the western copper-field, near Walvisch Bay, to examine the new metallic discoveries there. I have seen specimens from thence which appear to me to promise great benefit to the country. Port Elizabeth, South Africa, May 11, 1854. PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 1 2. On the Occurrence 0/ Copper in Tennessee, U.S. By W. Bray, Esq. [Communicated by the President.] [Abstract.] The gneiss and mica-schist of Eastern Tennessee strike south-west and north-east (ahout 47< E. of N.), and dip to the south-east (at angles of about 25<), running parallel to and forming an outer range of the Alleghany Mountains. Veins of copper and iron ores, with occasional quartz veins, lie in the schists, dipping parallel with them, and consisting of porous oxide of iron at top, with iron pyrites and carbonate and sulphuret of copper lower down. The veins are described as being sometimes 45 feet wide, and traceable for upwards of 70 miles ; but they are worked chiefly in the extreme south-east corner of Tennessee, in the township of Duckton, in the county of Polk, a district ceded by the Indians to the States about four years ago. 3. Notice of the Discovery of a Reptilian Skull in the Coal o/PiCTou. By J. W. Dawson, Esq., F.G.S. The reptilian specimen described by Prof. Owen (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. No. 38. p. 207. pi. 9) is the upper part of a head found by me in 1851, at the Albion Mines, in a heap of rubbish extracted from a band of carbonaceous clay iron-stone and coarse coal, occurring in the main coal-seam, about 5 feet below its roof, and known to the miners as the ^' holeing-stone.'* This band is marked No. 5 in the detailed section of the Albion main coal given by Mr. Poole and myself in the Geological Society's Journal, vol. x. p. 47. It varies in thickness in different parts of the mine, from 2 inches to about 1 8 inches ; and it contains much coprolitic matter, and a few scales, teeth, and spines of fishes, as well as minute Spirorbis-like shells, similar to those found in the Joggins coal-measures attached to plants * . None of these fossils, however, are by any means abundant ; and the vegetable remains contained in the " holeing-stone " have in general been reduced to the state of homogeneous coal, or of mineral charcoal. There can be little doubt that this remarkable band indicates a somewhat protracted submergence of the area of coal then accumulating under the waters of a lake or lagoon. As stated in a note which accompanied the specimen, when for- warded to the Geological Society in 1852, the matrix split in such a manner as to leave the upper part of the skull adhering to the larger portion of the block, while the palate bones and teeth came away in fragments. Believing at the time that the fossil had be- longed to a fish allied to Holoptychius, and that it was interesting chiefly as an illustration of the exceptional fact of the occurrence of * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 39. 1854.] OWEN SKULL OF THE BAPHETES PLANICEPS. 9 remains of large fishes in a coal-seam, I forwarded to the Geological Society only the upper and more entire part of the specimen, retaining the remainder in my own cabinet. Since, however, the specimen has proved to be of so much greater interest than I had anticipated, I now beg leave to present to the Society the remaining portions, in the hope that they may enable Prof. Owen more fully to make out the character and affinities of the animal to which they belonged. I shall also take the earliest opportunity to examine such portions of the " holeing-stone " as may now be exposed at the mines, in the hope that I may be rewarded by further discoveries. I may remark, however, that I have at various times examined considerable quantities of this material, without finding any fossils except the remains of small fishes already mentioned ; nor am I aware that other remains of large animals have beea discovered in it, with the exception of a smooth and nearly cylindrical hollow bone, apparently a part of a large spine*, now, I believe, in the collection of Henry Poole, Esq.f Additional Remarks on the Skull of the Baphetes planiceps, Ow. By Professor Owen, F.R.S., F.G.S. Since the communication of the notice of the portion of cranium of the Labyrinthodont Reptile above-named (Quarterly Journal of the Geol. Soc. May 1854), I have been favoured with the view of some other fragments of the same cranium, including parts of the interior or under-surface, with several teeth buried in the coal-matrix, and exposed at the fractured surfaces. In the ordinary Labyrinthodont Reptiles of the European Trias, one or two teeth at the fore-part of the jaws have the form and pro- portions of large canines, the rest are smaller and more slender pointed teeth. One of the present fragments includes the fore-part of the right maxillary and premaxillary bones, and shows a single large laniariform tooth descending from the fore-part of the maxillary into the substance of the subjacent matrix : in front of the tooth is one of the smaller, pointed, serial teeth : of which teeth other fragments show other examples, the base of the teeth being anchylosed to shallow sockets in the bone. So much, therefore, of the dental system of the Baphetes, as is here exhibited, accords in the general characters of shape and relative size, of disposition and mode of fixation to the jaw, with the dentition of the Labyrinthodonts. * This bone was exhibited at the Meeting of the British Association at Liver- pool, when it was regarded as probably belonging to a very large fish. Since the reading of this paper Mr. Dawson has sent word that on further search he has met with a fragment of a spine like that found by Mr. Poole, and numerous scales of apparentlv large ganoid fishes in the rubbish-heap of the coal-seam referred to. !Ed. Q. J.'G. S. t Late of the Albion Mines ; now of Alvaston, Derbyshire. 10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 1, A transverse section was taken from about the middle of the large tooth, and exhibited the usual labyrinthic structure : rather less complex than in the Labyrinthodon Salamandroides. The character of the exterior surface of the cranium was indicated in the specimen originally submitted to me by the impression it had left on the coal, when that substance was plastic : some of the present fragments show the surface itself, and demonstrate the pitted reticulate character which is so common in the Labyrinthodonts. All the additional evidence thus derived corroborates the inference from the first portion of the present fossil skull, that it belonged to a Labyrinthodont Reptile. A. On a Specimen o/^Nummulitic ^ocvifrom the neighbourhood 0/ Varna. By W. J. Hamilton, Esq., Pres. G.S. In offering to the Society the accompanying specimen of Nummu- litic Limestone from Buyuk Aladyn in the neighbourhood of Varna, I am desirous of making one or two observations respecting its oc- currence. The specimen was forwarded to me by my brother. Col. F. W. Hamilton, Grenadier Guards, who, in a first communication (since published in the Literary Gazette, July 29, 1854, p. 690), ex- pressed an opinion that the hollow depressions which occur abun- dantly on the surface of these limestone hills were the result of arti- ficial excavations, and that the columnar-looking rocks which remain standing in the middle, were the pillars by which the roof was originally supported. In a subsequent letter he observes that the hollow de- pressions occur in so many parts of the country on the limestone plateau, that he believes he must give up his former opinion that they are artificial, and look upon them as natural depressions. On referring to Bone's *Esquisse Geologique de la Turquie d' Europe' (Paris 1840), I find that, after mentioning the fact of the vast development of the cretaceous formations in Turkey (p. 17), he alludes to the occurrence in Bulgaria of enormous masses of Or- bit olites, constituting a portion of the nummulitic group. Further on (p. 21), he observes that the upper beds of these cretaceous rocks are full of OrbitoliteSj to which he has given the name of O. Bul- garica. He also alludes to the great prevalence of caverns and grottos in some portions of the cretaceous beds of Turkey in Europe, many of which have assumed the form and appearance of a funnel (ew^o/i- noir). He believes them to be all natural, and to be owing to the dif- ferent degrees of hardness of the different beds of rock. Some are described as occurring on the surface of the plateau, probably re- sembling, though on a smaller scale, those seen in the Carst near Trieste. I have placed on the table for the purpose of comparison, a speci- men of Nummulitic Rock from the centre of Asia Minor. I obtained N^?l. FROM ST MAURICE BY MAR TICNY TO SIrKN'.rrEoi,. Sor. roL.Ai.Pl.I. ViDfi Ss (.ovent Garden 1854. SHARPE STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 11 it from a spot near the sources of the Mseander, where that river bursts forth in the market-place or agora of Celsense, as described by Strabo, evidently after a subterranean course under the mountains, the river having previously disappeared at the foot of the hills in a more elevated plain on the N.E. side of the mountains. The two specimens show both in lithological appearances and or- ganic character a very remarkable resemblance. Even the species of Nummulite appears to be the same, thus affording another link in that vast chain of nummulitic formations which extend almost from th?. west of Europe to the northern provinces of India. In the Varna specimen Mr. T. R. Jones has made out an Orbitoides (Orbi- tolites of some authors), which is probably identical in species with the Orbitoides dispansus of Persia and Scinde. November 15, 1854. Francis Galton, Esq. was elected a Fellow. The following communications were read : ! 1. On the Structure q/*MoNT Blanc and its Environs. By Daniel Sharpe, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. [PI. I.] Mont Blanc has been represented by Professor James Forbes, in his admirable work on the Alps, as consisting of a mass of stratified granite, in which the strata are arranged in the form of a fan with one vertical axis running through the whole chain : on both sides the granite is stated to overlie a great formation of limestone, its beds dipping under the granite in perfect conformity with the strata of the granite itself, and a similar conformable superposition of gra- nite upon limestone is stated to occur in the Montague de la Saxe on the east of Mont Blanc * . The section given by Professor Studer adopts the above views with the following modifications : instead of granite, the chain is stated to consist of protogine flanked by gneiss and metamorphic slates, the beds dipping under these are described as black limestone and slate, and the Montague de la Saxe as felspar-slate f. There are two apparent anomalies in these statements which stand in contradiction to the general experience of geologists elsewhere : 1st, the alleged conformity of stratification between the crystalline and the secondary rocks ; 2nd, the superposition of the granite or protogine upon the latter. It is of such vital importance to the pro- gress of geology that we should have correct views upon these points, that no apology is needed for a re-examination of the evidence on * J. Forbes, Travels through the Alps of Savoy, chap, xi., and Topographical sketch, No. 3. t Studer, Geologic der Schweiz, vol. i. p. 168 to 176, and Section, p. 175. PiFiAiU'. .ToFHS". OEor, . Sor, VuL.Xlpi 1 I I- Talcose&utisspas^sin^inToMcnieSdust Canons ^ Slates 12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 15, which they rest ; since the higher the authority on which an error is promulgated, the more pernicious is it to the progress of science. On a recent visit to the Alps I devoted ten days to the environs of Mont Blanc, to examine the accuracy of the views above stated, and to observe the relations of the foliation of the crystalline rocks to the cleavage of the surrounding stratified slates. The time at my disposal only allowed me to take a hasty view of the principal phse- nomena ; but here, as throughout Switzerland, the higher mountains have long been especial objects of study, and require little re-exami- nation, and it is in the valleys and on the lower flanks of the hills that observations are wanted to classify and work out the position of the secondary rocks. The following pages contain the results of my observations, which, though very incomplete, will help to bring the geology of this interesting district into harmony with our general experience. The structure of the great chain of Mont Blanc is well seen from the Mer de Glace ; by ascending as far as the Jardin we obtain a section of more than three-fourths of the chain, which may be com- pleted by visiting its eastern flank in the Val Ferret ; the direction and dip of the rocks which form the intervening ridge being distinctly visible from both sides. Saussare has given minute descriptions of many parts of the chain ; Forbes, Studer, and others describe other portions, so that very little remains unknown. The mineral character of the rocks has been well described* ; they consist for the most part of a talcose gneiss, usually containing both mica and talc, which towards the centre of the chain is so slightly foliated as to resemble granite, while on its flanks the more marked foliation brings it to the condition of talc-schist or mica-schist. The less foliated portions have been called Granit veine, Alpine granite, and Protogine ; but there is no natural line to be drawn between these and the more schistose varieties, and a passage may be traced by in- sensible gradations from the schist to the more massive and granitic rock of the centre f. Instead of the simple fan-shaped arrangement of the foliation, with one vertical axis, which has previously been attributed to the gneiss of Mont Blanc, I found two nearly parallel lines of vertical foliation running through the whole chain, separated by a narrow, steep anti- clinal axis ; on the Mer de Glace these lines are about a mile and a half apart, but they diverge a little in their course both to the north and south. Ascending the Montanvert from the valley of Cha- mounix, the foliation when first seen dips E. 50<, becomes gradually steeper as we ascend till it reaches E. 80< above the little inn ; on the Mer de Glace, between the Montanvert and Trelaporte^, the direc- * Saussure, ′ 677 ; Studer, vol. i. p. 168 ; Bakewell, Tarentaise, vol. ii. p. 22. t There is an exception at the angle on the Mer de Glace, where a projecting mass of granite is distinctly separated from the surrounding gneiss. + These points will be found in Professor J. Forbes's Map of the Mer de Glace accompanying bis " Travels through the Alps of Savoy." It is necessary to warn the reader that the engraver of that map has laid the line of True North to the west instead of the east of the magnetic north. 1854.] SHARPE ! STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 13 tion of the foliation changes to N. 15< E., N. 25< E. and N. 30< E., its inclination rising from a dip of E. 25< S. 75< to the perpendicular at Trelaporte, where it strikes N. 30< E. ; to the eastward of this spot it dips W. 30< N. 85<, then 80<, again changes to E. 30< S. 80<, thus forming an anticlinal : it again reaches the perpendicular at the Couvercle, with the strike of N. 30< E. : from this point to the east- ward the dip is W. 30< N., the inclination gradually diminishing till it reaches 60< on the west side of the Val Ferret. In the intervening ridge which separates the Mer de Glace from the Val Ferret, inclu- ding the Geant, the Col de Geant, the two Jorasses and the Aiguille de Lechaud, the foliation dips between 75< and 80< (see PL I. Sections, Nos. 3 and 4) . There is therefore a narrow anticlinal axis in the centre of the chain, with half an arch on each side of it ; and the other parts of these arches must be looked for on the other sides of the Val Ferret and Allee Blanche, and of the valley of Chamounix. Let us now follow the direction of the two hues of vertical foliation just mentioned. The western line, which is seen at Trelaporte on the Mer de Glace, runs S. 30< W. through the Aiguille des Charmoz ; if continued in the same direction it would pass through the highest point of Mont Blanc ; on the side towards Chamounix the summit is entirely covered with snow, but on the eastern side the rock is less concealed, and it appears, when seen from the Val Ferret, to be composed of vertical masses : we carry the same line through the Aiguilles de Blaitiere, du Plan, and du Midi, in all of which Saussure informs us (chap, xviii.) that the foliation is vertical with a strike of S. 35< W. For a short distance further south my information fails me, but on nearly the same line we find the Jurassic rocks of the Col du Bonhomme intersected by a vertical cleavage striking S. 25< W. The same line of vertical foliation may be traced in the same manner northward from the Mer de Glace ; it runs N. 30< E. through the Aiguille du Dru, and N. 35< E. on the western side of the Aiguille du Tour ; from that point I can only carry it on conjecturally to meet a line of vertical cleavage striking N. 30< E. through the slate a little west of Sembranchier in the valley of the Drance. I have not followed the eastern line of vertical foliation to the northward, but I can point out its course for some distance south- ward ; from the Mer de Glace we can see that it runs S. 30< W. from the Aiguille du Moine to the Couvercle ; from the southern point of the Tacul it passes S. 25< W. through La Tour Rondeandthe second Flambeau to the Vierge : Saussure describes Mont Brogha behind the Glacier de Miage, as composed of vertical mica-schist, striking N.E. and N.N.E. (′ 891), and farther on I found a slaty limestone in the Allee Blanche, above the Lac de Combal, intersected bv a vertical cleavage striking S. 35< W., with plates of mica on the planes of cleavage (see PL L Sect. 7), and the Jurassic rocks of the Col de la Seigne are vertically cleaved in the same direction on the continuation of the same line. The information relating to the parallel chain of Mont Brevent and the Aiguilles Rouges is less complete ; but I have reason to be- 14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 15, lieve that, like Mont Blanc, it has a narrow anticlinal axis bounded by two lines, along which the planes of fohation and cleavage are vertical, and outside of which these planes dip towards the central axis : the chain consists of gneiss or protogine, overlaid and flanked by a metamorphic semi-crystalhne slate, so that it contains foliated and laminated rocks in contact. But the regularity of its structure has been disturbed by intrusive rocks of more modern date. The following are the details which I collected regarding it. On the west of Martigny the high ridge of mica-schist which intervenes between the Drance and the Trient has an axis of vertical foliation striking N. 30< E. ; this axis may be traced on the west side of the ravine leading from Martigny le Bourg to the Forclaz on the road to Cha- mounix, and it is seen well exposed close to the village of Trient : the river Trient here runs nearly west, and separates the mica-schist just mentioned from the slate of the Col de Balme ; on the south side of the valley we find the cleavage of these slates vertical, with a strike of N. 15< E., which changes on the Piedmontese side of the Col de Balme to N. 45< E., and continues with this latter direction till it meets the vertical foliation of the crystalline rocks of the Aiguilles Rouges. Saussure (′ 642 and 646) informs us that the foliation of Mont Brevent is vertical, with a strike to the magnetic north, or N. 19< W., and a little south-west of Chamounix vertical gneiss form- ing part of the flank of Mont Brevent is seen to strike due N. on the side of the valley ; some miles to the S.W., near Bionnay, a meta- morphic slate has a vertical cleavage striking N. 30< E., but the rocks in the interval between this point and the foot of Mont Brevent are in great confusion. M. Studer, p. 162 and 163, states that the structure of the middle of the group of the Aiguilles Rouges is anticlinal ; and Saussure, ′ 552, mentions the vertical foliation of Mont Loguia, and at ′ 598 and 689, vertical cleavage near Valorsine striking W.N.W. ; com- bining these observations, there is little doubt that the general struc- ture of the chain is that stated above, and that its foliation corre- sponds to the foliation and cleavages of the hills west of Martigny, which is shown in Section 1, PI. I. The Arve, after running S.S.W. through the valley of Chamounix, turns round the foot of Mont Brevent to the N.W., and lays open in a deep ravine a large mass of hard dark felspathic rock *, massive in the centre of the mass, but irregularly slaty towards its exterior, which has thrown the neighbouring rocks into great disorder, giving both to the beds and cleavage a strike of about N.W. The foliation of the intrusive rock itself is obscure, but appears to be in concentric curves corresponding to the external form of the mass, a common arrangement in rocks of this class : this rock is seen on both sides of the Arve, and is crossed by the road at the highest point of Les Montees, a little west of the village of Ouches. A smaller mass of a similar rock is seen a little east of Servoz, equally disturbing the * Saussure, ′ 503, describes it as consisting of pierre de come, quartz, and felspar, with very little mica. 1854.] SHARPE STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 15 regularity both of the bedding and cleavage in that neighbourhood * . These rocks, and others of similar character occurring in the same chain near Valorsine, are treated by M. Studer, p. 161 and 162, as parts of the crystalline axis of the chain ; but their disturbing the regularity of the cleavage planes proves their eruption to be after the lamination had been completed. Now the foliation of the Aiguilles Rouges corresponds so exactly to that of Mont Blanc, as to leave no doubt of these two chains having been formed contemporaneously ; and we thus learn that Mont Brevent and the Aiguilles Rouges have been subjected to disturbing influences at a later period than Mont Blanc ; an observation of which the full importance will be seen in reference to the beds in the intervening valley of Chamounix, to which we will next proceed. The section No, 3, PI. I. shows roughly the position of the beds at the head of the valley of Chamounix on the southern side of the Col de Balme : the rock which rests on the gneiss of the chain of Mont Blanc, at the foot of the Aiguille de Tour, is a metamorphic slate, con- taining nodules of quartz set in a semi-crystalline mass. These nodules appear not to be true pebbles, but to owe their form, in some degree at least, to metamorphic action ; but this is a point of great difficulty. The rock reminded me of the slaty crystalline grits of Cumberland. The bedding is distinct, dipping N.W. 40< to 50<, and the cleavage, equally distinct, dips E. 35<, S. 70< to 80<, in conformity with the foliation of the gneiss on which it rests f. Upon the metamorphic slate rests a great series of black and dark brown slates dipping 30< to the westward ; but on the east side of the Col de Balme the same slates dip 50< to the E.N.E., and on the west side of the Col they dip 30< to the W.S.W., and further on they are thrown into some confusion. The cleavage of the slates forms a regular anticlinal axis at the Col de Balme, and a synclinal axis a little east of the Col ; further east it forms another anticlinal, which must be the continuation of the anticlinal axis of the Aiguilles Rouges, mentioned above. At this line the cleavage is thrown into great confusion, which may be seen in some of the little ravines on the de- scent from the Col de Balme towards La Tour : here again we see proofs of the disturbance caused by a more recent elevation of the Aiguilles Rouges, by which the rocks on the western side of the valley are more affected than those on the eastern side. One of the beds seen near the village of La Tour deserves especial notice ; it is a purple slate slightly micaceous, brecciated, with pebbles or masses * The rocks at the Hospice of the Great St. Bernard and of the Val d'Entremont, near St. Pierre, and also the intrusive rocks in the Val d'Aosta, east and west of Livrogne, appeared to me to be of a similar character to the above : they also strike a little W. of N,, and disturb both the bedding and cleavage of their respec- tive neighbourhoods : see Studer, vol. i. p. 205. t Saussure, ′ 552, describes a rock near Valorsine as " une espece de granit veine, parseme de noeuds de quartz lenticulaires, poses de plat entre les feuillets de la pierre et parallelement a eux." This is probably similar to the metamorphic slate on the flank of the Aiguille de Tour. Similar rocks -occur in many parts of this district in contact with the gneiss, and their resemblance to gneiss has often proved a source of confusion. 16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 15, of slate of different colours and consistency, all of which are flattened between the planes of cleavage, showing the pressure to which the rock has been subjected in a direction perpendicular to the cleavage planes*. Owing to the great accumulation of fragments which have fallen from the mountains and form a steep talus on both sides of the valley, the secondary rocks of the valley of Chamounix are difficult of exa- mination ; indeed in many parts there are no secondary beds visible, the detritus of the valley extending up to the base of the crystalline rocks. I had not time to ascend the various ravines which offer a chance of detecting the secondary formations exposed ; but in the localities which I examined, I saw nothing to justify the idea that the gneiss really overlies the secondary beds ; nor do the descriptions published by preceding observers justify any such conclusion. I am persuaded that the notion has arisen from an approach to conformity in the dip of the foliation of the gneiss of Mont Blanc, along the side of the valley, with that of the beds of stratified rocks, which for the most part dip at various angles towards the chain of Mont Blanc. But this apparent conformity is accidental : the folia of the gneiss owe their position to a deep-seated agency of the nature of which we are ignorant, which produced an arrangement of wonderful symmetry, extending on a uniform plan over a vast area, before the more mo- dern of the beds at Chamounix were formed : the easterly and south- easterly dip of the beds in the valley is due to the circumstance already alluded to, that the chain of Mont Brevent and the Aiguilles Rouges has received a movement of elevation at a later period than Mont Blanc ; and in consequence the beds lying between the two chains are higher on the western side of the valley and dip towards Mont Blanc. The interest attaching to the question, whether the crystalline rocks overlie the secondary formations of Chamounix, makes it necessary to examine the statements on the subject in some detail. Saussure devotes Chap. 22 to the secondary rocks of Chamounix : he mentions beds of slate, limestone, and gypsum dipping to the S.W. at angles of 28<, 30<, and 45<, and sums up at the end that they are all more modern than the crystalline rocks, adding, " celle du Biolay, ′ 708, dont les couches sont engagees sous celles de la montagne primitive, semblerait pourtant faire une exception a celle regie." Yet the previous description of the quarry at Biolay here referred to by no means justifies this exception; it is *'les couches sont situees precisement comme celles de la montagne primitive a laquelle elles sont adossees." Mr. James Forbes calls attention to two masses of dark grey lime- * Saussure in several parts of his Travels, ′ 841, 848, 850, &c., describes with great minuteness, brecciated slates with araygdaloidal pebbles arranged with their flat sides parallel to the plans des feuillets, and in every instance concludes that thefeuillets indicate the original stratification, and that the rock has been raised from a horizontal to its present vertical position. In the bed at the Col de Balme the bedding cannot be mistaken, as this bed is interposed between others of a totally different character. 1854.] SHARPE ! STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 17 stone mentioned by Saussure, ′ 709 and 710, one of which rests on the flank of the Aiguilles Rouges below the Croix de la Flegere, dipping S.E. 70< ; the other, of similar character, is opposite to it on the east side of the valley, forming a little hillock, called the Cute du Figet, between the present and the ancient moraines of the Glacier du Bois : the beds dip S.E. 30<, from which he infers that this lime- stone dips under the gneiss of Mont Blanc (Travels, p. G3). But as the contact of the limestone and gneiss is not seen, the mass being, as stated by Saussure, *' entierement isolee dans le has de la vallee," the conclusion is evidently not drawn from observation. The assei- tion that limestone dips under the granite in the valley of Cha- mounix, is several times repeated by Professor Forbes, but the only points especially mentioned, at pp. 63 and QQ^ do not justify this con- clusion. M. Necker had previously asserted in general terms that the talc- schists cover the secondary rocks along the whole valley of Cha- mounix*, but without indicating any precise spots where such super- position was to be seen. Considerable information relative to the secondary rocks will be found in a very interesting memoir by M. Favre on the Environs of Chamounix, in the Bibliotheque Universelle de Geneve for April 1848, in which the author announced his discovery of Jurassic and Anthraxi- ferous beds resting on the summit of the Aiguilles Rouges. He states that on the west side of the valley of Chamounix a band of anthraxiferous beds rests on the base of the Aiguilles Rouges, over- laid by Jurassic beds which are seen on the other side of the valley dipping S.E. 30<, adding, "les schistes cristallins paraissent plonger sous les roches de cristaUisation et reposer sur les calcaires dont les couches presentent la meme inclinaison." He concludes with great justice, *' II me semble done que c'est la chaine des Aiguilles Rouges qui a determine le redressement des roches sedimentaires placees dans la vallee de Chamounix. Cette opinion me paraissait d'abord assez extraordinaire, car c'etait annuller jusqu'a un certain point 1' im- portance geognostique de I'enorme chaine protogineuse du Mont Blanc." It is evident from these passages that M. Favre has nowhere seen the crystalline schists of Mont Blanc lying upon the sedimentary beds in the manner represented in the section which accompanies his memoir. From seeing the Jurassic beds at the base of the hill dip towards the schists which form its side, at angles occasionally coinciding with those of the dip of the foliation of the schists, the inference has been drawn that the Jurassic beds dip under the schists. In my Section No. 4, PI. I., I have shown the position of a mass of gypsum alternating with steatitic clay, which I visited in the Ravine between the Montague de Taconnay and the Montague des Forts, near the spot mentioned by Saussure, ′ 706 : the beds dip S. 15<, and are entirely free from cleavage. Another quarry of gypsum, a little south of the foot of the Glacier de Taconnay, offered some * Etudes Geologiques dans les Alpes, vol. i. p. 138. VOL. XI. ! PART 1. C 18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 15, peculiarities of interest ; it exhibits the junction of two beds of gypsum of very different characters, separated by an irregular waving line, which is on the whole vertical, striking E. The southern portion is traversed by well-marked planes of cleavage, dipping S. 70<, along which are small folia of talc, giving the mass a grey colour. The northera bed is a pure white gypsum, quite free from cleavage ; the annexed woodcut, fig. 1, will give a rough idea of this arrangement. Fig. 1. S 1/ A / / Y / \ / -'1 / / 1 1 > I Talcose Gypsum. Pure white Gypsum. It appears from these sections that there are two deposits of gypsum of very different ages in the valley of Chamoanix ; the earlier one laminated, the later deposited after the lamination of the rocks was completed. In both these cases the detritus concealed the base of the gypsum. The lower part of the valley of Chamounix is so much filled up by detritus that I despaired of finding anywhere the central axis of the valley exposed ; but since my return I observe that Saussure mentions at ′ 656, that at Blaitiere, to the east of the village of Chamounix, the foliation of the crystalline schists is nearly hori- zontal, striking N.E., from which spot the inclination gradually in- creased as he ascended towards Mont Blanc. This observation bears out what I had inferred, that the foliation of Mont Blanc and the Aiguilles Rouges forms together a complete arch, the crown of which runs down the valley of Chamounix. In Section No. 5, PI. I., I have given a rough sketch of the posi- tion of the bedding and cleavage of the rocks seen in crossing the Col du Bonhomme from Nant Bourant to Chapieux. The Bonhomme is exactly on the southern prolongation of the western line of vertical foliation of Mont Blanc. The section is a most interesting one, and worthy of more time than I devoted to it ; but as M. Favre is engaged 1854.] SHARPE STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 19 on the examination of the wild region to the south of Mont Blanc, we may soon hope to see it properly described. The ascent from the West is principally over dark slates of the anthraxiferous series, which form a very irregular and disturbed anticlinal ; they are tra- versed by cleavage dipping usually E. 25< to 30< S., at angles in- creasing as we ascend the hill from Nant Bourant. These are sur- mounted by a great series of Jurassic beds, in which I noted the following descending series, which, however, was taken down too hastily to be given as more than a rough approximation. Hard slate, seen at Chapieux ; cleavage well-marked. Slaty limestone ; cleavage distinct. Hard quartzose grit, without cleavage. Black slate of great thickness, with quartz veins along the planes of cleavage, which are wavy, and somewhat irregular. Quartzose grit, without cleavage. Grey siliceous limestone, without cleavage. Rotten black slate, with marked cleavage ; on which the Second Cross stands. Hard grit, free from cleavage. Soft black shale. Sandstone and calcareous conglomerate alternating with beds of hard blue limestone, the whole free from cleavage. Sandstone, with distinct cleavage. Hard grit, without cleavage. Hard metamorphic grit, with marked cleavage running up to the Bonhomme. Hard siliceous limestone, without cleavage, probably the base of the Jurassic series. Indurated sandstone passing into quartz rock, with innumerable joints; cleavage obscure ; probably the commencement of the anthraxi- ferous series. Hard siliceous limestone, free from cleavage, on which stands the First Cross. Hard quartzose grit, without cleavage. Black slates. The Jurassic beds all dip either S.E. or E.S.E. from 20< to 30<; their cleavage is vertical on the top of the Pass, and dips N. 30< W. at regularly decreasing angles from the top to the Second Cross, where it forms an anticlinal. The strike of the cleavage varies fromN. 25< E. to N. 60< E. I should not have offered a section so hastily drawn up, but for the interest attaching to the arrangement of the cleavage planes. In the first place it is to be observed, that many of the hardest beds, best able to resist pressure, are quite free from cleavage ; while other beds, both above and below them, are so thoroughly cleaved as to be quite slaty. And the intercalation of the compact beds has very little altered the direction of the planes of cleavage in the other beds, which are nearly conformable ; though perhaps rather less regularly so than appears in my section. I observed a similar alternation of slaty and compact beds, in many other parts of the Alps, in the uppermost c2 20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 15, series of beds which exhibit a slaty structure ; but nowhere can it be better studied than in the Col du Bonhomme ; the force which pro- duced the cleavage acting from below has laminated all the older rocks, but towards the upper limit of its action has only affected those beds whose materials yielded most readily to its influence. The rocks of the Col du Bonhomme are coloured in M. Studer's Map of Switzerland as Jurassic deposits of unascertained age ; perhaps attention to the above-described peculiarities of cleavage may enable us to fix their age more nearly. In the passes of the Saanitsch and the Gemmi, and in the neighbourhoods of Meyringen, Grindelwald, and Lauterbrunnen, I observed that all the Lower Jurassic Rocks, and the lower portions of M. Studer's Middle Jurassic Series, were thoroughly intersected by slaty cleavage ; that in the middle portion of the Middle Jurassic Division only the softer beds were slaty, the harder beds alternating with them being free from cleavage, and that in all beds above these there was no trace of cleavage. Now it is more than probable that in each district the cleavage took place at one period, and ceased at the same time throughout the district ; and that the formation in which only certain beds are slaty is in each case the uppermost subject to the cleavage action. Therefore we may infer that the beds of the Col du Bonhomme are of the same age as those of the Saanitsch, &c., which exhibit similar phaenomena of partial cleavage, and which M. Studer has ascertained to belong to the middle part of the Jurassic series. Thus geologists will find that the study of slaty cleavage may sometimes give them new and unexpected assistance in determining the relative age of deposits ; and this assistance will be found where it is much wanted, in rocks of which the study is rendered difficult from the destruction of other evidence by metamorphic action. The next point to which I wish to call attention is the conformity between the arrangement of the cleavage planes at the Col du Bon- homme, and that of the folia of the gneiss of Mont Blanc ; the section of the cleavage planes gives the same fan-shaped figure as that of the gneiss, and this on exactly the same line of strike ; for the plane of vertical foliation which cuts the summit of Mont Blanc, produced along its strike, coincides with that of the vertical cleavage of the Bonhomme ; and in the Col de la Seigne, a little east of my section, another plane of vertical cleavage corresponds to the eastern plane of vertical foliation of the Mont Blanc chain. Or, if instead of fixing our attention on the fan-shaped structure, which has too exclusively occupied all Swiss geologists from Saussure downwards, we look to the arches or anticlinal axes, we find that the antichnal of cleavage planes of ISIant Bourant on the west of the Bonhomme cor- responds to that of the valley of Chamounix ; and the anticlinal on the east between the Bonhomme and Chapieux to the central anti- clinal axis of Mont Blanc. This not mere conformity of direction and position of the planes of cleavage and foliation, but actual con- tinuation of the same divisional planes along arches or anticlinals having the same axis, appears to me conclusive proof that the clea- vage of the slate and foliation of the gneiss and schists are portions 1854.] SHARPE ! STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 21 of one great operation, of which we must carefully study the effects, before we can hope to learn its causes or nature. Let us now turn to the line of valleys, which, under the names of the Allee Blanche and the Val Ferret, bounds the eastern side of the Mont Blanc range. The western side of the Alle'e Blanche is in a great measure masked by the enormous moraines of the great glaciers which descend from Mont Blanc, and the various interesting phseno- mena connected with these somewhat distracted my attention from the geology of the valley ; but I sketched the section shown in fig. 2, on the west or Mont Blanc side of the valley, a little above Fig. 2. Slaty limestone Slate. Calcareous conglomerate. Slate. 90" 85< 80" 70" the Lac de Combal. Slates of various characters rest conformably on a bed of calcareous conglomerate, in which the cleavage is very obscure ; this rests on a thick formation of slaty limestone, with mica lying on the planes of cleavage. The beds all dip conformably to the S.E. at about the angle of 20<, and are consequently resting upon the gneiss of Mont Blanc. The cleavage strikes N. 25< E., dipping near the mountain towards the E. 25< S. at high angles, but is vertical in the limestone at the side of the valley ; this is on the line of the western axis of vertical foliation of the gneiss of Mont Blanc, and connects that line with the vertical cleavage of the Col de la Seigne*. These beds doubtless belong to the Jurassic series of the Col du Bonhomme, and may owe their more metamorphic character to their proximity to the gneiss ; they cross the valley near the chapel ; they are probably separated from the gneiss by a metamor- phic siliceous slate, which is seen on the west side of the valley below the Glacier de 1' Allee Blanche. I examined the Piedmontese Val Ferret rather more in detail ; the position of the rocks on the north side of the Col Ferret is shown in Sect. 3, PI. I. A thick bed of quartz rock rests upon the gneiss at * Saussure, ′ 845, mentions two pyramidal hills of a similar micaceous lime- stone near the head of the Allee Blanche with highly inclined beds ; he doubtless mistook the cleavage planes for the stratification. 22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 15, an angle of 60< or 70< ; it is irregularly jointed, but neither bedding nor cleavage can be distinguished in it. On this rests a series of slightly twisted beds of dark slates, some of them calcareous, others of a more siliceous nature and with some subordinate beds of slaty sandstone, dipping E.N.E. 60< ; at the Petit Ferret the beds form a synclinal axis, up which the footpath runs. From this point to the road up the Grand Ferret, the slates dip N.W. 40<, but on the south side of that pass they dip N.E. 50<*. The anticlinal seen at the Grand Ferret is the continuation of the anticlinal axis mentioned by Professor Forbes, op. cit. p. 21 1, which runs down the whole of this valley, and is continued for a short distance in the lower part of the Allee Blanche. The cleavage planes are wavy, but on the whole vertical between the two passes ; on the western side of the Petit Ferret they dip E. 75<, meeting the folia of the gneiss of Mont Dolent in a steep anticlinal, which is the continuation of the axis of cleavage which runs down the valley, a turn of the valley having here separated the axis of cleavage from that of the strata, which coincide lower down the valley. As the arrangement of the cleavage planes is here very nearly in harmony with that of the district, we may infer that the beds have been very little disturbed since their lamination. For several miles down the valley there are no stratified rocks on the western side, which is bounded by a steep wall of gneiss, whose foliation dips towards the great chain about 60< ; the strike at the head of the valley is N. or N. 10< E. ; but lower down it follows the prevailing direction of this district, N. 30< E. On the east side of the valley the slates dip steadily about N.N.E. 50<. In the lower part of the valley a considerable mass of slate rocks lies on the west side of the valley, forming a low shoulder to the great chain ; the beds all dip towards the gneiss, forming an anticlinal axis with the slates on the opposite side of the valley. Their position is shown in Section 4. I climbed the ravine which bounds Mont Frety on the north side of the village of Entreves far enough to satisfy myself that the slates rest against a steep wall of gneiss. Saussure tells us that he spent a day in the examination of the junction of the schists with the gneiss ; he says, ′ 872, " Les couches s'appuyent contre la montagne;" ′ 874, "On voit toujours des schists appliques contre la base des montagnes primitives." I was glad to find on my return that my view of the relative posi- tions of the gneiss and slates of Val Ferret was thus confirmed by the testimony of Saussure, since it is in direct contradiction to the account given by Prof. J. Forbes, who throughout his 11th chapter repeatedly asserts that the granite overlies the limestone on the west side of the Val Ferret, especially mentioning the limestone beds of Mont Frety as exhibiting this superposition, pp. 210, 212, 222, and 246 f. I can only conclude that this dip of the beds of slate * Prof. J. Forbes, op. cit. p. 246, calls all these beds, as well as all the secondary beds of the Val Ferret, limestone. They are principally clay-slates with some subordinate calcareous beds. Saussure describes them minutely, ′ 862 and 872. t Professor A. Sismonda also asserts that the protogine covers the calcareous 1854.] SHARPE STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 23 towards the gneiss, coinciding in direction with the dip of the planes of foliation of the gneiss itself, has led our distinguished countryman to a belief in the actual superposition of the gneiss over the slates. The same Section, No. 4, PI. I., shows the position of the beds of the southern extremity of the Montague de la Saxe, as they are seen on the road from Entreves to Courmayeur. The upper beds consist of metamorphic semi-crystalline slate, dipping E.S.E. 50<, and resting conformably on a series of black slates with the same dip. The mineral waters of La Saxe rise at the junction of these two slate for- mations. Prof. J. Forbes describes these beds as granite resting upon limestone, p. 211, and his section, p. 210, shows a thick mass of granite overlying limestone at an angle of 50<. I did not observe any calcareous beds in the lower slates, nor are they mentioned by Saussure, who describes the beds in detail, ′ 881. But M. Studer has observed them to consist of black slate and limestone, vol. i. pp. 1/3 and 383, and Section, p. 175. The upper series, however, is undoubtedly a slate, with distinct bedding and cleavage, both con- formable to those of the beds below. M. Studer terms it Feldspath- Schiefer ; Saussure calls it une roche feuilletee, quartz et micaf. The last-mentioned beds abut against a mass of rock of a more crystalline character, which must, I think, be considered gneiss ; it forms a low hill, reaching from the village of La Saxe to Courmayeur. The foliation of this mass is vertical, but ill-defined ; the cleavage of the slates between La Saxe and Val Ferret dips E. 40< S., at angles diminishing from 85< to 75<, as we recede from the gneiss. Thus the planes of cleavage and the beds both form an anticlinal with a common axis on the line of the Val Ferret, but with different degrees of inclination, and the foliation of the gneiss of the eastern side of the chain of Mont Blanc forms part of the same anticlinal arrange- ment, showing us that the elevation of the beds of Val Ferret to their present position was contemporary with the elevation of Mont Blanc ; for any subsequent elevation of the beds would have disturbed the symmetry of the cleavage planes, as has been the case in the valley of Chamounix. Listead of crossing the Col Ferret and thus keeping close round the chain of Mont Blanc, I turned down the valley of Aosta and returned to Martigny by the Great St. Bernard. Sect. 4, PL L, shows the position of the rocks as far as Aosta, but being drawn from the road, the western portion was taken on the north side of the valley, the eastern end beyond the bridge of Escutira on the south side. beds at Pra Sec in the Val Ferret. Memoria sui Terreni stratificati delle Alpi, p. 12. * Saussure adds below, ′ 881, " Voila done des roches regardees comme primi- tives, qui reposent sur un genre de pierre unanimement regardee comme secon- daire. Ces denominations de primitives et de secondaires sont-elles fautives, ou bien cette superposition monstrueuse des roches primitives sur les secondaires serait-elle I'effet d'un bouleversement ? C'est, ce que je n'oserais point encore decider." We escape from the horns of this dilemma by answering that the upper rock is not primitive but secondary. 24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 15, The cleavage planes form a succession of arches or anticlinals, one of which is disturbed by eruptive felspathic rocks near Livrogne *, which also distort the slates and alter their mineral character in the neighbour- hood. For almost twelve miles from Val Ferret, nearly to Livrogne, the beds all dip eastward, presenting an enormous succession of slates, which probably include the Anthraxiferous series, the Lias, and the lowest portion of the Jurassic beds. From the general resemblance of these slates, the rarity of organic remains in them, and their deceptive mineral characters, dependent on their degree of metamorphism, I fear that it will be long before our Swiss colleagues succeed in reduchig them to intelligible arrangement. Section 1, from St. Maurice to Sembranchier, following first the valley of the Rhone, then that of the Drance, in both of which the rocks are for the most part well exposed, shows us their relations a little north of the chain of Mont Blanc, and is most instructive vrith reference to the connexion between the cleavage of the slates and the foliation of the crystalline rocks. Commencing on the north-west, there is an anticlinal axis between St. Maurice and Miville, formed partly of the cleavage of the lower Jurassic slates, partly of the folia of the mica-schist, bounded eastward by a line of vertical foliation near Miville, which is probably a continuation of the line of vertical cleavage of Mont Baat. A second anticlinal axis, very narrow and steep, occurs at the Pissevache, and a third at the valley of the Trient, both of which combine the planes of cleavage and foliation. A fourth anticlinal is seen in the foliation of the mica-schist at Martigny, which is the continuation of that of the valley of Chamounix. A fifth anticlinal occurs between Bovernier and Sembranchier, com- bining the foliation of the mica-schist with the cleavages of the slates ; this is the continuation of the central anticlinal axis of Mont Blanc. This section ends here, but the Val d'Aosta section, No. 4, PI. I., shows a continuation to the eastward of the same arrangement of the cleavage-planes in anticlinals or arches. The various sections referred to as Nos. 1-5, PL I., are drawn on parallel lines across the chain of Mont Blanc, with the view to show the connexion between them ; each anticlinal has the same number in every section ; and each line of vertical cleavage, or, in the language of the Swiss geologists, each fan-shaped arrangement of the planes is marked by the same letter, commencing in each case on the western side. In chapter 48, devoted to the valley of the Rhone from St. Mau- rice to Martigny, Saussure describes all the slate-rocks as vertical, or inclined only a few degrees from the perpendicular f ; ha\ing taken the planes of cleavage for those of bedding, and regarded the bedding as a series of parallel joints ; and this not from inadvertence, for after a careful description and comparison of the two sets of divisional planes, he decides that the more vertical ones, are the couches or planes of bedding, the more horizontal ones fentes or joints ; and that the whole mountains have been raised from a horizontal to their * See Studer, vol. i. p. 205, and note, p. 15, ante. t These slates are shown in my Section, No. 1, PI. I. 1854.] SHARPE STRUCTURE OF MONT BLANC. 25 present vertical position, ′ 1049, 1050, 1065. The same systematic error runs throughout the whole of Saussure's volumes ; wherever slates occur, their cleavage is almost invariably represented as strati- fication. Had this error died with its author, it would not now be necessary to expose it, but unfortunately it has taken deep root in Switzerland, and is to be found in the most modern geological works, leading to accounts of perpendicular beds in many slightly-disturbed districts. Saussure arrived at his conclusion by the following process, which shows the accuracy of his observations, which, even when his con- clusions are erroneous, are always trustworthy and instructive. He starts with this axiom, frequently stated in different terms : " Les pierres feuilletees, de quelque nature qu'elles soient, ont constamment leurs couches paralleles a leurs feuillets." ′ 1287, also 2326. This, when applied to crystalline rocks, such as gneiss, mica-schist, &c., is perfectly true ; their principal di^dsional planes are invariably parallel to the plates ox feuillets of mica or talc ; so that the direction of the foliation may be seen either in the arrangement of the mica in a hand specimen, or in the apparently parallel divisional planes which intersect whole ranges of mountains. But by the term couches, Saussure implies, as he expressly tells us, stratified beds formed of materials successively deposited from a fluid, ′ 1882, 2314, including in stra- tified rocks Granits veines, gneiss, and schists primitive and secondary, and therein he confounded the stratification of sedimentary deposits with the foliation produced by crystalline agency. The next step follows necessarily from these premises : finding in many slates that the cleavage-planes are lined with plates of mica or talc, Saussure concludes that these planes represent the true bedding of the rock ; and thus he is led, by a remorseless adherence to his principles, to represent most of the slate-rocks visited as standing perpendicularly on end, until, as he himself tells us in ′ 1050, he was accused of seeing vertical beds in every mountain. It is remarkable that Saussure was led into this error from observing the analogy between the foliation of the schists and the cleavage of the slates ; this analogy was afterwards forgotten until Darwin convinced himself that gneiss and mica-schists were not stratified, by a process of reasoning similar to that of Saussure, but built on a correct foundation. Coupling the now well-ascertained fact that the planes of cleavage of slate are not due to stratification with his observation that those planes are analogous to the planes of foliation of gneiss and mica-schist, he drew the true conclusion that the foliation has no reference to stratification* . Saussure was at least consistent in his error, which he arrived at from building correct reasoning upon an unsound basis : but no such compliment can be paid to the English geologists, who, after correctly distinguish- ing cleavage planes from stratification, still continued to class the foliation of crystalline rocks with the latter instead of the former ; thus proposing to unite two phsenomena of totally different origin, * Darwin, Geological Observations on South America, chap. vi. 26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 15, while they separated those which are really analogous, and probably due to one and the same cause. I have already alluded, p. 12, to one most remarkable feature in the structure of this district, that the crystalline rocks are most massive where their foliation is vertical, and become more and more schistose as its dip recedes from the perpendicular. This was well described by Saussure, ′ ^11 ^ &c., and has struck every observer who has followed him. This structure is the reverse of what occurs in the Highlands of Scotland, where I pointed out that the foliation is usually least marked where the angles of inclination are slight, and most complete where the gneiss is perpendicular or hi2;hly inclined*. Nor is this structure universal in Switzerland : it holds good in the chains of the Aiguilles Rouges, Mont Blanc, the Finsteraarhorn, the St. Gothard, Mont Combin, and the Dent Blanche ; in which there is also a strong mineral resemblance, all partially consisting of proto- gine. But the contrary structure is found in the great range of crystalline rocks which extend from Monte Rosa through the canton of Ticino : there, as in Scotland, the centres of the arches of foliation consist of rock as compact as, and frequently more so than their flanks. This difference of structure produces a corresponding difference in the physical features of the two great chains of the Alps : around Mont Blanc and the Bernese Alps the axes of foliation and cleavage run along deep and narrow valleys, and the harder rock, having its divisional planes vertical, or nearly so, stands out in sharp peaks or Aiguilles, often bounded by mural precipices ; in the southern range from Monte Rosa to the Lago Maggiore, the central arches of folia- tion are broad and elevated, constituting a large part of the chain, which has no longitudinal valleys of importance on the line of the strike of the foliation, and the mountains are usually more striking from their massive grandeur than from the elegance of their outline. But I will not now pursue this subject further, as I hope to have opportunities of following it more effectually in future. Should any geologists be disposed to test in the country here described the accuracy of the observations relating to cleavage and foliation contained in this memoir, or to follow out the same subject in other districts, let them recollect that there are everywhere minor local irregularities arising from various disturbing agencies, which must be overlooked, lest in overwhelming themselves with details, they lose the power of obtaining general views of phaenomena which extend over many hundred miles : Saussure, who was a minute observer where minuteness was required, but who knew when to dispense with it, has left us the following warning, " ce n'est pas avec des microscopes qu'il faut observer les montagnes," ′ 1882. * Philosophical Transactions, 1852, p. 447. 1854.J BRICKENDEN GLACIAL TRACES, DUMBARTON. 27 , EXPLANATION OF PLATE L Map and Sections to illustrate Mr. D. Sharpe's Paper on the neighbourhood of Mont Blanc. The object of the Map and Sections being to show the direction of the planes of foUation and cleavage, only the principal geological features are represented, and four colours employed. The Yellow represents all the unstratified foliated rocks ; including Gneiss, Protogine, Mica Schist, and Talc Schist. The Purple represents the stratified Slates ; including all the stra- tified deposits intersected by slaty cleavage. The Blue represents the beds of Jurassic Limestone, which are free from cleavage. The Crimson shows the intrusive igneous rocks of more modern date than the cleavage. The Black lines on the Map indicate the strike or direction of the planes of foliation and cleavage ; where they cross the rocks coloured yellow, they represent the foliation ; where they cross the purple colour, they show the cleavage. These lines are double where the foliation or cleavage is vertical, single along the central axis of an arch or anticlinal of foliation or cleavage. The angles of inclination of the planes along the axes and between the axes and the vertical planes can be learned from the sections, as the scale of the Map is too small to admit of the intervening planes being laid down. The lines are dotted where they have not been actually observed, but their direction has been inferred either by continuing them from the localities observed, or by drawing them parallel to the strike of the intervening variously inclined planes which have been observed, but which have not been laid down on the Map from want of space. The ground-plan of the Map is copied from the one-sheet map of the kingdom of Sardinia, reduced by Andriveau-Goujon of Paris from the larger official map. The Sections Nos. 1 to 5 are drawn on parallel lines across the chain of Mont Blanc, No. 1 lying most to the North, No. 5 most to the South, and their directions are indicated by lines on the Map, marked ′ 1 to ′ 5, They are all nearly on the same scale, with the height somewhat exaggerated : the dotted lines represent the planes of foliation and cleavage. Each line of vertical planes of foliation and cleavage is marked by the same letter, and each anticlinal of those planes by the same number; thus all the points marked alike are on the same line of strike, and the lines on the Map are similarly marked. 2. On the Occurrence of Glacial Traces on the Rock of Dum- barton. By Capt. L. Brickenden, F.G.S., of Dumbarton Castle. As the very peculiar and remarkable positions in which glacial striae and abrasions are sometimes observed on the surface of rocks in 28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 15, Scotland may tend, if carefully examined, to explain the particular mode in which such phsenomena have been produced, it is probable Figs. 1, 2, & 3. ! Sections and Plan of Dumbarton Rock, showing the position and direction of the Glacial Strice. Fig. 1. ! Transverse Section of the Rock of Dumbarton, made in the direction of the Fissure which runs through its centre from North to South. a. Western side of fissure on which the Striae are chiefly seen. b. Line supposed to indicate the former depth of the fissure, now filled up to form the base of the buildings and barrack-yard. Fig. 2. ! Longitudinal Section of the Rock, showing the inclination of the lines of fracture, and the corresponding inclination of the sides of the Fissure. a. Western or overhanging side, on the surface of which very distinct glacial traces are seen. b. Eastern side, on the upper part of which Striae are seen. c. Lower part supposed to have been artificially removed. d. Steps. 1854.] BRICKENDEN ! GLACIAL TRACES, DUMBARTON, 29 that the occurrence of glacial traces beneath an overhanging rock bordering a fissure at Dumbarton Castle is, amongst others, worthy of being recorded. The hard whinstone, which here rises up abruptly from the allu- vial shores of the River Clyde, exhibits in a very interesting and beautiful manner the crystalline and prismatic structure peculiar to such trappean effusions, but the lines of fracture or divisional planes of the Rock of Dumbarton are observed to inclhie generally at an angle of about 70<, giving to the Rock on one of its sides a rather precipitous and overhanging appearance. The effect of denudation or abrasion has therefore been to wear or score it in certain parts into fissures, the sides of which have a parallel inclination ; and across Fig. 3. ! Plan of the Rock of Dumbarton Castle. a. Fissure. the centre of the Dumbarton Rock there is one of considerable depth, di\'iding the hill into two parts or summits, as shown in fig. 2. It is on the sides of this fissure, which now forms a passage, and the only mode of approach to the buildings on the Rock, that striae and abrasions are observed, which constitute the subject of this notice. The fissure intersects the Rock from south to north, pointing directly up the valley of the Leven, through which in the distance appears the lofty summit of Ben Lomond. The wall of rock on the left hand or western side of the fissure about midway up the ascent. 30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 15, inclines over the passage at an angle of about 70<, which is the pre- vailing inclination of the columnar divisions of the whinstone, aijd chiefly here on its very hard and durable surface are seen engraved, very distinctly, furrows and striae ; indicating the full force of the pro- pelling agent and its instrumentality, whatever that may have been, in the most contracted and cavernous part of the fissure. On the opposite or eastern side it appears that the rock has been artificially removed at some time for the purpose of widening the passage, which even now does not exceed 1 feet in width ; but on the upper part very well-defined scratches are seen to maintain a direction corre- sponding to those on the western side. The striae are not horizontal, but run in lines nearly conformable to the declivity of the passage. As, however, these striae are seen on an impending surface of rock, nothing can be learnt from them as to the precise point by compass, from which the abrading agent may have proceeded ; and all that we can now perceive of its action is that which was confined within the narrow fissure, into the northern entrance of which it had intruded itself. That part of the Rock on which these abrasions are seen stands above the Clyde at an elevation of about 150 feet, and above this the Rock rises precipitously about an equal number of feet to its highest point. In the accompanying sketches (figs. 1, 2, 3) are shown, by transverse and longitudinal sections, the form and dimensions of the fissure, both as it now is, and as it probably appeared previous to the period of human history. The Rock of Dumbarton rears its bold front immediately in the central line of the valley of the Leven, through which the small river of the same name flows in its meandering and alluvial channel from Loch Lomond to the Clyde ; and it must at all times have pre- sented a direct barrier or obstruction to whatever has descended in that channel from its highland source. At the foot of the Rock on its northern side a strong tenacious clay, evidently belonging to the boulder-formation, descends beneath the level of the tide ; this is in a great measure obscured by a talus ; and at a short distance from the Rock it is covered by the alluvial deposits of subsequent periods. But in this boulder clay we recog- nize the remains of that extensive glacial detritus which at the con- clusion of the epoch of its accumulation very probably existed to a great depth in this part of the Leven Valley, and more particularly where its transport would be arrested by the abrupt escarpment of the Rock. 1854.] heaphy gold in new zealand. 31 November 29, 1854. The following communications were read : ! I. On a PTERiCHTHYs/rom the Old Red Sandstone q/" Moray. By Captain L. Brickenden, F.G.S. (Abstract.) This communication had reference to a species of Pterichthys, re- markable for its great size (estimated by the author at 25 inches [ave- rage] in length, and 6 inches in breadth), and its peculiarly orna- mented and wrinkled surface. The paper was illustrated by drawings, in which the author had made a conjectural restoration of the external bony armour and the lateral appendages of the fish, from the nu- merous characteristic fragments that he had obtained in the upper division of the Devonian strata, chiefly from the Vale of Rothes. The central dorsal plate of this species has some resemblance to, but is much larger than Agassiz's figure (Poiss. V. G. R. pi. 30*. figs. 17, 18) of the specimen referred by him to Coccosteus, but more lately by Sir P. Egerton and Hugh Miller to Pterichthys (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 310, 31 1) ; and the jointed side-spines or " cephalic oars" resemble those referred by Agassiz to the P. major, but belong to a very much larger fish. 2. On the Gold-bearing District of Coromandel Harbour, New Zealand. By Charles Heaphy, Esq., Commissioner of Gold Fields*. [Forwarded by His Excellency Sir George Grey, and communicated by the Presidentf.] Physical Geography of the District . ! The Peninsula of Coromandel stretches for about fifty miles in a general direction of N. 30< W. and S. 30< E., and is the northern extremity of a high range which extends from a mountainous centre near the Taupe Lake and Boiling Springs in the interior of the Northern Island of New Zealand. The peninsula forms the eastern shore of the Frith of the Thames, on the western coast of which, about forty miles distant, the Settlement of Auckland is situated. The peninsula varies in breadth from four to twenty-two miles, and is mountainous in its whole extent ; a main range, but very little deflected from a northerly and southerly direction, and of an average height of 1500 feet (the highest summits being about 3000 feet above the sea), runs along its centre, throwing oif spurs of inferior heights * See also a short notice of the gold diggings in this locality, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. No. 39, p. 322. t This communication was accompanied by a large map and landscape sketches of the district; the former with frequent geological indications. A box of speci- mens was also sent, which are referred to in the memoir. 32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 29, to the eastward and westward. Detached hills occasionally take the place of the spurs, and the direction of these is in one instance pro- longed by a chain of islands extending in a line parallel with the main range. In several places the continuity of the main range ceases, and detached hills of an equal height flank the gap. A second range, however, rises after the interval of a mile or more, and is prolonged in the general direction of the first. On the western side of the peninsula the Harbours of Mauaia, Tekouma, and Coromandel are formed by the jutting out of spurs from the central range. Geology of the District. ! In a country covered with so dense a forest as that of the wooded districts of New Zealand, and where there are no artificial cuttings, sections showing the geological struc- ture are but few ; and anything farther than a slight sketch of the geology must be the result of more extensive observation than time and circumstances have yet enabled the writer to give to the subject. Judging from what has actually been observed, and without assuming the existence of any rock in a place in which it has not been seen, the following may be stated. The predominating rock in the whole of the principal range and most of the subordinate hills appears to be a decomposing breccia (Specimens marked A.) *. This breccia, of which variously-coloured granites and red porphyry (Specimens A. *) are the chief components, mainly forms the sides of the range of the spurs, together with the detached hills and outlying islands. The highest points of the main range, generally precipitous crags, are of granite (Specimens B,). Where the water-courses have cut deep into the sides of the ridge, slate (Specimens C.) is exposed, of a blue or dark grey colour, and with a varying dip and strike. Trap and quartzose veins are very prevalent ; and indications of copper (Specimens D.), iron (Speci- mens E.), and silver are common. Quartz veins, of a breadth from half an inch (Specimens J.) to that of 15 feet, traverse the slate and breccia, and generally run in a direction similar to the trend of the main range, of which in some cases they form the crest. "Where the spurs from the range follow an easterly or westerly direction, the quartz veins intersect them, still in parallelism with the range. On the western coast, at distances of 4 and 6 miles from the main range, a granite appears, of a character somewhat approaching to that of gneiss, together with clay-slate. The relation of these formations with the main ridge has not yet been traced. On the eastern side of the peninsula is an extensive district com- posed of indurated pumice-sand, which from the rounded form of its grains, and the horizontal position of its layers, appears to have been deposited below the sea, and to have been subsequently elevated. The indentation of Mercury Bay, with its rivers, is the division be- tween this formation and the crystalline rocks of the main range. To the westward, at a distance of about 30 miles (across the Thames Frith), is the volcanic formation of Auckland ; the clay-slates of * The specimens referred to in the paper are in the Society's Collection. 1854.] HEAPHY ! GOLD IN NEW ZEALAND. 33 the Islands of Waiheke and Ponui, however, intervening. In the Auckland district, in a space of about 20 miles square, may be counted thirty or more extinct or quiescent craters, the fires of which appear to have burst up through horizontal clays and sands, in which a scoriaceous ash, in thick beds, was already a component part. The localities in which gold has been found. ! Gold, either in con- siderable quantities, or in specks, only discernible on carefully wash- ing the sand, exists in the beds of many of the streams of the penin- sula. Rich deposits are also found in the clay on the slopes and spurs of the chief mountain range. The Valley of the Kapanga, and the mode of working. ! The gold was first found at the Kapanga stream, which, following a southerly course for about 4 miles, at the foot of the main range, flows into Coromandel Harbour on the western side of the peninsula. The bed of the Kapanga is rocky ; large boulders of quartz and fragments of trap occasionally forming "bars," and causing falls in the stream of 2 or more feet in height. Immediately below these *'bars," and on the side where during freshets there is an eddy, is the spot where the deposit of gold is the richest. The diggers, in parties of four or six, with the aid of tackles and levers, haul out the larger fragments, and carefully sift and wash the gravel which lies below them. At a depth of from 5 to 7 feet from the surface the *' bed-rock" is generally laid bare, and immediately on this the largest specimens of gold are found. The party excavate, in the manner de- scribed, for about twenty yards up the course of the stream, to the fall ; then, having turned the water into the hollow so dug, they con- tinue their work on the opposite side of the stream-bed. In this unscientific manner a party working steadily may obtain about a quarter of an ounce per day per man. The banks of the stream are steep, and covered, as in the whole mountain range, with a thick growth of timber. When wooden troughs are made to conduct the water along at a higher level, and the stream-bed be so left dry, it is very probable that the yield of gold will be much increased. The gold, however, is not confined to the bed of the stream ; the soil on all the flats and banks of the stream, where the ravine is nar- row, yields grains of gold on careful washing. In one place, on a slope of the hill about 150 yards from the stream, a deposit was found of such richness as to yield 400^. worth of auriferous quartz from the space of eighty square yards. There the gold was disco- vered in a small runnel of water, amongst the roots of the trees on the surface. Immediately below was a layer, about 10 inches deep, of quartz-grit (Specimens F.), lying on a mass of yellow and blue clay, which in its turn rested on porphyritic breccia (Specimens A.) at a depth of about 30 feet. Upon washing the quartz-grit (Speci- mens F.), it was found to contain much gold, although the clay around and below yielded scarcely any trace of the metal. The quartz layer dipped at a slight inclination in the direction of the stream below, and pursued its course for about thirty yards on a wavy plane, at a mean depth of 4 feet below the surface. VOL. XI. ! PART I. D 34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 29, From the admixture of the quartz-grit (Specimens F.) with partly decayed vegetation, which did not extend into the adjacent clay, it might be inferred that the layer had been the detritus of the bed of a a small rill, the hollow of which had been filled by a subsequent slip of clay from the hill above. Although the fragments of auriferous quartz (Specimens G.) in the layer were perfectly sharp in their angles and presented no appearance of having been rolled, yet, on examining the rock above, scarcely a trace of gold was found. Eighty feet lower down on the hill-side traces of gold had also disappeared. The deposit was entirely local. Around the spot where the gold lay, and imbedded in the clay, are large boulders of quartz (Specimens H.), the rounded shapes of which bear evidence to their having been much rolled. Specks only of gold are found about them. The crystallization of the quartz (Spe- cimens H.) in these boulders is more perfect than in that containing gold. In the latter (Specimens G.) the quartz has a crumbling ap- pearance, as if decomposing. It is possible that one of these boulders was originally a fragment from an auriferous quartz-vein on the moun- tain above. Its breaking up might have resulted from frosts, and from the action of the water of the hollow into which it had rolled on a stone rendered less adhesive by the crossing and recrossing of scales of gold through its substance. The gold is most abundant in the upper part of the valley of the Kapanga, where the stream-bed is narrowed in to a breadth of about 25 feet by the steep sides of the ravine. Lower down, where the valley expands, the gold is so diffused over the soil of the flats as not to pay for working. In the mud-flat where the Kapanga flows into the harbour, specks, or what is termed the " colour," may be ob- tained by careful washing. The Mataawai Stream. ! The Waiau stream flows from immediately under the main range in a north-westerly direction to Coromandel Harbour. One of its tributaries, the Mataawai, intersects the range in its course at a low level, and reveals a dark grey slate-rock. Gold, ramified through rounded pebbles of quartz (Specimens I.), was found in considerable quantities during the last summer, in the cre- vices of the slate-rock, below the gravel of the stream-bed. Several specimens weighing about 4 oz. and b\ oz. were washed, and one was obtained of the weight of 7f oz. All the gold and auriferous quartz (Specimens I.) in this stream present a rounded surface, such as would be caused by long-continued attrition. The Karaka. ! The Karaka stream, midway between the Kapanga and the Mataawai, also partly intersects the main range, and, like the last-named stream, exposes the grey slate. In this stream only grains of gold have yet been found. Other localities. ! The places already mentioned, together with the granite coast at Otaki and the Manai Creek, where gold has also been " prospected," are on the western side of the main range. On the eastern it exists in the Arataonga and Makirau valleys, and at Kuatunu, under Mount Kenny, 20 miles from the central range. " Prospects" of gold have also been washed on the mountains of the 1854.] CHARTERS ! GEOLOGY OF NICE. 35 Thames, a continuation of the same range, at a distance of 45 miles from Coromandel. Relations of the gold to its matrix, and to the deposits in which it is found. ! Where large quartz boulders appear denuded on the surface, gold is generally found in the black sand (Specimen K.) of the ad- jacent stream. When the gold is found in clay, it is generally in con- tact with a fragment of the matrix ! a brittle quartz, of a grey or amethystine colour. When found in the stream, it is either in pure scales (Specimens O.), or associated with a quartz (Specimens I.) coloured red, apparently by the oxide of iron. It is probable that this combination imparts to it that degree of hardness which causes the stone to withstand the crushing action of the rolling stones of the stream-bed. The purer gold found may have been freed from its more brittle matrix by the attrition. The gold is but rarely found in contact with the prismatic crystals of the quartz. It is generally ramified with but little regularity through the mass. In some cases where it lay between lamellar plates of quartz it was the richest. In larger fragments (Specimens L.) of the stone the gold existed only in spangles at a distance of an inch or more apart. From this and from other indications presented by the matrix, I infer that the gold in a quartz-vein is diffused where the vein is broad, and concentrated where it is narrow ; the quantity of the metal existing in a similar length of the vein under either circum- stance being perhaps the same. The extent of the surface of ground that has been dug over is about 1500 square yards. The depth from which the gold has gene- rally been taken is from 4 to 6 feet. The total quantity of gold which has been obtained may be esti- mated at 340 ounces, the chief part of which has been extracted from an auriferous quartz yielding a mean of one-third of its weight of metal. From the very general diffusion of small particles of gold over the surface of the district, experienced *' Prospectors" are of opinion that a large quantity of matrix-gold exists in the mountains adjacent to the diggings. The dense forest and its tangled undergrowth are great hindrances, however, to the exploration of the country ; and the large amount of water which, from the moist climate of New Zealand, is everywhere present, together with the looseness of the rock where the gold is found, have prevented the examination being carried to those depths where in the Australian and Californian Gold Fields the gold most abundantly exists. 3. On the Geology of the Vicinity ?/"Nice. By Major Charters, F.G.S. ' [This Paper was withdrawn by permission of the Council.] (Abstract.) The author, having first alluded to the geological researches of Sir H. De la Beche * in this district, noticed the more recent additions * Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd ser. vol. iii. p. 171 et seg. D 2 36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 29. to our knowledge of the geology of Nice accruing from the observa- tions of the Marquis L. Pareto, Prof. A. Sismonda, and Prof. A. Perez. The views of the last-named gentleman especially, by whom the proofs of the identity of the divisions of the cretaceous series in that region with those of England have principally been obtained, were brought forward by the author in this communication. Prof, Perez has studied the structure and succession of the rocks of this district in great detail, and accumulated a large series of fossils ; but his only publication on the subject hitherto has been a summary of his observations, read before the Italian Association at Genoa in 1846. Major Charters, having seen many of the principal sites along with Prof. Perez, and conversed much with him, concurs fully in his views. Major Charters described the topography of the district, with its three river-basins and its numerous mountains, and then noticed the geological formations in the following order : ! 1 . Postpliocene (quaternaria of the Italians) ; 2. Pliocene; 3. Eocene; 4. Creta- ceous ; 5. Jurassic, including the Dolomite. This memoir had special reference to the following points of in- terest : ! The separation and definition of the nummulitic and the cretaceous rocks ; the subdivision of the latter ; the association of the gypsum of the Hill of Cimies with the cretaceous series ; and the intimate relation of the dolomite with the Jurassic series. Major Charters also mentioned his visit to a volcanic district about ten miles west of Nice. Quart. Jo-um. Geo! Soc.YoIXL PI. 11 BRACHTOPS LATICEPS (Owenj-froin Manual,, Cen-trcLl .India. .Jos..I.)Jcikel.r,ftJi 37 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. POSTPONED PAPERS. Description of the Cranium of a Labyrinthodont Reptile, Brachyops LATiCEPS,/rowz Mangali, Central India. By Professor Owen, F.R.S., F.G.S. [Plate IL] [This Paper was read June 21, 1854*.] The fossil obtained by tbe Rev. Messrs. Hislop and Hunterf from the sandstone series of Mangali, about sixty miles to the south of Nagpur, and transmitted for my examination, is a considerable por- tion of a skull, wanting chiefly the tympanic pedicles and the lower jaw ; it is imbedded in a block of bright brick-red compact stone, with its upper surface exposed. The skull (PL II.) is broad, depressed, of an almost equilateral triangular form ; the occipital border or plane rather exceeding in extent each lateral border, which borders con- verge with a slight convex curve to the rounded obtuse muzzle. The breadth of the occiput is 4 inches 9 lines, and the extent of each lateral border of the skull in a right line is 4 inches 6 lines. Most of the cranial bones are impressed by rather coarse grooA^es, radiating in each from a prominence which indicates the primitive centre of ossification ; the intervening ridges being in some parts broken up by communicating grooves into tubercles. The orbits (o, o) are entire, of a moderate size, of a full oval form, and situated in the anterior half of the skull. The middle line of the upper surface of the skull is slightly depressed ; at the upper and fore part of the skull on each side, there is a smooth continuous groove of a sigmoid form, with a strong curve, convex outwards anterior to the orbit, and with a less strong curve, convex inwards on the inner side of the orbit : between the orbit and the occiput there is on each side a shorter groove, * For the other communications read at this Evening Meeting, see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. X. p. 454, &c. t See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. No. 40, p. 472. 38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. extending from the exoccipital forwards and a little outwards to the postfrontal, where it bends more directly outwards and downwards behind the orbits : these grooves probably lodged large mucous canals. Portions of small, conical, pointed, subequal teeth extend in a single series along the alveolar border of the upper jaw (fig. 2, 21), from the muzzle, along the lateral borders of the fossil, to two-thirds of an inch behind the orbits. At the bases of some of these teeth may be discerned indentations converging from the periphery towards the centre of the dentine. The entire orbits, closed below by a backward extension of the superior maxillary (21), and the connexion of this bone by a malar (26) and squamosal (27) with the mastoid (s) and tympanic (23), forming a complete zygoma, prove that the fossil did not belong to the class of fishes : whilst the strong points of resemblance which the skull presented to the Lahyrinthodonts ! ^in its broad and very depressed figure (especially the great breadth of the occiput), in its external sculpturing (especially the number and position of the mu- cous grooves), in the form and position of the orbits, and in the cha- racters of the teeth ! led me to investigate the structure of the deeper part of the occiput which was concealed in the matrix, for the more decisive character which that part of the cranium affords of the ba- trachian affinities of the singular reptiles to which the Mangali skull seemed by its more obvious characters to be most closely allied. I was gratified by finding that the occipital bone (which like the rest of the skull was distinguished from the red matrix by its yellow colour) terminated posteriorly in two well-defined subdepressed con- vex condyles, 2, 2, not so close together as in the great Labyrinthodon saletmandro'ides {Mastodonsaurus of Jaeger), but separated as in the Trematosaurus of Burmeisterf . A part of the broad atlas {a) was found in connexion with these condyles. The superoccipital region is formed by a pair of bones, 3, 3, each with a slightly prominent centre at the angle between the horizontal and backwardly-sloping part of the occiput : they may represent a divided superoccipital bone, but I cannot trace a suture separating them from the exoccipitals supporting the condyles, where it is repre- sented by Burmeister in the Trematosaurus. External to these is a large bone with a well-marked prominent centre, from which the grooves of the outer surface radiate : on the left side, a part of the tympanic remains in connexion with this bone, which I regard as the mastoid, s, which bone occupies a similar posi- tion in the Lahyrinthodonts. The parietal bones, 7, 7, continue the cranial walls in advance of the superoccipitals, and show a small oval vacuity in their median suture ! the "foramen parietale," as in the Trematosaurus : the foramen is situated near the hinder part of the suture : an accessory parietal, 7*, extends outwards from the hinder half of the main body of the bone on each side, to the angle between the superoccipital and mastoid. Traces of a suture seem to show this to be a dismemberment of the parietal : it occupies the place of the bone marked n, and called "os temporale squamosum," in the t 'Die Labyrinthodonten,' 4to, 1849, part i. pi. 1. OWEN BRACHYOPS LATICEPS. 39 above-cited figure of the Trematosaurus ; but the true squamosal is always anterior and external to the mastoid in the reptiles in which it is unequivocally present ; and it is restricted to its zygomatic place and functions, not becoming a proper cranial bone until the mammalian type is reached. The precise boundaries of the frontal, 7, and the sutures dividing it from the nasals and prefrontals cannot be traced, the skull being abraded at this part. The postfrontals, 12, have their centre as well marked and prominent as in the mastoids, and extend to those bones from the outer and back parts of the orbits. Traces of the malar, 20, and true squamosal, 27, may be discerned on the left side, extending from the slender maxillary beneath the post- frontal, to the tympanic, 28, beneath the mastoid, 8. The bone here called " postfrontal," is the *'os orbitaleposterius," ^, of Burmeister, and the name " os frontale posterius " is restricted in the above- cited figure of the Trematosaurus to a supplementary bone which is interposed in that Labyrinthodont, as in jthe present, between the bone marked 12, the parietal 7, and frontal n, where it forms the inner half of the back part of the orbit. This bone appears to me to be a dismemberment of an unusually developed postfrontal, and both it and the supernumerary bone, 7*, are remarkable departures from the normal cranial structure, characteristic of some, if not of all of the Labyrinthodont batrachians. The marked departure in the form and proportions of the present cranium from those of the equally well-preserved specimens of European Labyrinthodonts, leads me to the conclusion that the Mangali species indicates a distinct subgenus in that group of Reptiles, and I propose to designate the species so represented by the term ' Brachyops'f laticeps,' indicative of its peculiar proportions. Although the abraded and otherwise mutilated state of the skull of the Br achy ops is such as to prevent my giving a more extended ana- tomical description of it, and determining more precisely and satis- factorily the boundaries and homologies of the constituent bones, it nevertheless permits so many characters of the skull of the Labyrin- thodont Batrachia to be determined, as can leave no reasonable doubt of its true nature and affinities ; and thus the results chiefly required by the geologist, in reference to the probable age of the stratum in which this fossil is imbedded, may have been attained. DESCRIPTION OF PLATE II. Fig. 1. Upper view of the skull of the Brachyops, nat. size. 2. Side view of the same, nat. size. t From /3pa%vs, short, wxjj/ace ; in reference to the shortness of the facial part of the skull anterior to the orbits. 40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. On the Structure and Affinities of the HippuRiTiDiE. By S. P. Woodward, Esq., F.G.S. [Platks III. IV. v.] [Read May 24, 1854*.] CONTENTS. Introduction. Description of the Shell of the Hippurite. Genera related to Hippurites : ' Radiolites. Caprotina. Caprina. Caprinella. * Requienia. The Hippuritida and their Geological Distribution. Affinities of the Hippuritidce. Critical examination of the opinions of earlier observers. Hippuritidce referred to Corals, Annehds, and Cirripeds. to Palliobranchiates. to a separate Molluscan Order (Rudista). ! to Lamellibranchiates. Description of some New Species of Hippurites and Radiolites. Introduction. ! It is now forty years since Mr. Parkinson, the most distinguished palaeontologist of his day, read a paper before this Society, descriptive of some Hippurites from Sicily. The paper was printed in the second volume of the * Transactions' (p. 277); the spe- cimens are yet in the Society's Museum. Mr. Parkinson adopted the notion of Baron Picot de Lapeirouse, that Hippurites were chambered shells related to Orthoceras, and pointed out the means by which he thought they might have been capable of " raising themselves occa- sionally to the surface of the sea " (loc. cit. p. 282). Since that time many eminent palaeontologists have devoted atten- tion to the subject ; but, owing doubtless to the incompleteness of their materials, scarcely two authors have formed a similar opinion, and some of the latest-published views are more improbable than those promulgated by Mr. Parkinson. The collection of Hippurites and allied fossils in the British Mu- seum has been rendered so complete by the liberality of Mr. S. Peace Pratt and Sir Roderick I. Murchison, and by the assistance of Dr. Krantz of Bonn and M. Saemann of Paris, as to leave very little to be desired in the way of additional data. It is due to M. Saemann to say, that some of the most instructive specimens were procured by him with his own hands, and that he was fully aware of their scientific value. My own observations, so far as they are new, would be scarcely * For the other communications read at this Evening Meeting, see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. X. p. 397. WOODWARD HIPPURITID^. 41 intelligible if stated alone, and not of sufficient importance to form the subject of a communication to the Society ; and it is only upon the express invitation of the President that I have ventured to offer a general summary of a matter so often discussed. Description of the Shell of the Hippurites. ! Hippurites are bivalve shells, which were attached to the sea-bed, and usually gregarious, Hke Oysters ; often adhering together by their sides, or growing one upon the other. They are conical when young ; but soon become cylindrical, as they lengthen upwards without increasing in diameter. Some are straight, others curved ; one of the most common, H. cornu- vaccinnm, is shaped like a cow's horn, and attains the length of a foot or more. On one side there are three longitudinal furrows, extending from the base to the summit ; the upper valve is nearly flat, and is per- forated by numerous pores ; sometimes there are two eye-like depres- sions, as in H. bi-oculatus. When broken with a hammer, the shell is found to consist of two layers ; the outermost is readily detached, leaving a core, which is furrowed lengthwise. The outer layer is compact and dark-coloured ; its solidity is caused by the infiltration of carbonate of lime. Spe- cimens, however, from the Chalk of Angouleme are quite porous and brittle. Here the outer shell consists of a succession of corrugated layers ; the wrinkles radiate from the inner margin and subdivide and anastomose repeatedly, leaving interstitial pores. By the appo- sition of these pores in the successive layers, long unequal tubes are formed parallel with the long axis of the shell, and opening on its rim. The inner layer is white and laminated, like the interior of an oyster-shell, with spaces between the laminae, like those of the Water-Spondylus, and which are of frequent occurrence in the Oyster Fig.* 1. ! Section of a fragment o/Ostrea cornucopise, showing the spaces formed by the lamince in the interior of the shell. also. The laminae are as thin as writing-paper, sometimes vesicular. * I am indebted to Dr. J. E. Gray, of the British Museum, for the use of the woodcuts, which have been prepared for the * Museum Catalogue.' 42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. as in JEtheria, sometimes wide apart and regular as the septa of an Orthoceras\ the interspaces are occasionally empty, but are more usually filled with calcareous spar. The whole inner stratum of shell is frequently replaced by crystalline carbonate of lime. Figs. 2 & 3. ! Sections q/* Hippurites cornu-vaccinum, Bronn. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 2. Upper lialf of a longitudinal section (^ nat. size), taken in the direction d, b of Fig. 3, cutting only the base of the posterior tooth {f). Fig. 3. Transverse section of a larger specimen (f nat. size) at about the level d, h of Fig. 2, cutting the point of the posterior apophysis (a')? and showing the peculiar shell-texture deposited by the anterior adductor {a) : I, m, n, duplicatures ; u, umbonal cavity of left valve ; r, of right valve ; c, c', cartilage-pits ; t, f, teeth ; a, a, muscular apophyses ; d, outer shell-layer ; e, inner sheU-layer. A longitudinal section shows the laminae of shell filling up the interior nearly to the summit, leaving but a small space for the body of the animal, now occupied by hard limestone. The upper valve serves as an operculum to close the aperture of the lower valve, and does not thicken with age ; its outer stratum is permeated by canals which radiate from the centre to the margin, and give off small branches which appear as pores on the outer sur- face. The inner layer is always metamorphic and crystalline ; it gives off processes which penetrate to some depth the substance of the lower valve. The interior of the lower valve has been figured and described by Goldfuss and D'Orbigny. Goldfuss's figure (Petr. Germ. t. 164. f. 1 c, p. 300) has been generally overlooked, perhaps because he described it merely as an example of Radiolites agariciformis, " wanting the upper layers." The British Museum has lately acquired a specimen precisely similar (fig. 4). The inner layer exhibits an irregularly cellular structure, which I have not met with in any other Hippurite, and to which its excellent preservation is probably due. The cells are large, irregular, WOODWARD HIPPURITIDiE. 43 and empty, like the cellular structure between the laminae of certain Oysters. Figs. 4 & 5. ! Upper and lower valves q/" Hippurites radiosus, Desm. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. Fig. 4. Interior of lower valve (^). 5. Model of upper valve : a, a', adductor impressions and processes ; c, c, car- tilage-pits ; t, f, teeth and dental sockets ; u, umbonal cavity; p, orifices of canals ; I, ligamental inflection ; m, muscular, n, siphonal inflections. The umbonal cavity of the lower valve is contracted by three ridges, produced by inflections of the outer wall ; they correspond to the three furrows on the outside. The first, or ligamental, inflec- tion is very slight, and opposite to the centre of the hinge, which consists of two deep dental sockets, divided by a tooth-like process, and separated from the shell-wall by two narrow and deep pits for the internal ligament {cartilage) . In front of the hinge is a large muscular impression consisting of two portions, and answering to the anterior adductor, which usually consists of two elements in ordinary bivalves. Behind the hinge, and between it and the second inflec- tion, is a deep pit, marked inside with the impression of the posterior adductor muscle. This inflection, therefore, appears to represent the lamina which supports the posterior adductor in the fossil genus Dicer as, and in the recent Cardilia. The third inflection may possibly correspond to the ridge which indicates the division of the siphonal orifices in some bivalves, such as the LedcE and Trigonia aliformis. In H. cornu-vaccinum the form of the interior is rather diff'erent (fig. 3) *. See also PI. IV. figs. 2 and 3. The ligamental inflection is very deep, and the dental sockets are placed across the interior of the shell, instead of parallel with the side, leaving a shallow cavity in front, which may perhaps have lodged the internal ligament, for there are no distinct ligamental pits in the lower valve of this species. Hippurites which have lost their inner layer exhibit either two or three longitudinal ridges, accordingly as they belong to the same division with H. cornu-vaccinum, or with H. radiosus and bi-oculatus. The interior of the upper valve of the Hippurite appears not * Compare D'Orbigny's figure, Paleont. Fran^aise, Ter. Cret. pi. 527. f. 2. 44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. to have been figured or described; but Goldfuss and D'Orbigny have figured a mould of its interior, and I obtained a similar prepa- ration (fig. 7) by removing the upper valve from one of Mr. Pratt's specimens with a hammer and chisel. Figs. 6 & 7. ! Upper valve ofH. Toucasianus. Fig. 7. Fig. 6. Exterior of the upper valve ; \. Fig. 7. Mould of the interior of upper valve ; f . I, m, n, duplicatures ; x, fracture, showing canals ; c, cartilage ; u, left umbo ; ! the arrows indicate the supposed direction of the branchial currents. This mould shows the umbo turned forwards, and having a deep furrow on each side, caused by processes from the upper valve. On the dorsal side of the umbo, close to the ligamental inflection, is a small conical elevation (omitted in the figures of Goldfuss and D'Orbigny) representing the cartilage or one of its divisions. A plaster-cast taken from this mould gives the form of the interior, to a certain extent ; that is to say, it shows the umbonal cavity, the cartilage-pit, a deep furrow winding round the adductor and siphonal inflections, and the bases of the hinge-teeth. With the help of this mould I filled up the umbonal cavity of the other specimen (the lower valve of ^. radiosus), and then took from it a plaster- cast (fig. 5), which gives what I believe to have been the form of the upper valve with its processes complete. To test the correctness of this model, I made a number of sections, both transverse and longitudinal, of Hippurites in which both valves were preserved. These show that the two prominent hinge-teeth were extensively under-cut by the umbonal cavity (fig. 8, u), so as to appear suspended by thin plates. Each tooth supports a process corresponding in shape to the muscular impressions in the lower valve ; the anterior projecting horizontally ; the posterior vertical and tooth-like, longer indeed than the tooth to which it is attached ; but thinner than in the model, not nearly filling the cavity for its re- ception (fig. 3, ?'). Both these muscular apophyses are under-cut, so as not to interfere with the channel which winds round the inflections. This explanation of the hinge-teeth and muscular processes has WOODWARD HIPPURITIDiE. 45 been approved of by M. Desbayes, to wbom I submitted tbe speci- mens during his last visit to England. Figs. 8 & 9. ! Longitudinal sections o/* Hippurites and Radiolites : reduced ^. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 8. Hippurites cornu-vaccinum. Fig. 9. Radiolites cylindraceus. The sections are taken through the teeth {t, f) and muscular apophyses (a, a') : d, outer shell-layer ; r, inner shell-layer ; /, dental plate df lower valve ; u, um- bonal cavity of upper valve ; i, intestinal channel. Hitherto it had been supposed, either that the two divisions of the anterior muscular impression represented both the adductors, or that the posterior adductor occupied the channel between the second and third inflections, ! where there is not the slightest indication of it. Almost the last specimen I have obtained is a genuine upper valve, brought by Mr. W. K. Loftus from the Turco-Persian Frontier * (PI. III. fig. 4). This fossil had been broken by an accidental fall, but enough remained, when the specimen was mended, to show many interesting particulars. Two small portions of the lower valve {s,s) ! viz. the summits of the second and third inflections ! remain ad- hering to the lid, surrounded by the channel before noticed, which seems intended to lodge some winding canal, or to allow the passage of a current. This example also shows the base of the posterior tooth (t), the deep conical cartilage-pit, and the curved umbonal cavity. The stony mould of this cavity was detached by the fall, and showed that originally it was covered up halfway by the base of the anterior tooth. The margin is perforated by a single line of circular foramina, the orifices of those radiating canals which are seen in the weathered outer surface. * See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. No. 40. p. 468. For descriptions of the speci- mens of Hippurites brought home by Mr. Loftus, see the Appendix to this Me- moir. 46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Genera related to Hippurites. In searching out the affinities of a problematic fossil shell, it is desirable to inquire, first, whether any similar, but less abnormal, forms occur in the same stratum with it, or in formations imme- diately older or newer. For it may be doubted whether any quite isolated types exist in nature ; and, although no well-disciplined naturalist dreams of the transmutation of organic forms, yet by those who regard genera as "ideas of the creating mind," there is held to be a relation of interdependence between those "ideas," as regards their development both in time and space, giving rise to a succession of forms, which may easily mislead a superficial observer to suppose they are related in the way of ancestry or descent. Therefore, although we disbelieve the doctrine of transmutation, our first inquiry is ! Are there any fossil shells which look like the progenitors or descendants of the Hippurite ? We think it may be shown, that, by a complete series of cognate forms, the Cretaceous Hippurites are connected with the Oolitic Dicerata and the Tertiary ChamcB. These forms belong to at least five genera ; and some of the species are more problematic and extraordinary than the Hippurite itself. Radiolites. ! The genus most nearly related is the Radiolites of Lamarck {SphcBvulites of De la Metherie) . Figs. 10 & 11. ! Radiolites mammillaris, Matheron. Reduced \. From the Lower Chalk, S. Mamest, Bordogne. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 10. Interior of lower valve. Fig. 11. Interior of upper valve. (See also figs. 13 & 14.) ! I, ligamental inflection ; m, pallial line ; c, c, cartilage- pits ; a, a', adductor impressions and processes ; t, t, teeth and dental sockets ; u, umbonal cavity. In general form the Radiolites resemble the Hippurites, but are more squamose or foliaceous externally ; and the upper valve is not porous, differing but little in structure from the lower valve*. The * Mr. D. Sharpe has called ray attention to the existence of a third, superficial, shell-layer in all the genera of Rudisfa, similar to the " sub-epidermal " layer, described by Dr. Carpenter, in Chama and other bivalves. In the Radiolite (PI. IV. WOODWARD HIPPURITID^. 47 ligamental inflection is seldom indicated externally ; but in those species which M. D'Orbigny has distinguished as Bi-radiolites (fig. 19) there is a peculiarly sculptured tract, or " cardinal area," on each side the ligamental line ; and in R. Fleuriaui the upper valve is rendered subspiral by a ligamental groove *. The interior of each valve is nearly symmetrical, but we may infer from the structure of R. Fleuriaui, that the Radiolite, like the Hippurite, was attached by the dextral valve ; an inference which is confirmed by comparing R. polyconilites with Caprotina. The outer wall or shell-layer of the Radiolite is unlike that of the Hip- purite. It consists of prismatic-cellular structure like the shell of the recent Pinna f ; and in all specimens from chalk strata the cells are empty. As the shells of Pinna, Inoceramus, and Beletnnites in the same formations are solid, we may conclude that this difference was original and essential. Fig. 12. ! Part of the rim of Radiolites Mortoni, Mantell, from the Lower Chalk of Sussex. Traced from the original specimen in the Museum of the School of Mines. I, the outer edge ; b, the inner edge ; v, v, the dichotomous impressions. fig. 1) it forms nearly all that usually remains of the upper valve, and all the squamose ornaments of the lower valve. In the Hippurite it is seldom distin- guishable ; but is quite distinct in Caprina and Caprinella. No such layer exists in any of the Palliobranchiata. Mr. Sharpe has also pointed out that the long prisms of the middle shell-layer are always parallel with the surface (and not always perpendicular to the laminae of growth), like the tubes of Caprina and Caprinella. In the Palliobranchiata the slender shell-prisms cross obliquely from the inner to the outer surface, as shown by Dr. Carpenter. (See Davidson's Mo- nograph of the Brachiopoda; Pal. Soc.)! Dec. 30, 1854, S. P.W. * Specimens of Radiolites Hceninghausii which have lost their inner shell-layer present internally strong transverse furrows, or lines of growth, and a prominent ligamental ridge. The interior of the upper valve, when in this condition, shows that the umbo of the young shell was marginal, as represented in PI. V. fig. 3. I cannot distinguish R. acutus, D'Orb., from the young of R. Hceninghausii. ! Dec. 30, 1854, S. P. W. t The cells of Radiolites from the English Chalk are twenty-five times as large as those of the recent Pinna ; and those of Pinna are 250 times as large as the cells of Pandora (Carpenter). 48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The rim of this species and some others (but not of all the Radio- lites) is marked vAth. bifurcating impressions, which radiate from the inner to the outer margin (fig. 12). They owe their definition to a change in the form of the cells. The inner layer of shell is often wanting, being only indicated by a space between the outer wall and the calcareous mould of the original interior. These moulds (figs. 15, 16), called Birost rites by Defrance, have greatly puzzled naturalists, especially when imperfect *. In the British Museum there are several specimens of i?. calceo- loides and R. mamrnillaris in which the inner layer of shell is re- placed by spar, whilst the interior was filled with soft chalk, and allowing the separation and development of the valves. The interior of the lower valve of R. mamrnillaris (fig. 10) exhibits no inflections of the outer wall, or only a slight ligamental ridge ; the cartilage-pit is deep and furrowed, and divided by an inflection of the inner wall. The dental pits are deep, subequal, and strongly grooved. The muscular impressions are shallow, striated, and nearly equal. The interior of the upper valve (figs. 11, 13, & 14) has an um- bonal cavity turned towards the hinge, and slightly mider-cutting it. In young specimens it is deep and conical, but becomes shallow, or completely filled up, with age. The teeth are straight and pro- minent, fitting accurately the grooves in the sockets. Figs. 13 & 14. ! Two side-views of the upper valve of Radiolites mammillaris, from the same specimen as Fig. 1 1 . Fig. 13. Fig. 14. I I, ligamental inflection ; t, t, teeth ; a, a', muscular processes. Each tooth supports a curved apophysis corresponding in form to the muscular impressions in the lower valve. In aged specimens the apophyses nearly rest upon the impressions ; they are, however, seldom so prominent as in this species f ^^ ! '^ ^'" ""'" ^ '""' """ There is no longer any * G. Sowerby figured a Birostrites incequilobus in his * Genera of SheDs,' and rightly regarded it as the mould of a shell related to Diceras. t The specimen of R. calceoloides in the British Museum, like that described by M. Deshayes, Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 2 ser. viii. 12 7, has lost almost all character from its hinge, as bivalves frequently do when aged. WOODWARD HIPPURITID^. 49 difficulty in comparing the Birostrites (figs. 15, 16) and its "acces- sory apparatus " {c, c) with the complete Radiolite ; the accessory apparatus representing the great furrowed cartilage and the dental processes. Figs. 15 & 16. ! Internal mould of ^. Hceninghausii, Desm. From the Chalk. Reduced \. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 15. Upper view. Fig. 16. Side view. M, u, umbo of left valve ; r, right umbo ; /, ligamental groove ; c, c, cartilage ; a, anterior adductor cavity ; a', a\ posterior adductor. From the close affinity between the Radiolite and the Hippurite, we must conclude that the tubular structure in the opercular valve of the latter possesses less importance, physiologically, than at first seemed probable. The presence of canals in the Hippurite and their absence in the Radiolite is paralleled by the difference in the shell-structure of Te7'e- bratula and Rhynchonella, and in the test of Cynthia and Ascidium. Caprotina. ! Three other genera, Caprina, Caprotina, and Capri- nella, are found in the Hippurite-limestone, and are more like Chama and Diceras in general form. They had an internal ligament, and were attached by the dextral valve, which is straight, whilst the upper valve is oblique or spiral. In Diceras, however deep and spiral the umbonal cavity, there is no indication of septa ; but they exist in all the Hippuritidce, and in both valves, whenever the umbones are much produced. In Caprotina the shell-structure is the same as in Diceras and Chama ; the outer layer is solid, and consists of corrugated or ob- scurely prismatic-cellular layers ; whilst the inner layer is sub- nacreous, and more easily destructible. The lower valve is always striated or ribbed, the upper plain, as in the fossil Oysters of Barton and Woolwich {O.Jlabellulum and O. pulchra^ *. The hinge resem- * Several of M. D'Orbigny's Caprotinoe present no character by which they can be distinguished from Chama ; viz. C. rugosa, C. navis, C. carinata, C. Dela- rueana, and C. Cenomanensis. The Diceras inaquirostratus, Woodw. 1836, Geol. VOL. XI. PART I. E 50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. bles that of the Radiohte in having two prominent teeth in the upper valve ; but they are curved, so as to admit of obhque movement. Figs. 17 & 18. ! Lateral views of the internal mould of Caprotina quadripartita, B'Orb. Reduced |-. From a specimen collected by Mr. Pratt. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. u, u, left umbo ; r, r, right umbo ; /, ligamental inflection ; c, c, cartilage ; t, t, f, t', dental sockets ; a, a', position of adductor muscles ; e, portion of the third lobe is here broken away. (The first and fourth lobes, those on each side of the ligamental inflection, appear to be the two divisions of a great internal cartilage like that of the Radiolite, figs. 15, 16, c, c.) Each tooth is supported by a plate, to which the shell-muscles were attached. The umbonal cavity of the upper valve is divided by a vertical plate (as in Radiolites polyconilites), so that moulds of the interior are four-lobed, two of the lobes representing the cartilage, and two the divided umbo. A similar plate divides the interior of the upper (or spiral) valve in Caprina and Caprinella. In each case it supports the anterior hinge-tooth, but so obliquely that the posterior cavity (or lobe) is much the smaller. The interior of the lower valve is divided into two very unequal cavities by an oblique plate, answering apparently to the muscular inflection of Hippurites and Diceras. The liga- mental cavity in the lower valve of Capi'otina is subdivided into numerous unequal pits. Some species of Caprotina are long and straight, with small flat opercular valves, like miniature Radiolites ; they occur in groups, frequently attached to Oyster-shells. Caprina. ! In Caprina (figs. 21, 22) the fixed valve has the same structure as in Caprotina, whilst the upper is perforated by canals ; another proof of the subordinate importance of shell-struc- ture. These canals are simple tubes, extending from the umbo to Norf.pl. 5. fig. 22 {= Caprotina, Morris, "Catalogue," 1st edit., Caprina Rus- siensis, D'Orb. 1845, Caprotina Russiensis, D'Orb. 1850, and Chama cornucopice, D'Orb. 1847), is undoubtedly a Chama. WOODWARD HIPPURITID.E. 51 the margin ; not branching or communicating with the outer surface, as in Hippurites, but opening round the inner edge of the valve. Figs. 19, 20. ! External views o/" Bi-radiolites and Monopleura. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 19. I, posi- Upper valve of Biradiolites canaliculatus, D'Orb. (f nat. size) : tion of ligamental line ; a, a, areas bordering ligamental groove. Fig. 20. Upper and lower valves of Monopleura imbricata, Math. (^ nat. size) : /, ligamental groove ; p, point of attachment. The genus Monopleura, Matheron, merged in Caprotina by M. D'Orbigny, ap- pears to want the essential features of the latter genus, and at present we have no means of determining whether it belongs even to the same family. The following species may be referred to this provisional genus : M. trilobata and lamellosa (D'Orb.), M. gryphoides, varians, sulcata, imbricata, and Marticensis (Matheron), M. Texana and triquetra (Roemer). Figs. 21, 22. ! Interior and Exterior o/Caprina. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. I Fig. 21. Caprina Aguilloni, D'Orb. Interior of left valve : a, a', position of ad- ductors ; I, ligamental groove ; u, umbonal cavity ; t, tooth of fixed valve, broken off and remaining in its socket. Fig. 22. C. adversa (after D'Orb.) : c, point of attachment. The single tooth of the lower valve is sometimes enormously de- veloped (fig. 21, t). The upper valve is convex or spiral. The cartilage is lodged in a shallow groove or in numerous deep pits. E 2 52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Caprinella. ! In Caprinella both valves are tubular; indeed the shell is made up of tubes, the inner layer being evanescent, whilst the sur- face is formed by an extremely thin compact lamina. That the tubes Figs. 23, 24.- -Sections q/Caprinula Boissii, jyOrb. Chalk near Lisbon (Mr. D. Sharpe). From Lower Fig. 23. Fig. 24. Fig. 23. (A) Transverse section of straight valve. Fig. 24. (B) Transverse section of spiral valve of a w^eathered specimen which has lost the outer layer : /, I, position of ligamental inflection ; t, t, teeth ; c, c, cartilage-pits ; u, u, urabonal cavity. were open is proved by the limestone and small shells contained in them ; and it is very improbable that even in the lifetime of the animal they were permanently occupied by processes of the mantle. They are rather to be compared to the tubular ribs of Cardiwn costatum, which remain open, simply because the animal does not secrete suffi- cient lime to render them solid. Figs. 25, 26, 27. ! Caprinella triangularis, Desm. f nat. size. From the Upper Greensand of Rochelle. Fig. 25. Fig. 25. (A) Portion of the left valve, after D'Orbigny ; the shell- wall has been removed by weathering, and the camerated interior exposed. Fig. 26. (B) Mould of five of the water-chambers. Fig. 27. (C) Mould of the body-chamber : u, right umbo ; s, left umbo ; t, dental groove ; a, surface from which the posterior lobe has been detached. WOODWARD HIPPURITIDiE. 53 The CaprinellcB have been described, and some new species figured, by Mr. D. Sharpe*, in his memoir "On the Secondary Rocks of Portugal f." I am disposed to agree with Mr. Sharpe in combining D'Orbigny's genera Caprinella and Caprinula ; but there does not appear to have been so many and such regular "water-chambers" in the spiral valve of Caprinula as in that of Caprinella. Figs. 28, 29. ! Internal ca5^5 q/" Diceras and Requienia. Fig. 28. Fig. 29. Fig. 28. Diceras arietinum. \. Fig. 29. Requienia Lonsdalei. ^. a, point of attachment ; c, c, c\ casts of dental pits ; t, /, t, t', t\ fur- rows produced by muscular ridges. Requienia. ! A still further connecting link between the Hippu- rite and ordinary bivalves is supplied by the genus Requienia (Ma- theron), of which one species, well known as the Diceras Lonsdalei, is found in the Neocomian of Wilts and Spain. M. D'Orbigny has merged Requienia in Caprotina in his latest publication (Cours ele- mentaire Paleont.), placing it amongst the Palliobranchiata ; whilst Mr. Sharpe regards it as at best only a subdivision of Diceras. Eight species of Requienia are known, ranging from the Neoco- mian to the Chalk, and found in France, Spain, England, and lately in Texas by Dr. F. Roemer. They are attached by the left valve, the right being usually much smaller, and sometimes round and con- cave, as in R. ammonia, Goldf. (fig. 31). The interior, however deep and spiral, is not camerated ; the hinge, as indicated by casts, must have resembled that of Diceras. The HippuritidcB and their Geological Distribution. ! Excluding Requienia, there are four genera, ! Caprotina, Caprina, Caprinella, * The CaprinellcE are described by Mr. Sharpe as *' probably attached when young by the spiral valve," which is contrary to analogy, and opposed to the ob- servations of M. D'Orbigny. Mr. Sharpe also regards the ligamental furrow as indicative of an external ligament ; whilst it is unquestionably a mere inflection of the shell-wall, leading to the cavity of the internal cartilage. In the same description, the oblique plate which divides the umbonal cavity of the straight valve is confounded with the transverse septa which form the water-chambers ; whereas it corresponds to the posterior " adductor-inflection " of Hippurites, Ca- protina, and Diceras. t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1849, vol. vi. p. 178. pi. 16-18. 54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. and Radiolites, ! which appear to constitute together with Hippu- rites a natural and well-defined group, possessing the rank of a Family, in the sense in which that term is employed by the most Figs. 30 & 31. ! External views o/Diceras and Requienia. Fig. 30. Fig. 31. Fig. 30. Diceras arietinum, Lamarck. ^. Fig. 31. Requienia ammonia, Goldfuss. J. a, a, point of attachment ; I, I, ligamental grooves ; ^', posterior-adductor inflection. orthodox conchologists. It includes above 80 species, which are found in all four quarters of the world, and never beyond the limits of the Cretaceous strata. Like many other groups of animals, it gradually attained a maxi- mum development and then declined. Thus, only 3 species are found in the Neocomian, 13 in the Upper Greensand, 50 in the Hippurite-limestone, and 15 in the Chalk. Several families of Lamellibranchiate Bivalves were more abundant in the ancient seas than at the present day. The species of fossil AnatinidcB are four times as numerous as the recent ; and more than half the genera of CyprinidcB and Trigoniadce are lost. But the Hippuritidce form the only instance in which a whole family of bi- valve shells has become extinct. Affinities of the HippuritidtE. I. In the work of M. Picot de Lapeirouse (1781), the Hippurites are described as Orthoceratites ; the Radiolites as Ostracites. This view was adopted by Mr. Parkinson. II. Von Buch, so late as 1840 {Leonh. u. Bronn's N. Jahrh. 1840, p. 573), regarded the Hippurites as corals. III. Prof. Steenstrup, of Copenliagen, announced to the British Association (through Prof. Forbes) in 1850 that they were Anellides, allied to the Serpulce cymospirce of Savigny. These, however, differ ! 1st, in being symmetrical and bi-lateral ; 2ndly, they have no muscular attachment to their shell ; 3rdly, the operculum is not articulated ; it is one of two organs attached to the head, of which sometimes one, sometimes the other is developed WOODWARD HIPPURITID^. 55 into an operculum, the second remaining filiform ; 4thly, the shell- structure is different *. IV. M. Charles Desmoulins {Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 1827) regarded the Hippurites and Radiolites as a peculiar order of Mol- lusca, combining the attributes of the Tunicates and Sessile Cirri- pedes. These -vdews appeared less unreasonable at a time when the Cirri- pedes were supposed to be Molluscous animals. Nevertheless, this was strongly contested by M. Deshayes, and by M. Sander Rang, who gives an excellent summary of the arguments on both sides, in his Manuel des Mollusques (1829). He terms the connection of the Hippurites vdih the Cirripedes and Tunicates " an unnatural asso- ciation," and says that the arguments for it are contrary to reason and experience. The cellularity of the Hippurite is, like that of a shell, independent of the animal, and not like the tubes of a Balanus, which are occupied (as Cuvier showed) by processes of the mantle. The shell of the Balanus is conical, and consists of several elements which enlarge independently. Its operculum also consists of several pieces ; and both are symmetrical -f. V. Dr. Carpenter, in his *' Report on the Structure of Shells" {Trans. Brit. Assoc. 1845, p. 15), expressed his opinion that the Hippurites were intermediate "between the Ostracece and sessile Balani." Dr. Carpenter informs me that he was led to think they could not, be bivalves, on account of their openly cellular walls ; but the numerous instances of strata of empty cells in both recent and fossil Oyster-shells proves that this character cannot be relied on X- Sir C. Lyell formerly entertained the conviction that the Radiolites Mortoni of Mantell belonged to the genus Conia {Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836, vol. ix. p. 104). VI. Dr. Goldfuss, at the conclusion of his great work, Petref. Germ. (1840), describes the Hippurites as Brachiopoda, placing them next to Crania. Some of the difficulties in the way of this view were, however, unknown at the time. The essential characters of the Hippurites, which separate it from the Brachiopoda, are ! 1 . The shell is composed of three layers, which is not the case in any Brachiopod. 2. The prismatic-cellular structure is like that of Pinna and JEtheria, and not like that of the Brachiopoda. 3. No Brachiopod has a sub-nacreous shell with water-chambers. * The shell-structure of the Anellides has been usually described from prepara- tions of Dentalium or Vermetus, both of which are Gasteropods. t Ferruca is unsymmetrical, only because a portion of the operculum is ce- mented to the shell, indifferently right or left {Darwin). Tubicinella, the only cylindrical Balanus, is so from its pecuHar habitat, in the skin of the Whale ; it is conical when young, but, as the skin of the Whale wears away, the Tubicinella also sheds the summits of its valves, and grows downwards deeper and deeper (Gray). t Especially the recent Ostrea purpurea, Gray, and the fossil O. vesiculosa and 0. bellovacina. 56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 4. The upper valve has a different structure from the lower. 5. Each valve is unsymmetrical. 6. The valves are right and left, ! not dorsal and ventral. 7. They are articulated by teeth and sockets, ! which is not the ease with Crania ; and the teeth are developed from the free valve ; ! in all hinged Brachiopods the teeth are in the fixed valve. 8. The HippuritidcB had a large internal ligament (like Spon- di/lus) for opening the valves. 9. The muscular impressions are two only. 10. The so-called "vascular impressions " are on the rim of the shell, not in the disk, as in Crania^ &c. 1 1 . The Hijjpurites have a distinct pallial line. VII. M. D'Orbigny also regards the Hippuritidce (including Re- quienia) as Brachiopoda ; but he does not place them with the normal Families, or even with Crania. In his latest work, the Cours elementaire (1849), p. 90, he proposes to associate them with the still-existing genera Argiope and Thecidium, under the term " Bra- chiopodes cirrhides : Cirrhidae," with the rank of a Sub-order ; and describes them as having no oral arms, but a mantle fringed with long cirri, performing the f miction of the brachia. When Prof. E. Forbes returned from the ^gean, he furnished me with specimens of Argiope decollata, and wdth a sketch, from me- mory, of the oral arms of A. cuneata. In some of these specimens I detected a well-developed loop, and in others the animal itself. Mr. Davidson, who examined them with me, has published our drawings and notes in the ** Introduction " to his Monograph. There is no doubt that Argiope is very nearly allied to Terebratula, the differences having reference chiefly to the minute size of all the species. Argiope has cirrated oral arms, supported by a distinct loop ; the mantle- margin is quite simple. We could not ever detect the presence of set(S, such as exist in Terebratula and Rhynchonella. We have also seen examples of the recent Thecidium mediter- raneum, which differs from Terebratula chiefly in being fixed by the ventral valve, and not by a pedicle. It has a developed loop, supporting cirrated oral arms, and can only be regarded as an aberrant member of the family Terebratulidce. The mantle-margin is quite simple. VIII. Those authors who have regarded the Hippurites as Bi- valves, forming a distinct Order (Rudista), intermediate between the Pallio- and Lamelli-branchiata, viz. Lamarck, Blainville, and Rang. M. Sander Rang adopted this opinion on account of the diflSculty of reconciling the supposed characters of the Rudista with the known characters of the ordinary Conchifera. He could not account for the two holes in the lid of the Hippurite, and the ridges {aretes) inside its lower valve. The "holes " in the upper valve are only found in a few species (H. bi-oculatus and H. dilatatus, Defr.) ; they are mere depressions, ! points at which the lid rests on the two posterior inflections of the lower valve. WOODWARD ! HIPPURITID^. 57 The "ridges" are the smallest difficulty in the structure of the Hippurite, ! indeed they form a strong point of analogy with Diceras and Requienia. IX. Those authors who have regarded the Hippurites as true Lamellibranchiate Bivalves have not agreed as to their Family-rela- tionship. Cuvier placed them with the Oysters, to which they present the strongest analogies ; but from which they differ in having two ad- ductor muscles. Prof. Owen adopted Cuvier' s view generally as to the position of the Ritdistes amongst the Lamellibranchiata, and pointed out the difficulty of ascertaining their true characters, on account of the general absence of the inner layer *' which alone receives the im- pressions of the soft parts*." M. Deshayes in his latest work {Traite elementaire de Conchy- liologie, Nov. 1848) proposes to include the two families JEtherice and Rudistes in the same gronp, ! thus characterized : *' Animaux irregidiers ; manteau ouvert, sans siphons, sans perforations.'* I am indebted to Dr. Gray for the opportunity of examining the remains of an authentic example of Mtheria, brought from the Nile many years since by Sir Gardner Wilkinson. The animal is entirely apodal. The body (consisting chiefly of the mass of the liver) has been mistaken for a foot ; it projects backwards, as in Lima and the Scallop. The gills are subequal, and are united behind the body ; they are also united by all their dorsal border to the body and mantle, so as to leave no passage into the dorsal channel and cloaca. The palpi are of a form peculiar to the Iridina of the Nile and some other Unionidce, viz. semi-oval, attached by the straight side, and re- ceiving the gills between their ample and striated inner surfaces. Considering the freshwater habitat of JEtheria, the pearly interior of its shell, the absence of hinge-teeth, and its analogies with the Unionidce, I cannot but regard it as a very bad type for comparison with the deep-sea Hippuritidce. Prof. Quenstedt (of TiAbingen) in his excellent Handbuch der Petre/aktenkunde (1852), has placed the Hippurites in a more natural position, ! between the Chamacece and the Cardiadcef. They resemble Chama in being fixed, in the character of the large adductor impressions, and in the well-developed hinge. Three of the five genera further resemble it in the spirality of the upper valve. They also resemble Diceras (a member of the Chamidce) in the adductor muscles being supported by prominent plates. There does not appear to me to be any evidence that the mantle- lobes of the HippuritidcR were free. Important as that character is in Malacology, it is of no avail to the Palaeontologist. In the family Mytilidce it is impossible to tell by the shell alone, which of the re- * 'Lectures on the Invertebrate Animals,' 1843, p. 287. t The late Prof. E. Forbes also adopted this view, in his lectures at the School of Mines in 1853, after examining the British Museum Collection, as he acknow- ledged with his wonted generosity. ! Dec. 30, 1854, S. P. W. 58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. cent genera have a closed (viz. Dreissena and Modiolarca) and which have an open mantle (Modiola, Mytilus). Description of New Species. In conclusion, I am desirous of noticing a few species of Hippurite and Radiolite which appear to be new, or hitherto insufficiently de- scribed ; the species are in the British Museum. 1. Hippurites Loftusi, n. sp. PI. III. Shell inversely conical, or elongated : uppei^ valve convex, with about twenty rounded ribs, of unequal length, radiating from the centre ; pores very conspicuous, about one-third the diameter of the ribs ; canals large, opening in a single series upon the inner margin : lower valve furrowed and striated lengthwise ; ribs about twenty, ob- scure, rounded ; cardinal side with a few prominent lines of growth ; cardinal furrows three, distinct ; ligamental inflection deep ; dental processes and pits placed across the interior. Length 4 inches and upwards ; diameter 2\ inches and more. This species belongs to the typical division of Hippurites, like H. cornu-vaccinum, in which the teeth are placed at right angles to the hinge-line. The pores in the upper valve are larger than in any species I am acquainted with ; but, as names derived from comparative characters are inadmissible, I propose to call this fossil after its dis- coverer, Mr.W. K. Loftus, who obtained it with the three following species from a limestone in the Bakhtiyari Mountains on the Turco- Persian Frontier. 2. Hippurites colliciatus, n. sp. PI. IV. fig. 5. Upper valve unknown : loiver valve conical, furrowed lengthwise by about twelve unequal rounded channels, divided by prominent acute ribs ; cardinal side flattened, with a small rib in the furrows opposite the inflections ; shell-wall thick (3-6 lines), with two short and thick inflections ; no ligamental inflection ; inner shell-layer thickened in the cardinal region, and perforated by two dental pits close to the side. Length 3 inches, diameter 3 inches. This species agrees with H. oculatus and radiosus in having the interior divided by only two duplicatures, and in the dental pits being close to the shell -wall in front of the adductor inflection. Locality : Bakhtiyari Mountains. 3. Hippurites corrugatus, n. sp. PI. IV. fig. 4. Upper valve unknown : lower valve nearly cylindrical, with about ten deep longitudinal furrows, divided by rounded corrugations, each with several small ridges and striae, slightly tuberculated, and squa- mose with lines of growth ; interior furrowed lengthwise ; ligamental inflection angular. WOODWARD HIPPURITIDiE. 59 The corrugations of this fossil are not superficial furrows, but are foldings of the shell-wall, and project internally almost as much as the hinge-inflections. Locality : Bakhtiyari Mountains. 4. HiPPURITES VESICULOSUS, n. sp. PI. IV. fig. 6. Upper valve unknown : lowei' valve conical, furrowed lengthwise with regular shallow grooves (at most 2 lines wide) ; cardinal inflec- tions scarcely marked externally ; outer shell-wall 4 lines thick at most ; ligamental inflection deep and very narrow ; muscular inflec- tion short, round, and constricted ; siphonal inflection deepest ; inner shell-layer composed of vesicular plates. Length (of a fragment) 8 inches, diameter 1^4 inches. Locality : Bakhtiyari Mountains. 5. Radiolites Mortoni, Mantell sp. PI. V. figs. 1, 2. Upper valve unknown : lower valve found usually in groups ; in- versely conical or elongated, the free surfaces ribbed lengthwise ; ribs narrow (about 1 line in breadth), subequal, angular, in pairs or groups ; shell-wall very thick, entirely composed of large and regular cells ; rim slightly inclined, impressed with a few radiating dicho- tomous lines in which the cells are transversely oblong ; inner layer usually wanting, leaving a smooth cavity, originally partitioned off below into large irregular water-chambers, and furnished with two striated dental pits, close to the side, and separated by a wide in- terval. Length of fragment 1 foot, diameter 6 inches ; shell-wall 2 inches thick. Found in the Upper and Lower Chalk of Kent and Sussex *, and in the Upper Greensand of Cambridge and Warminster. A fragment of the rim apparently of this species, from Gosau, measures 4 inches from the inner to the outer edge (British Museum). The Radiolites Austinensis of Dr. F. Romer, from Texas, is probably identical (Romer's Texas, t. 6. f. I). Radiolites Mortoni is the only British fossil of the family Hippii- ritidcB at present known; it was noticed in 1833 by Dr. Mantell, in his * Geology of the South-East of England.' In 1836 it was again figured and described by Mr. Hudson (as a Conia) in the * Magazine of Natural History' (vol. ix. p. 104). Several figures are given in the 26th Plate of Mr. Dixon's posthumous ' Geology of Sussex,' but these figures only represent the general form and mode of aggregation, and there is no accompanying description. Dr. J. E. Gray, who gave an account of these fossils in the * Ma- gazine of Zoology,' observed the OstrecB and 8pondyli growing far down their cavities, and remarked that, if there had ever been an internal shell-layer, it must have been removed whilst they were still in the position where they grew on the bed of the sea f. In the * Remains of this species have been found in the Chalk at Lewes, in Sussex, at Purfleet, Essex, and at Gravesend, Durham, and Lenham, in Kent, t Magazine of Zoology and Botany, 1838, vol. ii. p. 228. 60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. specimen of R. Mantelli in the British Museum, small Oysters were attached to the interior at least 10 inches down the cavity. I find, however, that in Dr. Mantell's specimens a portion of the thin na- creous layer of the Radiolite is preserved beneath these parasitic bivalves. A very instructive specimen of R. Mortoni has lately been ob- tained by Mr. Matthew Wright from the Upper Chalk of Kent* (PL V. fig. 1). It consists of the upper portion of a large cylindrical example, measuring 6 inches across ; the cellular tissue is empty, except in two places where nodules of flint seem to grow from it ; and the rim is broken, and incrusted with Oysters. The cavity is oval, and occupied at the lower end by a mould of indurated chalk, rather smaller than the cavity ; the space between, from \ line to 3 lines, was filled with very soft ferruginous chalk, representing the inner layer of shell. On one side of the mould are two pairs of longitudinal furrows, indicating projections from the shell- wall, which originally received the dental processes of the upper valve. Part of this mould has been detached, and a reduced side-view of it is given in PI. V. fig. 2. It is divided into joints by partings of soft chalk, replacing the septa of the water-chambers. These septa, as well as the outer wall, had been perforated by Clionce. The upper end of Mr. Wright's fossil was filled with soft white chalk, on removing which with great care several Oysters and Spon- dyli were found to have grown inside, in places where the nacreous layer was less than half a line in thickness. One of the Spondyli bends outwards just at the point where the anterior dental socket is still indicated. The dental sockets are grooved, as in R. mammil- laris (fig. 10), but are situated close to the shell-wall, and at some distance apart, as in R. calceoloides. This species, R. Mortoni, is most nearly allied to R. cornu-pastorisy Desm., the type of D'Or- bigny's genus Bi-radioliteSy a section the value of which is not yet known. 6. Radiolites Mantelli, n. sp. PI. V. fig. 4. Shell elongated, grouped, furrowed and striated lengthwise ; furrows large, rounded, divided by acute ribs ; rim steeply inclined, radiately striated, cellular near the inner margin ; shell-wall thick, finely laminated, the laminae divided vertically by very close radiating plates, passing into minute cells near the interior ; interior smooth, marked by lines of growth and a narrow ligamental furrow : inner layer wanting. Upper valve unknown. Length of fragment 10 inches. This species occurs in the Upper Greensand of Cap la Heve, near Havre ; it is very distinct from any species described by M. D'Or- bigny, and being likely to occur in England, I have noticed it here, and named it after the distinguished geologist who first discovered Radiolites in this country. * Mr. M. Wright has obUgingly informed me that this specimen was found in the Upper Chalk in the quarry to the west of and contiguous to the Rosherville Gardens, in a horizontal layer of flints, at about 30 feet from the surface. QnarL Joiirn.Ceol.Soc Vol XI i^ J LI Hippuxates Loftus.]. SPWooawaid af.I.CT'esfka Ford LWe::l Itap. J Lon^iud-inal secuar ladiolites cyiindi-aceus Quan.Jourji Geo] 3oc Vol XI PI iV B^L 1 ^te' ..^aadte.. i :: ^ v-^ ^'4 I Tr an 5 ve rse s ecu or. IT]j)piirite s vesic ; i [ o s u r, . Trsmsverse section "H cornu-vaccmom I'rcLii5verse section. H . cornu-vaccinum. ! ' TrajisvBrse sections H.coTTu^atiis. 11 colli ciatus S P "Woodward asl G-.'/fetinii. Fcard it V/est Imp Quart. Joiim Ceol. Soc Tol.H. ?1 V. ?.ADIOLITES, ' P 'yoodivairrl rii4 . G West iiiii ?arrl.?7r'-<:- ka^ WOODWARD ! HIPPURITIDiE. 61 EXPLANATION OF PLATES IIL IV. V. Plate III. Fig. 1. Hippurites Loftusi, n. sp., \ natural size. Fig. 2. A small portion of the upper valve, natural size. Fig. 3. Transverse section of the lower valve, reduced. Fig. 4. Interior of the upper valve, natural size. /, m, n. Inflections of the outer shell-wall. d. Outer shell-wall, with tubular structure. e. Inner layer of shell, with laminated structure. t, t'. Teeth, or dental processes, of upper valve. u. Umbonal cavity. c, Ligamental pit. s, s. Portions of the longitudinal ridges (inflections) of the lower valve, broken off and remaining adherent to the upper valve. The arrows indicate the supposed direction of the alimentary canal and branchial currents. Plate IV. Fig. 1. RadioHtes cyhndraceus, Desmoulins ; upper half of a longitudinal section, in the cabinet of Mr. Sharpe. a, a'. Adductor processes of upper valve. b, b. Superficial layer of shell, rarely preserved. d, d. Principal, or cellular, layer of shell. e, e. Internal, or subnacreous, layer, replaced by spar. Fig. 2. Hippurites cornu-vaccinum, Bronn ; reduced. Transverse section of the lower valve : from a specimen wanting the outer shell-wall ; and Fig. 3. Section of the same specimen, lower down. I, m, n. Inflections of the outer shell-wall {d). e. Inner layer, with finely laminated structure. a. Position of anterior adductor. a. Posterior adductor-process. t, t'. Dental processes of upper valve. Fig. 4. Hippurites corrugatus, n. sp. Transverse section of lower valve ; the in- terior obscured by crystallization. Fig. 5. Hippurites colliciatus, n. sp. Transverse section of lower valve ; ty t\ den- tal pits. Fig. 6. Hippurites vesiculosus, n. sp. Transverse section of lower valve ; the in- terior partly metamorphosed. N.B. The letters in figs. 4, 5, & 6 have the same meaning as in figs. 2 & 3. Plate V. Fig. 1. Radiolites Mortoni, il/aw^e^/ ; reduced. A considerable portion of a lower valve, seen from below. In the collection of Matthew Wright, Esq., of Stoke Newington. f'iriY FROM THE HILLS SOUTH OF HIOM TO THE CHA .HARLFIELD COPPER-MILLS NEAR filCKMANSWORTM . .Lotidcrt Cla.y - ! ! WeolwirA mui. Ttfodin^ Serirs _ Tliafut^ Sands Sc cffier 2>eeLt t^lhcXowerZot^dcrvTb^arif^ \p^zil OwXh Sl3 TSpr.^lmd. Jcwti rrcni nHuaZ .ntney an- marked -wiOi ? Scf I^xpT/mcciiart of Time 71 air Ifigli Wyaoinhc 2 . FROM CRAYFORD TO UPNOR NEAR ROCHESTER hill A'ln^lcwtU l.imt Mnmrtht Jjinsbiay Ppnur Ouuth ChulMpit TMlEmiETKCM; BIAfiHAMS m iixtfSTBATioN oi- a JPAST (dlDKBITIdDK m the JLH^ID) whick avE iuse to the JK??I[ATI?(>i 'iSMWE, mn ^^M) JPIOPE^S A. THE DRIFT-GRAVEL AS A Tmnmhle (havel HH^ JtirptTTTif/AiJlo Gi^ys . . ! HHI Tfrtiteahlc San^♀ ._ ht'..v.Tl Ca Utu anM Atr-atu , Vhikik , \^^ T7tf'♀jtoit' fff'the -fme htm.x 20 to 25 feet. *Sr???ai^-c-^p^- ;e J "---^;-^;^^ d ...Level of bottom of pit. > Probable Section. Earth and flint-rubble, variable ; 1 to 2 feet. Rubble of angular flints, fragments of chalk, and flint-pebbles, in clay and brick earth ; 4 to 6 feet. Brick-earth, mixed with variable masses of flint- and chalk-rubble, and con- taining bones and a few shells, chiefly in the lower part ; 10 to 18 feet. * The exact bearing of this pit is 0*7 mile in a direct line N.W. from Salisbury Cathedral. I 2 104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DeC. 13, d. Light- coloured fine marl, full of well-preserved shells, with a few bones ; 1 to 2 feet. e. Flint- and chalk-rubble, with sand and clav, onlv upper surface exposed ; 3 to 4 feet ? C. Chalk. The shells in the brick-earth, c, are here, as in this same drift in the other parts of the valley, few and irregularly dispersed ; but in the underlying marl, d, they occur in the greatest profusion, iii a very perfect state of preservation, and with traces of colour still discernible in some specimenSc Since my visit to this pit, my friend Mr. J. Brown of Stanway has passed several days there for the purpose of following up this inquiry, and has brought to light a very interesting series of land and freshwater shells, of which the par- ticulars are given at page 106. It is, however, in the brick-earth, c, that most of the bones are found. They sometimes occur in considerable quantities, especially at the base of the brick-earth and on the surface of the shell-marl, but are generally broken and in fragments, the teeth excepted. The greater part of the bones belong to the small long-fronted Ox {Bos longifrons) and the Red Deer {Cervus elaphus). I have found, however, remains of the Elephant and of the Tichorhine two-horned Rhinoceros, and probably of the Horse*. The Rhinoceros is rare at this spot ; but I am informed that in digging the foundations of the jail, a few hundred yards distant, a remarkable number of the teethf and bones of this animal were found. Mr. Brown enumerates 12 species of land-shells and 8 species of marsh and freshwater shells. They are all, without exception, recent species, and the greater part are now common in the same district ; one, in fact, the Pisidium amnicum, was first described from speci- mens found in the valley of the Avon near Salisbury. All the species found here have been met with in several other Pleistocene deposits of England ; but it is not often, except probably at Cop- thorne and Stutton, that so large a number of land-shells have been found together. There are no less than 7 species of Helix ; the H. hispida, H. arhustorum, and H. pulchella are plentiful, the latter especially. So also is the Pupa marginata ; the Limax agrestis is only rather less so. The water-mollusks, with the exception of the Succinea putris, which is abundant, are not so numerous, and form a group such as we might expect to find in a spring or shallow pond rather than in a river. This character of the fauna, taken together with the mineral cha- racter and the limited volume of the bed d, seems to indicate the former existence at this spot of a pool, or of a small shallow stream fed by springs rising out of the subjacent chalk, and supporting a few freshwater mollusks. The numerous land-shells, mostly of moisture- seeking species, may have been carried down by rains or destroyed by occasional floods. The mass of debris spread over this remnant of an ancient land- * These are not mentioned by Mr. Brown, p. 106, as he describes only that which he olitained during his few days' visit. ?f Several of these are preserved in the Museum of the Society. 18r)4.] PRESTWICH AND BROWN FISHERTON DRIFT. 10.5 surface consists of materials derived from the destruction chiefly of the chalk, but in part also of the Tertiary strata, and of the Green- sands ; for, with a large preponderance of flint- and chalk-rubble, there are also found round flint-pebbles and masses of saccharoid sandstone from the Woolwich and Reading series, which, there is reason to believe, once extended over this area. This debris also contains many fragments of chert and grit from the greensand, probably from the neighbouring vale of Wardour ; whilst the finer materials from these several deposits have formed, when well mixed together, the calcareous loam called brick-earth*. The whole of this drift is spread out without order or regular structure, without regard to the specific gravity of the materials, and comparatively without wear ; sometimes the light porous brick-earth, and at other times the heavy flint-rubble is at the top of the mass, whilst it often happens that heaps of the broken flints are entangled singly, or in irregular layers in the midst of the brick-earth. This flint-rubble is perfectly angular, and exhibits scarcely any traces of wear from rolling. The only specimens, in fact, exhibiting any long-continued wear are the flint-pebbles derived from the Tertiary beds, and the older origin of which, as pebbles, admits of no doubt. The greater part of the bones also are broken, and retain their sharp fractured edges. The underlying shell-marl, on the contrary, is the result probably of a perfectly quiet, local, and uninterrupted accumulation, for the shells are of all ages of growth, generally perfectly uninjured, and are imbedded apparently on the spot where they livedf . It is probable that the physical features of this district at the very recent geological period when the two above-named large extinct mammals J, associated with the Ox and Deer referred to species of which the descendants are supposed still to exist, roamed over the land, and the minute mollusks identical with recent species swarmed on the surface of that land and in its waters, differed to no great extent from those prevailing at the present day. The valleys are possibly rather deeper, and may be a few feet higher above the sea- level than they were at that period. ! [J. P., Jun.] * I have not thought it necessary to repeat in each separate section the whole of the rock-debris forming the beds of drift-gravel. The preponderating mass merely is defined. Debris from these Tertiary and Cretaceous beds is found scattered irregularly throughout the drift (and also in the surface-bed), but the flint-rubble forms in all cases the distinguishing feature. In the bed beneath the shell-bed at Mr. Harding's pit, specimens of these rocks are, however, scarcer ; though in this bed Mr. Brown found a subangular fragment of limestone, appa- rently from some of the secondary rocks of the vale of Wardour. t I purposely confine myself in this and the following two papers merely to a statement of the probable conditions prevailing in the several localities at the life-period of their respective faunas, reserving the more general theory, connected with the extent and nature of the geological changes of the Pleistocene period, until I shall have brought a greater number of facts, properly grouped, before the Society. X From the character and age of the deposit, and from the numerous unde- terminable fragments of bone which I have seen, I believe that the group of Mam- mals will prove to be far larger than here described. It will be important to collect further evidence on this subject. 106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DeC. 13, Organic Remains. ! My attention having been directed by Mr. Prestwich to the above-named locality, I went to Salisbury and spent several days there, during which I received every assistance from Mr. Harding, the proprietor of the pit. The freshwater-shell- bed is 1 foot 6 inches thick, and is composed of calcareous matter and fine sand, the latter insoluble in acids. I could not well ascertain the order in which the shells lie. They are perfectly white, and the land and freshwater shells are apparently intermingled. The condition of some of the very thin, delicate shells, such, for instance, as Pisidium, Ancylus^ and others equally thin and fragile, would indicate that they cannot have been drifted far. Many of the shells are as perfect as when living, and as much so as the shells from the Copford or Clacton freshwater deposit, where the shells are lying about appa- rently where they died. There are, however, fragments of shells in greater number at Fisherton. It is difficult, therefore, to say, until further investigation is made, how far the fossils of that bed or beds have been drifted, or whether they have been drifted at all. Fossils from the Freshwater Deposit at Fisherton, Salisbury. Mammalia. (See also p. 104.) Cervus elaphus . , Bos longifrons ...-! Distal end of tibia. Second phalanx (2 specimens). Base of antler. "Metacarpal of young animal. Fragment of tibia. Second phalanx (3 specimens). Proximal portion of radius. , Distal portion of radius. Bos (large animal). Molar tooth of upper jaw. Land Shells. Helix arbustorum, Linn. Numerous ; many broken. pygmsea, Drop. Many, but not abundant ; unbroken. radiatula, Aid. One fragment only. pulchella, Mixll. Nnmerous ; unbroken. rufescens, Penn. Numerous ; unbroken. fulva, Mixll. Plentiful ; unbroken. hispida, Linn. Numerous ; unbroken. ! ! , var. concinna, Jeff. Numerous ; many unbroken. Pupa muscorum, Linn. Numerous ; many unbroken. Zua lubrica, MiLll. A few ; perfect. Carychium minimum, Mull. Fragment ; scarce. Limax agrestis, Miill. Numerous ; perfect. Acme lineata, Drap. One fragment. Freshwater Shells. Valvata piscinalis, Miill. Not numerous ; a few unbroken. Succinea putris, Linn. Numerous ; in all stages of growth. Ancylus fluviatilis. Mull. Limnseus truncatulus, Miill. A few whole specimens. pereger, Mixll. Rare. Pisidiumamnicum, Mixll. pulchellum, Jen. ^ Not numerous. Valves separate. pusillum, Turt. 1854.] PRESTWICH ! STOKF. NEWINGTON GRAVEL. 107 Freshwater Crustacean. Candona ? Fragment. Portions of Bryozoans and other minute fossils derived from the Chalk also occur in this deposit. I am indebted to the kindness of Prof. Owen for the determi- nation of the Bones enumerated in the above Hst of the Mam- malia ; and for ascertaining several of the species in the list of shells from the Fisherton deposit, I have to thank my friend Mr. John Pickering. ! [J. B.] Since Mr. Prestwich's paper was read before the Society, I have further examined the gravel under the shell-bed, and I have found it composed of numerous flints, of all forms, from the size of the fist to an inch in diameter, angular ; of grey quartz-sandstone in pebbles, 1 to 2 inches in diameter ; limestone, angular in form and highly crystalline ; chalk, both hard and soft, in nodules of various sizes and in angular portions, angles smoothed by trituration ; flint- sponges (and other chalk-fossils, see below) ; the whole are imbedded in a mixture of clay and sand. Amongst this debris I have found the following Microzoa derived from the Chalk : ! List of minute Chalk-fossils from the Gravel below the Freshwater hed, Fisherton, Nodosaria Zippei. Abundant ; fragments. Cristellaria rotundata. Abundant ; worn. Marginulina ensis. Fragment, luoceramus, fragments of. Abundant. Bourgueticrinus, ossicles of. Not rare ; some worn. Ecliinodermata, spines of. Not rare ; fragments. Bryozoa. Abundant ; fragments, mostly worn. For the determination of these minute and beautiful fossils I am indebted to Mr. Rupert Jones.! [Feb. 1855. J. B.] 2. On a FossiLiFEROus Deposit in the Gravel at West Hackney. By Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. In the summer of 1853, Dr. Beeke informed me of the discovery of some large mammalian bones in a gravel-pit belonging to Mr. Hindle, at Shacklewell Lane, between Hackney and Stoke Newington*. In company with the former of these gentlemen, I visited the spot, which is 60 feet above the level of Trinity high-water mark, on several occasions, and found many points which I deem of sufficient interest to lay before the Society. I found that the bones were not actually in the gravel, but in a bed of clay between two beds of gravel, ! which clay forms a distinct and separate deposit with an abundance of freshwater and land shells. The occurrence of the bones was an exceptional case, no other * The pit is in Hackney parish. It is only distant, however, exactly a quarter of a mile, in a direct line due east, from West Hackney Church, Newington high road. 108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DeC. 13, bones ha\ing been previously met with at this pit, though common at some others in the neighbourhood. The following is a sketch of part of the pit : ! Section in Gravel-pit, Shacklewell Lane, West Hackney. XvT-yF^ivT^^E^f^'.^frr?)*?^^?^ f* ! .-J, ^.^v.-.?.*?*s*^^^ a. Brick-earth, removed at this spot, but worked in an adjoining pit 2 to 3 feet, b. Ochreous flint-gravel, with subordinate irregular layers of ochreous and yellow sand. (This is the only bed worked at this pit.) 6 feet. e. Dark-grey sandy clay, full of vegetable matter, with some bones and numerous shells. (This bed is only occasionally exposed.)... 2\ feet. d. Light-yellow sands and ferruginous gravel. (Depth not proved at this spot.) No fossils have been found in the brick-earth (?) of this district. The gravel {b) is spread out in large sheets which produce an ap- pearance of rough stratification ; it consists of subangular broken flints, with some very large nearly whole flints hardly at all worn, flint-pebbles from the Lower London Tertiaries, a few quartz and sandstone pebbles, and some rolled pieces of very hard, compact, siliceous sandstone. Only a few feet square of the underlying clay (c) was uncovered. The line of separation between these two beds is merely slightly waved, except at one spot, where the gravel lay in an indentation in the clay, filling a rectangular trough, one foot deep (see fig.). This bed (c) presents some features of considerable interest ; it consists of a laminated clay more or less sandy, of a dark -grey colour, and abounds in many parts with the small broken branches and leaves of trees ; scattered here and there are also found portions of the stems and trunks of trees, some 3 or 4 feet long and 6 to 1 2 inches in diameter, all lying prostrate and in no one given direction*. This clay also contains numerous very fragile but generally perfect shells. Of these ten are land shells, and thirteen are water shells ; they are all of recent species, and constitute a group which seems to indicate a deposit formed in shallow fresh water. The trees apparently did not grow on the spot, for no traces of roots in situ occur, although they probably flourished in the immediate neighbourhood ; and as their remains are found dispersed irregularly throughout this clay, and are not confined either to the top or bottom of the bed, their presence here is not owing to the agency which spread the upper gravel (6) over this bed, or to that which * Prof. Quekett, having kindly made a microscopical examination of the woody matter here referred to, informs me that he has recognized oak, elm, alder, and hazel amongst the fragments. 1854.] PRESTWICH ! STOKE NEWINGTON GRAVEL. 109 caused the extension of this deposit itself over the lower gravel (c?), ! that is to say, it was neither the flooding of a previously dry sur- face by the waters from which the shelly clay was afterwards depo- sited, nor was it by the detrital sweep of the upper gravel over this later area of water and dry land that the trees were destroyed. Their presence must, on the contrary, be due to some common cause in common operation during the whole period that the freshwater mollusks were living undisturbed in these waters. One cause might be occasional floods ; although in that case we might have expected a greater change in the sediment, arising from the greater trans- porting power of the water, ! the trees to have been more in seams, more of them showing uprooting, and more entire. Whereas the trees are in fragments, their branches and stems are sharply broken into short pieces, lying about without order, all prostrate, and in a sediment showing little or no change. I conceive such a result to have arisen partly no doubt from this cause, but probably chiefly from the occasional breaking off of boughs and the smaller stems of trees on the margins of these pools or meres, during gales of wind, which scattered them and the leaves over the surface of these waters, where they sank and got buried vrith the Planorbis, LimncBus, Pisidium, &c. The texture of the wood is generally but very little altered, and its colour is often almost unchanged. When dried, it becomes extremely light. The bones were found at the base of the shelly clay, and con- sisted of part of the trunk of some large mammal (Ox?)* ; nine ver- tebrae and some of the bones of the legs were found together, but the skull was missing ; nor, notwithstanding the diligent search established by Mr. Hindle and Dr. Beeke for several feet around, could we succeed in obtaining any further remains of this animal. Unlike the wood, the bones were much mineralized and very heavy. The evidence afforded by the remains of this animal agrees with that afforded by the remains of the vegetation. The bones were tranquilly imbedded in the mud of a freshwater deposit, the animal probably having after death floated on the surface of the waters, the bones subsiding here and there as the carcase decayed and fell to pieces ; for it must be observed that the bones show no traces of wear or fracture, ! nothing to denote violence or distant transport. Under the clay (c) is found a bed of gravel and sands, some light- coloured and others ferruginous, in the upper part of which shells, I was told, similar to those found in the clay have occasionally been found ; I however met with none. This gravel consists of subangular flints chiefly, with a few flint-pebbles ; not enough of it was dug up to notice whether there were any pebbles of the secondary rocks. Its thickness is not shown here ; but as the London Clay comes out on the side of the adjacent Hackney Brook on a level a few feet lower, I do not think it can exceed 6 to 10 feet. The shells procured from the deposit we have here described, pre- sent a general close agreement ^\ith those found in the Salisbury drift (see p. lOG), except that the group of marsh and pond shells is more * The bones unfortunately have been mislaid. 110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DeC. 13, developed ; whilst land shells are scarcer and are m greater part such as frequent marshy places and damp woods. With the Grays fauna, these two deposits present only a few species in common ; but a difference of conditions, such as a greater body and depth of water, combined with a probable occa- sional slight brackishness, may account for this variation; for although many of the species are distinct at these three localities, yet they all agree in the common fact of the species being identical with recent species, and such as for the most part still remain associated in like position, under like conditions, in this country at the present day. All the three deposits belong, I believe, to a period subsequent to that of the Boulder Clay ; but the arguments on this subject I must reserve to a future occasion, when I have gone into the evidence afforded by the various drift-beds of the valley of the Thames and of the adjacent counties more in detail. One of the principal points of interest attaching to this particular section is the clear indication of two gravel-periods separated by an interval of dry-land surface, ! a character common throughout this district, and to which also we shall have occasion to allude in greater detail on another occasion. The following are the Mollusks I have found in this deposit. For the determination of the species I am indebted to Mr. J. Pickering: ! Shells from the clay beneath the gravely Shacklewell Lane. Bithinia tentaculata {Linn) ; and Carychiura minimum, Miill. its opercula. Zua lubrica, Mull. Valvata piscinalis, Miill. Pupa muscorum, Linn. Limnaeus palustris. Linn. Helix pulchella, Miill. truncatulus, Miill. aculeata, Midi. glaber ?, Miill. hispida ?, Linn. stagnalis ?, Linn. Zonites radiatulus, Alder. Succinea putris, Linn. nitidus, Miill. Planorbis marginatus, Drap. crystallinus, Miill. spirorbis, Linn. Pisidium pulchellura, Jenyns. nautileus, Linn. obtusale, Jenyns. Clausilia, sp. ? pusillum, Turt. The shells of this deposit are in a very rotten and often frag- mentary state, and it is probable that there are many more species. 3. On a FossiLiFEROus Bed of the Drift Period near the Re- culvers. By Joseph Prestw^ich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. This deposit is, like the one described p. 101, spread over the base of a hill, which here slopes down to the marshes separating this part of Kent from the Isle of Thanet. It is exposed in two pits near Wear Farm (see Ordnance Map), on the road from Chislet to the Reculvers. The height of the ground above the level of the adjacent marsh or of the sea, does not exceed 20 to 30 feet. The pit in a field to the east of the road offers the best section ; it is as follows : ! 1854.] PRESTWICH ! RECULVERS GRAVEL. Ill Section of Sand-pit on Wear Farm, near the Recuhers * . H b. Gravel, flint-rubble, and brick-earth 3 to 8 feet. c. Light quartzose sand, with seams of fine flint-gravel, in some of which shells are numerous ; contains irregular subordinate layers of laminated clay, with traces of vegetables at (/. Immediately on the chalk is a band of large angular flints, c" 8 to 12 feet. C. Chalk. The other pit shows, with a few general features in common, a very marked difference in detail. The upper bed b is much more developed and predominant. The shells occur principally in seams of fine gravel in the lower of the section : in a few spots only are they numerous. The greater portion of the sands and gravel are without shells. Entomostraca, however, appear to be more abundantly diffused, but still they occur chiefly in certain seams or layers. I found a few bones of large Mammals, some apparently belong- ing to the Ox. The shells are in a good state of preservation, and consist of the following species, which Mr. Pickering has kindly ex- amined and determined : ! Cyrena consobrina, Caill. (C. trigonula, Wood.) Opercular valves of Balanus. Bithinia tentaculata, Linn. Ancylus fluviatilis, Milll. Paludina or Rissoa ; very like the one found at Grays. This list, although short, is of considerable interest, for we here find the Grays or Nile Cyrena, together with two more distinctly freshwater shells, associated with the distinctly marine genus, the Balanus. The opercular valves of this Cirriped were found in the fine gravel filling the interior of the Cyrence. The small Falu- dina and the Cyrena abound in places. Imperfect traces of vege- table remains occur in some thin seams of clay subordinate to the mass of sand and fine gravel. The general character of the organic remains indicates a local deposit accumulated on the spot, and in comparatively tranquil waters. The fossiliferous bed is overlaid by a mass of gravel-rubble and brick-earth, varying in thickness from 3 to 8 feet, and presenting general phsenomena with respect to angularity of many of the flints, rapid variation of structure, &c., analogous to that of the flint- and chalk-rubble described at p. 105. The rubble, however, instead of being derived chiefly direct from the chalk, is here com- * The more exact bearing of this pit is \\ mile in a direct line N.N.W. from the Grove Ferry station (South-E astern Railway), and 2*7 miles southward (^ mile west of due south) from the Reculvers old Church. ] 12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 13, posed in greater part of materials derived from an older gravel, and from shingle-beds of the Tertiary period ; still with a local admix- ture of angular flints and chalk-rubble. As well as the few specimens will allow us to judge, this de posit may be correlated with the one at Clacton on the opposite Essex coast*, where also recent marine and freshwater mollusks have been found by Mr. J. Brown, associated together in a deposit underlying the gravel. My chief object in making this short communication to the Society is to direct attention to a locality not hitherto noticed, and which I think likely to yield on further examination a far more important series of Pleistocene fossils than those here enumerated, which were procured during two very short visits. Note. ! I am indebted to Mr. Rupert Jones for the following interesting particulars respecting the microscopic fossils : ! "The Entomostraca comprise three forms. The first is very abundant ; the other two are very rare : Candona torosa, Jones. Cypris gibba, Ramd, A minute undeterminable form. ** There is also among the minute organisms picked out from these sands one Rhizopod, ! a Globiilina. '* The Candona torosaf is a minute bivalved Crustacean, inhabiting the brackish-water ditches near Gravesend. It occurs also plentifully in the Grays deposits, in company with other recent and some extinct (?) Entomostraca. Cypris gibbaX is a recent form, very common in freshwater ponds. "The Foraminifer (Globulina), by its presence in the deposit in question, may be regarded as evidence of the at least brackish-water character of the Wear Farm sands. Mr. Pickering, who first dis- covered the recent specimens of C. torosa in the Gravesend ditches, found also a Rosalina-like Foraminifer associated with them ; ! a parallel to the above. " The valves of the Entomostraca are sometimes separate and some- times united. The sand and fine gravel in which these pleistocene fossils occur, frequently contain also numerous minute chalk-fossils, such as Cytherellce, Bulimince, Rosalince and Crist ellaricB, spiculse of Inoceramus shells, &c." 4. On Land-surfaces beneath the Drift-gravel. By R. Godwin Austen, Esq., Sec.G.S., F.R.S. I stated several years since ′ that the thick gravel-beds of the valley of the Wey below Guildford were underlaid by an old terrestrial surface, indicated by peat, trees, and sedimentary deposits, ! that the remains of the extinct mammalia were usually associated with this * Also with Grays and Salisbury. f For description and figures of C. torosa, Jones, see Annals Nat. Hist. 2 ser. vol. vi. p. 27. pi. 3. fig. 6 a, c. X See Annals, /. c. pi. 3. fig. 4. ′ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. vi. p. 90 ; and vol. vii. p. 136, Table. 1854.] AUSTEN ! LAND-SITRFACES BENEATH DRIFT. 113 old surface, ! and that it was in mud and silt of this age that the nearly perfect skeleton was found on the Pease Marsh, as was also the other of the parallel valley of the River Mole. As the great end to which geological inquiry is now tending is that of the past physi- cal conditions which the earth's surface has undergone, and as the value of such inferences is wholly dependent on the accuracy with which observed facts may have been described, I am desirous of adding to the instances I before adduced respecting this ancient ter- restrial surface, more particularly as the facts referred to have been represented in another way by Mr. P. J. Martin, in his "Additional Observations on the Anticlinal Line of the London and Hampshire Basins," published in the Philosophical Magazine, March 1854. With reference to the phaenomena of the Wealden area, considered physically, Mr. Martin is of opinion that ** the key to the whole is in the conception of the cotemporaneity of upheaval and denudation," and that '* there is no drift that is not of the age of the denudation." The circumstance that there should occur marl-beds, showing tranquil accumulations for long periods, ! peat-bogs in old valleys, with trees of large growth, ! and all now overlaid and preserved by this very covering of drift-gravel, proves that an external configuration of the surface somewhat the same as is presented now existed before the Drift, and that the two phaenomena of denudation and drift-beds cannot be coupled as cause and effect. Mr. Martin therefore observes, " Of the fossil or diluvial wood and trunks of trees in situ amongst [? beneath] the gravel-beds of Surrey, below the chalk, spoken of by Sir R. Murchison"^ (on the authority of Mr. Austen) in attestation of ' a true terrestrial surface,' after the commencement of the denuding aera [subsequent to the comple- tion of the process of denudation?], I cannot say that they do not exist, but I have looked into many gravel-pits there, and in the cor- responding districts under the South Downs, and I have never seen any wood in drift which was not of the most modern description, such as would till lately have been called mere 'alluvium.' Carbonized trunks of trees are to be found in all the bogs and swamps, especially in the alluvium of the river-courses, as noticed in my early memoir on Western Sussex. On the banks of the Mole and the Wey, and of their affluents, I doubt not such prostrate and uprooted trees may be detected; ! they are post-diluvial." The " diluvial " has ceased to be a definite geological period for the last ten years or more ; and it may seem to some that it was not necessary to notice such objections, more particularly as they were accompanied by such other representations as that " the raised beach at Brighton belongs to the Eocene asra." The supposition that the terrestrial surfaces referred to truly formed part of the most modern or present period was altogether unnecessary, inasmuch as these peaty and alluvial accumulations were distinguished f from the older ones both by position and in the different assemblage of animal remains. * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii p. 375, &c. f Ibid. vol. vii. p. 281. 114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DcC. 13, The older terrestrial surface does not occur anywhere, that I know of, on the immediate banks of the Wey or Mole. These rivers and their affluents now flow at levels much below the general outspread of the transported gravel. Even at the height at which it is now kept artificially, the River Wey, from Guildford to Godalming, does not come near the base of the gravel-beds vertically ; nor at times of greatest flood does it occupy the space formed by the denudation which the gravel-beds themselves have experienced since their original distribution. Near Farnham, the gravel-beds are 30 feet above the level of the river ; in the Pease Marsh the difference is not less. The modern alluvia and the drift-gravel beds, in the case of the rivers referred to by Mr. Martin, never occur together. But, as it is a matter of some interest to make out as many points as possible where vestiges are preserved of that old land-surface which was coeval with the fauna of large extinct Mammalia which once existed here, I would first indicate a locality at which it has been shown since my former communication on the valley of the Wey*. The great sheet of gravel and brick-earth which is spread out over Wonersh Common (see Map, fig. 1) runs out to the edge of the depression in which the Tillingbourne stream flows. The gravel-beds are cut off abruptly, and are from 8 to 1 feet above the level of the water, measuring to their lowest line. In the course of some works connected with the formation of water-meadows in East Shalford, a water-course was carried along these beds for a considerable distance. They were seen to consist of gravel and sands, with diagonal bedding, showing an arrangement by running water, such as I have described^, and contained Elephant remains. At a spot near where the road from Wonersh Common to East Shalford Farm crosses the water- course, and afterwards the Tillingbourne, a good section was exposed, which had, when I first saw it, been swept clean by a large body of water having been turned through it. The section showed 1. Drift-gravel; 8 feet. 2. Bed with black vegetable matter, seemingly composed of matted roots, with occasional trees, ! the whole associated with fine marly beds. 3. Neocomian clay. The roots of the larger trees descended into the subjacent clays. There were also smaller stems, with a bark like that of the hazel ; but the wood had perished. This terrestrial surface was identified again about a mile higher up the valley, near Tangley Pond, beneath about 1 8 feet of gravel ; and consists of marly beds with much vegetable matter, and blending with the sands and gravels above. This locality is not on the line of the present stream, but is a part of what formed a low tract before the overspread of the gravel ; and, as a general rule, it will be found that the Elephant remains are always most abundant in the gravels which occur about such spots. In the instance which has just been * Quart. Joiirn. Geol. Soc. vol. vii. p. 278. f Ibid. p. 284. 1854.] AUSTEN LAND-SURFACES BENEATH DRIFT. 115 116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DeC. 13, noticed, as in every other, there was a total absence of any detritus below this old terrestrial surface. I am well aware that, in the majority of cases where drift-gravel beds are seen in superposition on inferior strata, there are no indica- tions of terrestrial conditions ; but it must be borne in mind that at every time, as now, the accumulation of peaty matter is a local and exceptional case ; and all that can be expected is, that it should occur when the old configuration of the surface rendered its formation possible. This old land-surface supplies us with a definite and valuable, though isolated, date in the geological history of a large area north of the Wealden denudation. I would here refer to one or two instances, in order to show that old terrestrial surfaces of like age with those in the north of the Wealden area exist elsewhere. Isle of Wight. ! I had previously visited the locality indicated by Sir H. Englefield, whose description* will still be found most accu- rate, that " near the top of the cliff lie numerous trunks of trees, not lodged in the undisturbed strata, but buried 8 or 10 feet under sand and gravel. Many are 1 foot or 2 feet in diameter, and 10 to 12 feet in length ; their substance is soft, but their forms are distinct ; and with them occur considerable quantities of small nuts, like those of the hazel." He adds that no hazel now grows upon the island ; nor has the subversion of the trees been an event of recent occur- rence. I had further an opportunity of seeing, in company with the late Prof. E. Forbes, his own discovery of an instance of terrestrial surface infraposed to the Drift-gravels, at the east end of the Isle of Wight, near St. Helens ; which he noticed in a communication on the newer Eocenes of that locality, but which has been omitted in the published abstract. The beds themselves present the usual characters of all accumulations of vegetable matter in low damp situations, in- cluding the remains of trees of large size. The beds contained the remains of Insects. The overlying gravel-beds are developed on a grand scale, forming part of a band in the noi'th of the central chalk-ridge of Brading and Bembridge Downs ; and corresponding with that which occupies the central valley, along the line of the anticlinal of the island, ! or to the south of the same ridge. The Brading gravels, where thickest, as near Foreland, have a marked bedded arrangement, which is not quite horizontal, but inclines towards the chalk-range. The materials have been derived from the chalk, but, though from Foreland the gravel extends southward over the edges of the upturned Eocene beds, they stop short, and do not reach the chalk-strata. The like happens with respect to the gravel-masses of the south side of the central range, along the Yar. They will be seen to be separated from, and to range below the level of the chalk, ! in other words, they have not been produced by the abrasion of the chalk-strata now nearest to them ; thus showing, in conformity with what has been noticed respecting the longitudinal valleys of the Wealden, that they were destitute of detritus before the Drift-gravel Period. The superposition of the * Englefield's Isle of Wight, p. 132. pi. 22. 1854.] AUSTEN LAND-SURFACES BENEATH DRIFT. 117 stratified gravel-beds of Brook, which belong to the central valley area, over a terrestrial surface of the same age as that of St. Helens, tends to refer all the gravels spread over the surface of the tertiary series to one and the same group. Coast of France. ! On the evidence that masses of peat were brought up in trawls from parts of the sea-bed off the French coast (Pas de Calais, Department of the Somme), ! and that over the same spots the remains of Elephas primigenius were very frequent as well as perfect, I ventured on the opinion that these parts of the Channel had formed part of the dry-land-surface of the period of that fauna. Some observations by French geologists (Rozet) respecting a toiirbe du Diluvium indicated that they had seen instances of terrestrial surfaces beneath the gravel-drift ; none of them, however, have been particularly indicated. It was therefore with much interest that, in conjunction with several members of this Society, I met with such a case in the course of a geological excursion in the spring of last year. The place at which the section, fig. 2, was taken, is about half-way between Dieppe and the Lighthouse of St. Marguerite. The beds are cut off by the cliff as represented in the sketch. The portion remaining has a slight basin-shaped arrangement, as if the vegetable and sedimentary matter had been collected in some local depression. The underlying beds belong to the lower Eocenes ; and above are thick water-strewn beds of flint-gravel. Mr. D. Sharpe collected in the deposit in question the remains of insects. Fig. 2. ! Cliff Section exposed near Dieppe. 1. Gravel. VOL. XI. ! PART I. 2. Peaty layers. 3. Tertiary beds. 118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [DcC. 13, These facts are offered as additional evidence in support of the conclusion I put forward in a communication on the area of the English Channel, ! viz. that a very large portion of it formed a con- tinuous surface of dry land with the adjoining parts of France and England, at the time of the Large Mammalian fauna in these coun- tries. The geological phaenomena of this age are in perfect harmony on either side of the Channel. It may have been remarked by whoever has sailed along the French coast at the distance of a few miles, that the chalk-cliffs rise to a very uniform elevation along their whole course : they have the appear- ance of a vertical wall rising from the sea, with openings at intervals, where deep valleys open out at the sea-level ; whilst at times such depressions in the outline only extend downwards for a portion of the height of the cliffs. The valley-systems of this chalk -area are some- what remarkable ; they take their rise at the very summit-level, descend rapidly, join others, and finally merge into one of the great lines of drainage : small streams flow down some, only occasional streams down others. They are all valleys of excavation ; but in no instance has this process gone lower than, or so low as the sea- level, except perhaps in the estuary parts of one or two of the larger rivers. As we cannot imagine that the depths of these valleys can have had any influence in determining the amount of the general elevation of the chalk-formation over this area, the contrary may be assumed, ! viz. that the amount of elevation has determined the extent of ex- cavation. Over the whole of the chalk-area here described, the upper tabular surfaces are covered with the accumulation of flint-drift, not in con- fused masses, but in alternating layers of clay, coarse detritus, and sands, with diagonal bedding, and all other indications of successive accumulation. The materials of the gravel occur in the valleys, but under totally different appearances. They here present no regularity in arrangement, conform to the slopes, and are mixed up with the subaerial accumulations of the hill-sides, which they seem to have incorporated with them. As a general rule, the heights are covered with gravel, and the valleys are free. It follows then that the valley-systems must have been mainly formed since the dispersion of the Drift ; ! and this is confirmed by the fact that it is only in the deeper valleys before mentioned, such as those of the Somme, the Authie, and the Canche, ! which are valleys connected with the axis of Artois, ! that old terrestrial surfaces occur which were coeval with the extinct fauna of large mammals. From this we may venture on one further inference, ! that the agent which has produced the greater part of the existing valley-systems of the chalk-area of the North of France has been merely meteoric. Against this any denudation-theory is inadmissible, in consequence both of the irregularly diverging character of the valleys, and the loose materials on the summit-levels. Had these deep narrow valleys existed prior to the Drift, they must necessarily have been filled before any accumulation could form and be spread out uniformly over the higher levels. 1854.] DAWSON ! SUBMERGED FOREST. 119 The position of the gravels of the coast of France shows how very great has been the change of level around the English Channel area* since the period of their dispersion. The formation of valleys, such as those of the French chalk-area, may seem to some to require an agency more powerful than that now suggested ; but, taking as our guide the quantity of lime taken up by every gallon of rain-water which flows from our own chalk-district, the question becomes one of time, in the course of which every line' of inequality along which water may flow must ultimately be deepened and widened out. This is not the place for details of such a calcula- tion ; which, with other effects of subaerial agency, I propose to submit collectively. If the cause be the true one, we have the data for the determining the lapse of time from the elevation of the Drift- beds down to the times in which we live ; and, however vast that period may seem, which is but the newest date in our geological reckoning, we must not on that account merely reject the result. The extent of the hydrographical area of the southern counties of England and of the opposite side of the Channel during the period of the distribution of the Drift-gravel can now be determined with tolerable accuracy, by combining the results of several observers (more particularly those of Mr. Prestwich and Mr. Morris) who have noticed and described them. Over the whole area I have never seen, or even heard of, the presence of a single form which would in- dicate marine origin. In spite of the great extent of the area, I believe the body of water to have been fresh ; and, as a whole, it may be geologically the equivalent of some of the northern gravel- drifts, which were undoubtedly marine. The climatal conditions are, I think, indicated by the manner in which large blocks of siliceous sandstone have been lifted and let fall amidst accumulations indicating no great moving power. Such ap- pearances are well seen in the drift-area to the north of the chalk- range of Surrey, particularly about Ash. The distance from which these blocks have been moved cannot have been very great ; and the only condition which seems to meet the requirements is one ! where coast-ice was periodically formed and dispersed, carrying with it such materials as might be included in or attached to it. January 3, 1855. Dr. A. Halley was elected a Fellow. The following communications were read : ! \. On a Modern Submerged Forest at Fort Lawrence, Nova Scotia. By J. W. Dawson, Esq., F.G.S. The extraordinary tides of the Bay of Fundy, and its wide marshes and mud-flats, are well known to geologists as affording some of the best modern instances of rapid tidal deposition, and of the preserva- * See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. vi. p. 69, and vol, vii. p. 118. K 2 120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL. SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, tion of impressions of footsteps, rain-drops, and sun-cracks. Attention has not, however, been called to the fact which I propose to notice in this paper, that much, if not the whole, of the marine alluvium of the Bay of Fundy rests on a submerged terrestrial surface, distinct indications of which may be observed in the mud-flats laid bare at low tide, and in the deep ditches dug for drainage. In their natural state, the alluvial soils of the Bay of Fundy are mud-flats overflowed by the high tide, and either quite bare or covered in part with salt-grass. Large tracts have, however, been reclaimed from the sea, and are distinguished by the name of "dyked marsh," or more shortly " dyke." There are in Nova Scotia 40,000 acres of dyked marsh, and in New Brunswick perhaps 10,000 acres. The soil of the marshes is everywhere a fine marine mud, deposited in thin layers by the tides, and of a brownish-red colour ; except in the subsoil and in the lower parts of the surface where the colour has been changed to grey by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on the ferruginous colouring matter. Though remarkably productive of grasses and cereals, no part of the marsh-land supports forest trees. Dyked and salt marshes occur in nearly every creek and inlet of the upper part of the Bay of Fundy, more especially in Minas Basin, Cobequid Bay, and Cumberland Basin ; and it is in this latter that the submarine forest to which this paper refers is found to underlie the marine alluvium. Fort Lawrence is a low point of upland, resting on Lower Carboni- ferous rocks, and separating the estuaries of two small streams, the La Planche and Missequash ; the latter forming at this place the boundary between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Both of these rivers, as well as the other streams emptying themselves into Cum- berland Basin, have at their mouths extensive tracts of marsh, and in this instance the marsh-land extends beyond and overlaps the upland point separating the rivers. At the extremity of the point the upland slopes gently down to the dyked marsh, beyond which there is a narrow margin of salt-marsh, scantily clothed with coarse grasses and Salicornia. This margin of marsh without the dyke is overflowed by the highest tides, and may therefore be taken as the high-water level. Owing to the toughness of the upper layer matted with roots, and the action of the neap tides, it presents at the outer edge a perpendicular front about five feet in height. Below this there is a sloping expanse of red mud, cut into many inequalities by the tidal currents, which appear here to be removing the old deposit rather than adding new material. On the surface of this mud I saw impressions of rain- drops and sun-cracks, tracks of sandpipers and crows, and abundance of the shells of Sangninolaria fusca"^ . There were also a few long straight furrows, which I was told had been produced by the ice in spring. Owing to the firmness of the mud, they remained (in August) quite sharply marked, though in places filled up with new mud. At the distance of 326 paces from the abrupt edge of the marsh, and about twenty-five feet below the level of the highest tides, which * Probably identical with Tellina Balthica, Linn. 1855.] DAWSON ! SUBMERGED FOREST. 121 here rise in all about forty feet, the mud becomes mixed with sand and gravel, with occasional large stones, probably dropped by the ice. At this level appear erect stumps and many prostrate trunks of trees. The stumps are scattered as in an open forest, and occupy a belt of 135 paces in breadth and extending on either side for a much greater distance. I saw more than thirty stumps in the limited portion of the belt which I examined. Between the lowest erect stumps and the water-level at low tide is a space of 170 paces, in which I observed only fragments of roots and prostrate trunks, which may, however, be the remains of trees swept away by the ice from the portion of the shore on which these fragments now lie. On digging around some of the stumps, they were found to be rooted in ground having all the characters of ordinary upland forest- soil. In one place the soil was a reddish sandy loam with small stones, like the neighbouring upland of Fort Lawrence. In another place it was a black vegetable mould, resting on a whitish sandy subsoil. The smallest roots of all the stumps were quite entire and covered with their bark, and the appearances were perfectly conclu- sive as to their being in the place of their growth. I have no doubt that the whole of these stumps have been deeply covered with the marsh-deposit, and have been laid bare by the encroachments of the tides on this somewhat exposed point. In a few places the lowest layer of the mud originally deposited over the forest soil could be observed. It is a very tough unctuous blue clay, with a few vege- table remains resembling roots of grasses. This may have been the first deposit from sea-water, while the forest was still sufficiently dense to prevent the access of coarser sediment. All the stumps and trunks observed were pine and beech (Pinus strobiis and Fagus ferrvginea), and it is worthy of notice that these are trees indicative rather of dry upland than of swampy ground. The pine-wood is quite sound within, though softened and discoloured at the surface. The beech is carbonized at the surface, and so brittle and soft that trunks of large size can be cut with a spade, or broken across by a very slight blow. Owing to this softened condi- tion of the beech-stumps, they are rounded at top, and scarcely rise above the surface of the mud ; while some of the pines project more than a foot. Even these last, however, are much worn and crushed by the pressure of the ice. The largest stump observed was a pine, two feet six inches in diameter, and exhibiting about 200 lines of growth. These appearances cannot be explained by driftage, for the trees are rooted in a perfect woodland-soil ; nor can they be accounted for by landslips, for the stumps are separated from the nearest upland by marshes nearly a quarter of a mile in width, and the upland is low and gentle in its slope. The popular explanation is that the tides have at some former period been dammed out, or their entrance obstructed by a narrowing of the mouth of the Bay. This theorv is countenanced by the present state of the tideway of the St. John River, in which a ledge of rock so obstructs the narrow entrance, that, while at low tide there is a considerable fall outward, at half 122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, tide the water becomes level, and at high tide there is a fall inward ; the level within not rising to that of high water without, except in times of flood, when the excess of fresh water in the river supplies the deficiency of tide-water. It is evident that the complete removal of this obstruction would enable every tide to overflow ground now covered only by the annual river-floods ; and, on the other hand, the river would be daily drained out to the level of the low tide. Such an obstruction would without doubt produce a change in the water- level of Cumberland Basin, and might even enable trees to flourish a few feet below the present high-water mark ; but it could not under any circumstances enable upland-woods to grow nearly at the level of low tide in a country so well supplied with streams. The only remaining mode of accounting for the phsenom.ena is the supposition that a subsidence to the amount of about forty feet has occurred in the district. Such a subsidence is not likely to have been limited to Fort Lawrence Point ; and accordingly I have been informed by intelligent persons, long resident in the neighbourhood, that submerged stumps have been observed at a number of other places, in circumstances which showed that they were in situ ; and that trees and vegetable soil have been uncovered in digging ditches in the marsh. Nor are these appearances limited to Cumberland Basin. At the mouth of Folly River, on the southern arm of the Bay, a submerged forest on an extensive scale is said to occur ; and in the marshes of Cornwallis and Granville vegetable soils are found under the marsh. These facts render it probable that the subsidence in question has extended over the whole shores of the Bay, and that the marshes have been deposited and the present lines of coast-cliff cut since its occurrence. The marshes of the Bay of Fundy are known to have existed at or about their present level for 250 years. It is true that an opinion prevails in some of the marsh-districts, that the tides now rise higher than formerly, and in proof it is alleged that the dykes are now maintained with greater difliculty, and that tracts of marsh once dyked have been abandoned. The settling of the mud and the nar- rowing of the tidal channels by new embankments may, however, have produced these effects. For the antiquity of these submerged forests, we must therefore add to the two centuries and a half which have elapsed since the European occupation of the country a suffi- cient time for the deposition of the alluvium of the marshes. On the other hand, the state of preservation of the wood, after making every allowance for the preservative effects of the salt-mud, shows that its growth and submergence must belong to the later part of the modern period. It is a singular coincidence that this comparatively modern in- stance of the submergence and burial of a forest should occur in the vicinity of the Joggins cliffs, which so well exhibit the far more wonderful events of a like character which occurred in the Carboni- ferous Period. 1855.] OWEN PURBECK REPTILES. 123 2. Notice of sotne New Reptilian Fossils from the Purbeck Beds near Swanage. By Prof. Owen, F.R.S., F.G.S. Having received from Mr. W. R. Brodie, i'art of the right ramus of Swanage, a second collection of fossils of the Lower Jaw with from the Purbeck beds at Durdlestone Bay teeth of Saurillus for examination, I find amongst the Ver- obtusus, Owen. (Nat. tebrate specimens some IchthyoUtes and size and magnified.) two examples of Reptilia : the latter seem <^?-ujaa.ii worthy of a woodcut ; they are small, and may be described as follows : ! Specimen A, from the "dirt-bed*," no. 93 in Mr. Austen's stratigraphical listf. It indicates a Lacertian genus and species, for which I propose the name of Saurillus obtusus. This lizard is repre- sented by the right dentary bone of the lower jaw (see fig.), containing 13 mode- rately long, conical, blunt-pointed teeth, ?. One of the teeth magnified. differing in form from those of the Nu- thetes and Macellodus described in a former communication J, and from the same formation and locality. The teeth in Saurillus are not so long nor so recurved as in Nu- thetes, nor are they compressed as in that genus ; and they are not broad and flat as in Macellodus. On the outer side of the dentary bone are six nervo-vascular foramina in a longitudinal row, relatively as numerous and large as in the Iguanodon, and indicating, as in that and other Saurian reptiles, the scaly covering of the jaws and the equally reptilian condition of the salivary apparatus in the little Sau- rillus. Supposing the fossil to have come from a mature individual, the size of the animal must have been equal to that of the common European lizard Lacerta agilis. It was most probably insectivorous. The specific name refers to the obtuse termination of the muzzle, as indicated by the form of the fore part of the jaw, and also to the blunt apices of the conical teeth. See figure. Specimen B, from the same bed, is a portion of jaw with two long, slender, recurved, pointed teeth, of an almost circular transverse section, with two opposite low but sharp ridges along the enamelled crown, like those in Teleosaurian teeth. If this fragment formed part of a full-grown animal, it indicates a species of Saurian, probably Lacertian, reptile, distinct from any of the before-defined kinds from the Purbecks. The jaw-bone is, however, too much mutilated at the base of the teeth to determine their precise mode of attachment. The teeth are black, with the enamel unusually lustrous. A portion of a jaw of a somewhat larger reptile, with empty sockets for simple teeth like those of a Crocodile, is imbedded in the same * See also Quart. Journ. Geol, Soc. No. 40, p. 423 and p. 482. t Guide to the Geology of Purbeck. 8vo. 1852. t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. June 1854, no. 40, pp. 420-426, figs. 1-8. 124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, slab. Neither of these indications call for a specific name ; future explorations by their discoverer may bring to light more evidence of the animal so indicated. iVlready much valuable knowledge of the Vertebrate fossils of the Purbecks has been gained by the indefati- gable researches and acute discernment of Mr. Brodie. 3. Notice of a new species of an extinct genus o/'Dibran- CHiATE Cephalopod {CoccoteutMs latipinnis) from the Upper Oolitic Shales at Kimmeridge. By Prof. Owen, F.H.S., F.G.S. &c. [Plate VIL] The subject of the present notice is the internal shell, * sepium' or cuttle-bone of a large Dibranchiate Cephalopod, combining some of the characters of that of the Cuttle (Sepia) with that of the Squid {Loligo, Sepioteiithis, &c.). The specimen was discovered by W. R. Brodie, Esq., at low-water-mark, in the shales at Kimmeridge, in a layer of which it lies imbedded, with the dorsal surface exposed. It is 1 foot in length, although the hinder pointed end is broken away, and 5^ inches in breadth at its broadest part, about one-third from the hinder end ; proportions which indicate the entire animal yielding it to have been about a yard in length from the end of the outstretched arms (see PI. VII.) . The sepium is slightly convex along the middle of the dorsal surface, which is the one exposed, and this convexity is beset with hard calcareous granules; the largest, occupying the middle of the convexity, are about half a line in diameter, and gradually diminish in size to the anterior border, and to within two inches and a half of the frac- tured posterior end. The substance of the plate which sustains these granules is calcified, but the calcareous layer is very thin, about one- third of a line, and it coats a black internal horny layer, which extends to the lateral margins, where the calcified outer layer gradually changes into a horny one. This albuminous or horny part of the body is much more extensive than in the Cuttle-bone, and differs more materially by being continued through the centre of the sepium. A little behind the rounded anterior border of the sepium, where the finely granular calcified layer is broadest, the horny marginal plate becomes half an inch in breadth, gradually increasing for nearly two- thirds the extent of the shell to a breadth of one inch and a half, when the margin suddenly expands and sweeps, with a convex curve, backwards to the hinder end of the shell. These posterior expansions have doubtless penetrated corresponding expansions of the mantle, forming the hinder fins of the Cephalopod ; a part of the exposed shale, which was in contact with the under or ventral surface of one of these expansions, shows transverse fibrous markings indicative of former muscular attachments of the part in question. The anterior border of the shell is broad and rounded ; the posterior end appears to have terminated more acutely, but this characteristic part of the shell is unfortunately wanting. There is an indication at a fractured part near the middle line of PusirL Journ Geoi Soc Vol XI . PI VII. *?l;w;i:M^:?ft-5J:g& i^>"5jl. 'i'r"; \" 2 nat size JoA-Tlini^el 1 *\h. COCCCTEIJTRIS LATIPINNIS (Owen. Jorcl & West Itoc 1855.] OWEN FOSSIL CEPHALOPOD. 125 the shell that it was slightly convex there along the ventral aspect ; but, though it has been subject to compression, the solid resisting calcified part was evidently much thinner than in the cuttle-bones, or sepia-shclls, of the present seas ; and the distinct horny layers con- tinued through the substance of the shell form a modification of structure not known in any existing Cephalopod with a calcified internal shell. From the Kelceno of Munster (Acanthoteuthis of Wagner), the genus indicated by this shell differs in having the lateral expansions ; from the Teudopsis of Deslongchamps and Acanthoteuthis of D'Or- bigny it differs in the well-defined and restricted extent of those expansions ; from the Ommastrephes and Conoteuthis of D'Orbigny it differs in the absence of the strong median crest or keel. The nearest resemblance which I have found in previously described or figured fossil remains of the Dibranchiate Ccphalopods is in that specimen which forms the subject of Taf. ix. Ileft vii. of jNIiinster's *' Beitriige zur Petrefacten-kiinde ;" of which plate no description or notice occurs in the text or on the plate itself, in the copy of the work in the Geological Society's Library. I am indebted to the Referees of the present notice for the following information respecting fig. 1. t. ix. Mimst. Beitr. vii. Heft. "It is the Loligo antiqua of Munster, according to Hoeninghausen and D'Orbigny, and the Sepia prisca of Koenig's * Icones.' Bronn refers it to the Sepia hastifor- mis, Riippell, Solenh. 9. t. 3. f, 2 ; but that species may be different. D'Orbignv figures two species of ' Coccoteuthis.^ But from all these Mr. Brodie's fossil is probably distinct." [Feb. 22, 1855.] The present example from the Kimmeridge shales appears to be a distinct species ; it is broader in proportion to its length. To facilitate future references and comparisons of the rare indica- tions of the higher organised naked Ccphalopods in our oolitic series, I propose to name the specimen here described Coccoteuthis* lati- pinnis, in reference to the well-marked granulated surface of the calcified part of the sepium, and to the breadth of the pallial fins. Its essential generic character is the extent of the calcified part of the shell combined with the horny part. It indicates a genus or sub- genus with very interesting intermediate or osculant characters between the Cuttles {Sepiadce) and ^o^x^'&iTeuthidce or Loligiiiidce) of the present time ; and it illustrates in the highest class of Mol- lusca that adherence to a more general type, which I have had occasion to point oat in the fossils of many other classes of animals from the Secondarv formations. A second specimen, somewhat larger and nearly as well preserved, has been obtained from the same locality by Mr. Groves of Ware- ham. ! R. O. April, 1855. * From k6kko<;, a berry, and revQis, a squid or calamary. 126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, 4. On the Tertiary Formations of the North q/* Germany; with special reference to those of Hesse Cassel and its neigh- bourhood. By W. J. Hamilton, Esq., Pres. G.S. Contents. I. Tertiary beds of Hesse Cassel. 1. Sections at Habichts Wald and Wilhelmshohe. 2. Sections near Ober Kaufungen. 3. Sections at tbe Hirschberg. II. Tertiary beds of Westeregeln near Magdeburg. III. The relative age of the Tertiary Beds of Northern Germany. Introduction. The observations contained in the following pages are intended as supplementary to those which I laid before the Society on the 22nd February last*. The subject is one of growing interest, and is, I am happy to say, attracting the attention of the geologists of the north of Germany and of Vienna. We have therefore every reason to hope that, from their combined exertions, many years will not elapse before we shall possess a complete table of the chronological history of the marine tertiary beds of Germany. Under these circumstances, and considering the comparatively limited extent of my additional obser- vations, made last autumn, I should have deemed it premature to bring them on this occasion under the notice of the Society, had I not been desirous of availing myself of this opportunity to correct an error into which I was unconsciously led in my former commu- nication, in which I have attributed an opinion to a distinguished German geologist which he never entertained, and which is at vari- ance with what he has already published on the subject. I trust that my friend Dr. Sandberger will accept this explanation as suffi- cient reparation for the error which I have committed. At page 292 of the 10th volume of our Journal, in alluding to the tertiary deposits of Westeregeln near Magdeburg, I have stated, apparently on the authority of Dr. Sandberger, that its exact relations to the beds of the Mayence basin have been made out, and that it overlies the Brown-coal formation of the Westerwald, which is itself the uppermost of the two Brown-coal formations of the Mayence basin. It is needless now to inquire how I was led to make this statement, or to explain what now appears to me to have been the cause of having been misled. It is enough to state that Dr. Sand- berger' s opinion, which he has published in his last workf on the Mayence basin, is that the Westeregeln or Magdeburg sands, which are stated by Dr. Beyrich and others J to be older than the Septaria- clay of Berlin, &c., are of the same age as the Weinheim sands, and consequently much older than either of the Brown-coal formations of the Mayence basin. I believe it is the opinion of other German * Quart. Journ. Geol. See. vol. x. p. 254 et seq. t Untersuchungen iiber das Mainzer Tertiar Becken, von D. F. Sandberger. Wiesbaden, 1853, p. 79. X See Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologisch. Gesellschaft, 1851, vol. iii. p. 216. 1855.] HAMILTON ! TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 127 geologists that these Westeregeln sands are still older ; but we shall return to this point hereafter. I will here merely observe that the only correct part of the statement above quoted is that the Marine- sands of Westeregeln overlie a Brown-coal formation, consequently a Brown-coal of a much older date than those of the Wetterau or the Westerwald. I propose in the following remarks to call the attention of the Society principally to the following points : ! 1 . Tertiary geology of the neighbourhood of Hesse Cassel. 2. Remarks on the tertiary beds of Westeregeln. 3. Concluding remarks on the chronological connection of some of the tertiary formations of the north of Germany. I. Tertiary Beds of Hesse Cassel. The tertiary marine formations of Hesse Cassel have been long ago described by German writers, and a tolerably correct list of the fossils contained in them was published by Philippi in his work * on the Tertiary Fossils of the North of Germany. Much, however, remained to be done in working out their true position, and in ascertaining their relative position to the Brown-coal formations of the district, and to the other tertiary marine beds of the north of Germany. The numerous volcanic outbursts and basaltic knolls which have penetrated the entire district, extending from the Vogelsberg and the Rhon Gebirge to the northwards far beyond Cassel, constitute one of the most peculiar features of the country, not only modifying the physical character of the region, but indicating the former existence of elastic forces which have affected the whole of the underlying sedimentary deposits. These basaltic rocks are some- times found spreading themselves out in vast tabular masses over the underlying Brown-coal beds, to which they form a kind of capping, as is seen in the Habichts Wald near Cassel, the Hirschberg, and the Meissner. In most cases, however, the basalt occurs in dykes or in isolated knolls, spread over the face of the country from Frankfort on the Maine to Cassel, and even beyond to the neigh- bourhood of Gottingen and Carlshafen on the Weser. The following Sections observed in the vicinity of Cassel will best explain the manner of the occurrence of these tertiary beds : ! 1 . Sections at Habichts Wald and Wilhelmshohe. Although, generally speaking, the Bunter Sandstein and the Mus- chelkalk form the basis on which the tertiary beds have been here deposited, it is the Muschelkalk alone which forms the basis of the tertiaries of the Habichts Wald. A ridge of Muschelkalk extends in the direct line of strike from E. to W., from Cassel to the north of Wilhelmshohe, constituting a low range of hills. The beds dip due S. about 6< or 8< ; while the Bunter Sandstein which occurs further N. loses itself conformably under the Muschelkalk. This ridge is * Beitrage zur Kenntniss der tertiiir Versteinerungen des nordwestlichen Deutschlands. Cassel, 1844. 128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, traversed at right angles to the strike and almost vertical cleavage- planes by a powerful dyke of basalt, which is exposed near the town. Another dyke is seen in the Ahne Thai on the Habichts Wald, from which lateral injections of tabular horizontal beds of basalt have been forced into the Muschelkalk. Over the Muschelkalk occur in ascending order: ! 1. Alternating beds of sand and clay, sometimes the one and sometimes the other, resting immediately on the secondary rocks. In one of these lower beds of sand are thin bands of sandstone, containing numerous vege- table impressions, amongst which those of Taxus and Cypressus have been made out. 2. A bed of clay, four or five feet thick, forming an underclay to the Brown-coal : this clay (blauer Letten) is generally of a dark bluish colour. 3. Brown Coal : these beds are here from 3Q to 40 feet thick, and are extensively worked to supply the neighbourhood with fuel. In some places the Coal-beds crop out on the surface, and the coal is worked in open cuttings. In general character it is compact and earthy, of a uniform texture, and without any trace of vegetable organisms. Occasionally it acquires a brighter lustre, and is more easily broken, and is then called Glance-coal. This generally occurs in the neighbourhood of the basalt. 4. A bed of clay, about 4 feet in thickness ; generally similar to that below the Brown-coal. 5. Marly yellowish sand, containing marine shells. The only section of this bed which I saw^ w as in the Ahne Thai, where it occurs in a deep ravine ; here the beds have been much disturbed by the protrusion of the igneous rocks. It is not well exhibited. The fchalls are chiefly small, and much broken. A list of them has been published by Dr. Philippi of Cassel in 1844*, from which it appears that at least 24 species are identical with those of the Mayence basin. There is no list of synonyms supplied by Philippi ; such a list would probably give a greater number of identical species in the two for- mations. 6. Loose incoherent sand, locally called Trieb- or drift-sand, from its tendency to drift into the shafts, and other works of the coal-pits. It constitutes the greatest difficulty of the workmen in driving their adits and galleries, and has occasioned the abandonment of more than one working. Large blocks of quartzose sandstone occasionally occur in this sand, some of which are said to contain marine shells, others are full of casts of the stems of plants. These beds have all a slight inclination, varying more or less in different places, towards the centre of the basaltic hill which con- stitutes the summit of the Habichts Wald. (See fig. 1.) The Brown- coal dips under the basaltic mass which forms the plateau of the top of the hill. This phsenomenon of the Brown-coals dipping under the basalt, which I have observed in other places, will be alluded to again hereafter. * Philippi, Beitrage, &c. 1855.] HAMILTON ! TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 129 It appears from the above detailed section that the marine deposit is comparatively small in this Cassel region. One thin bed only occurs containing marine remains, with the exception of a few isolated shells said to be found in the sandstone-blocks lower down the hill in the sand below the Wilhelmshohe. The greatest number of the shells, and the best preserved specimens, described by Philippi, were obtained many years ago, while laying out the grounds near the palace at the foot of Wilhelmshohe towards Cassel, d, in fig. 1. The beds were here nearly 300 feet below their position in the Habichts Wald, the latter having been probably elevated in consequence of the pro- trusion of the basaltic conglomerate which intervenes, and on which the fantastic ruins of "Wilhelmshohe are built. Habichts Wald. Fie. L a. Basalt. b. Brown-coal beds. c. Trachytic and basaltic conglomerate. Cassel. "^ d. Tertiary beds. e. Muschelkalk. 2. Section of tertiary beds near Ober Kavfungen. In the small oblong plain irregularly extending between Nieder Kaufungen and Ober Kaufungen, about five or six miles E.S.E. from Cassel, is another extensive tertiary formation, in which are consider- able deposits of brown-coal and blue-clay, overlaid, as in the Ha- bichts Wald section, by a marine sand, of no great thickness, but full of remains (more or less broken) of marine moUusca. The following section, in ascending order, was seen near the village of Ober Kaufungen. The tertiary beds here rest on the Bunter Sandstein, which constitutes the basis of the surrounding country. The Bunter Sandstein beds fall in suddenly under the tertiary beds, and these also, near the point of junction, fall in towards the Bunter Sandstein. 1. Stiif blue clay, containing numerous nodules of iron-pyrites. 2. Loose incoherent sand. 3. Brown-coal, 8 or 10 feet thick, occasionally separated into seve- ral seams by intervening beds of sand or clay. 4. Bituminous shale, from which alum was formerly obtained. 5. Various beds of marls and clay. 6. Fine white sand, with occasional bands or layers of hard sand- stone, grit, or quartzite. 7. Mottled clays. The whole thickness of these beds is upwards of 1 00 feet, but I 130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jail. 3, could not obtain very exact measurements. A short distance to the S.W., a yellow clay with calcareous nodules occurs near the summit of the hill, which, although containing no organic remains, is sup- posed by the miners and local geologists to be identical with the beds near Cassel in which the marine mollusca have been found. Its true relation to the Brown-coal, however, has not yet been satisfac- torily made out. Other extensive coal-beds are worked on the other side of the valley, E.N.E. from Ober Kaufungen. Here the various seams of brown-coal are seen alternating with beds of sand and clay. In the sandstone-bed w^hich underlies the principal seam of brown-coal are found the same vegetable impressions as those already described as occurring in the sandstone under the brown-coal of the Habichts Wald. They are chiefly Taxus, Cypressus, and other plants likely to grow in vast subtropical lagoons, not unlike those now found in the vast swamps of Louisiana. The uppermost beds consist of hard quartzi- ferous sands, which are sometimes broken up and cover the surface with huge irregular blocks. Approaching the district where the principal coal-works are carried on, we were enabled to make out the following section, in as- cending order. 1. Brown-coal, occasionally containing erect stems of trees, Jbroken off where the overlying beds commence, thus pro'v'ing them to have grown in situ. 2. Blue clay, with numerous Septaria. 3. Thin band of limestone. 4. Blue clay, with marine shells; those we found consisted prin- cipally of ! Nucula margaritacea. Solen. Lyellii ? (Deshayesiana ?). Tornatella (resembling 7". s?mM/a/a). Astarte. Kostellada (with a broad-winged Cytherea. b'p). Cyprina. Turritella. Pectunculus. We found specimens of all these in a very short time. 5. Thin bed of highly fossiliferous sand, containing numerous fragments of bivalves ! Pecten (resembling P. pictus), Tur- ritella, &c. ; closely resembling that on the Habichts Wald, near Cassel. In one locality this sand contains numerous ferruginous concretions with the same fossil remains. 6. A thick bed of loose unfossiliferous sand, 30 feet. 7. Forming the top or capping of the hill, on the north side of the valley, is a thick bed of hard compact sandstone, now broken up into large irregular fragments. On this north side of the valley, the rock underlying the tertiary deposits is Muschelkalk, almost horizontal. A small basaltic hill rises near the centre of this valley-plain. It has not yet been ascer- tained whether the brown-coal extends over the whole of this basin, but as it has been bored for and found in several directions, the pro- 1855.] HAMILTON TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 131 bability is that it will be found throughout the whole district here laid down as tertiary in Prof. Schwarzenberg's map*. A short distance further westward, near the village of Nieder Kau- fungen, a very interesting section has been lately exposed, giving an almost complete epitome of the whole tertiary series, resting imme- diately upon Muschelkalk, as follows, in ascending order : ! 1. Muschelkalk. 2. Thin beds of clay, resting on the Muschelkalk. 3. A thin seam of coal ; not very good. 4. Sands, which at a distance of 50 or 100 yards are found to contain abundantly the same fossils as those found in bed No. 5 of the former section. "We have therefore here apparently the edge or coast-line of the basin containing the shallow lagoon in which the coal was formed, and which, on the irruption of the sea, was covered up by a marine deposit containing the organic remains of a marine fauna. 3. Sections at the Hirschberg. In the same direction from Cassel, viz. E.S.E., but seven or eight miles beyond Kaufungen, are the extensive Brown-coal works of the Hirschberg, and still further on, the more extensive and better known works of the Meissner. I had no opportunity of visiting the latter, but the circumstances under which the Brown-coal occurs there are nearly, if not exactly, similar to those observed at the Hirschberg. In both cases a basaltic plateau forms the summit of the isolated hills, that of the Meissner being the more extensive and more elevated of the two. The Brown-coal beds, which with their associated beds of marls and clays rest upon the ridge of Muschelkalk to the north (which is as it were a prolongation of that near Kaufungen), dip in both cases at an angle varying from 10< to 25< towards the centre of the hill, and partly even under the basalt. At Ringkiihlen, near the N.E. foot of the Hirschberg, Prof. Schwarzenberg of Cassel is principal proprietor of extensive chemi- cal works. These were originally established for the purpose of obtaining alum from the bituminous shales, which are interstratified with the Brown-coal, and were obtained in open workings. The works are now reorganized on account of the facility of procuring fuel. The sulphur which is the basis of most of the operations, is imported from Sicily. Saltpetre is also imported. Amongst the numerous chemical productions of the works, the following appeared to be the most important, sulphuric acid, muriatic acid, chloride of lime, soda, and Glauber-salt. The general section of the formation here contains four or five good working seams of coal, some of which are 30 or 40 feet thick. These beds are overlaid by basalt, which rising up apparently through the * Geognostische Karte von Kurhessen und den angrenzenden Landern zwischen Tauuus-, Harz- und Weser-Gebirge, u. s. w., von Adolph Schwarzenberg und Heinrich Reusse, 18.53. 132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, centre of the hill, has spread itself out as a covering on the summit (see fig. 2). In the upper beds of coal specimens of Stengelkohl, or columnar coal, are sometimes found, evidently the result of igneous action ; further from the point of contact with the basalt, retinite- asphalt also occurs, and in the same beds is found the Glance-coal, more resembling the Newcastle coal, with a bright shining conchoidal fracture, and below that again is the ordinary brown-coal, with its earthy structure. The following section, in descending order, was given me by Prof. Schwarzenberg : ! 1 . Basaltic boulders, from the summit of the Hirschberg. 2. Soil. 3. Yellow clay; 120 feet. 4. Brovv^n-coal beds ; 2 feet. 5. Bituminous clay ; 6 feet. 6. Brown-coal ; 36 feet. 7. Quartzose sands, or bottom sandstone ; 78 feet. 8. Sand and sandy clay ; 33 feet. 9. Brown-coal ; 3 feet. 10. Inferior coal, called Schnapp-Erz, bituminous and containing iron-pyrites; 15 feet. 11. Bituminous shale (Leber-erz) ; 18 feet. It was from these beds that the alum was formerly obtained. 12. Brown-coal; 15 feet. This last is separated from the Muschelkalk by intervening beds of clay, the thickness of which was not given. To the eastward of Ringkiihlen, and still on the northern slopes of the Hirschberg towards Gross Almerode, thick beds of fire-clay, of extraordinary quality and tenacity, are developed in the section. This clay is ex- tensively worked, the best being sent in its natural state to America, while that of inferior quality is absorbed in the neighbouring potters' village of Gross Almerode, in the manufacture of Dutch-pipes and chemical crucibles, which are sent to all parts of the world. The following section, also given me by Prof. Schwarzenberg, occurs nearly halfway between Ringkiihlen and Gross Almerode, in descend- ing order : ! 1. Yellow whitish sand. 2. Grey clay. 3. Brown-coal beds. 4. Freshwater beds of a sandy clay, ! Polirschiefer. 5. Clay shales and marl. 6. Variegated mottled clays. 7. Calcareous nodules ; 2 feet. 8. Calcareous clay shales, with petrifactions. 9. Grey clay. 10. Mottled clays. 1 1 . Compact argillaceous sand ; 2 feet. 12. Quick sand. 13. Fire or glass-furnace clay, ! pipe-clay; 40 feet. 14. Brown-coal beds. 1855.] HAMILTON TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 133 15. Grey saponaceous clay. 16. Brown-coal beds (thin). 17. Grey clay. 18. Muschelkalk. The peculiar feature of this section is the occurrence of two thin beds containing freshwater shells above the second coal-bed. They are chiefly found in a fine, unctuous, nearly white clay, above the fire-clay, and consist principally of one, if not more species of Palu- dina or Bithynia, a small Planorbis, and one or two species of small bivalves belonging to the genus Cyclas or Cyrena. At least these were all which the rainy and muddy state of the weather allowed us to obtain. The whole Brown-coal formation of the Hirschberg, with its asso- ciated clays, and probably that of the Meissner, thus appears to have been a freshwater basin or lagoon, surrounded by Bunter Sandstein, with a ridge or reef of Muschelkalk passing through the centre. Here also I was struck, as on the Habichts Wald, with the ap- parently anomalous fact of the coal-measures dipping towards and under the basaltic nucleus of the hill, although in both cases the basalt must be of a subsequent date, and in its elevation or protrusion might have been expected to give the coal-beds a contrary or qua- quaversal inclination. From the numerous cases in which the same phaenomenon occurs, I was anxious to ascertain a probable cause of this appearance : several explanations suggested themselves to me, but they would not stand the test of inquiry, until a hint from our former President, Mr. William Hopkins, our best authority in dyna- mical geology, suggested an explanation, which, if not the sole cause, must be admitted as one of the most likely partial causes of this appearance. The Brown-coal beds of the north of Germany have evidently been subjected to a very considerable amount of alternate elevation and depression accompanied by lateral pressure. The consequence of this has been, where they have not been completely broken off, to cause a great amount of undulation in the beds themselves. Where this took place, the natural result would be to cause fissures or openings through the bed either from above or from below, accordingly as the bed has been raised upwards into a saddle, or depressed downwards into a trough. See fig. 2, p. 134. In the accompanying diagram, fig. 2, if the undulation of the beds be caused by lateral pressure, a fissure would naturally take place at b, in the lower part of the strata, and at a in the upper part. When at a subsequent period the basaltic outburst took place, the fissure b at once afforded an easy outlet for the liquid matter which then filled up the hollow c d. This may have taken place when the whole region was under water. When the action of tidal waves or other atmospheric causes afterwards denuded the surrounding country, the basaltic capping protected the underlying beds, and, as the other portions have gradually wasted away as far as the line c e, there would remain only the hill with its basaltic capping, c d^ and the Brovi^n-coal beds cropping out at /on the slope c e, and dipping VOL. XI. PART I. L 134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jail. 3, Fig. 2. ! Ideal Section of the Hirschberg. Hirschberg. a. Ideal fault and fracture. b, c, d. Basalt. e. Muschelkalk. e'. Bunter sandstone. /. Tertiary beds and Brown-coal. away under the basalt. And that is precisely the appearance which the Hirschberg now presents to us. It is a remarkable fact, in con- firmation of this theory, that a small Brown-coal deposit was pointed out high up on the hills on the N. or N.E. side of the valley. I did not visit it, and its important bearing on this question did not then occur to me. Another feature in both of these sections is also worthy of notice, as differing from other localities where the Brown-coal occurs, viz. the total absence of a marine fauna in the beds above the clay. In most of the other localities the marine bed is regularly superposed. From its"absence here, we must conclude that this, as well as some of the other freshwater lagoons and swamps where the plants grew, from the decay of which the Brown- coal was formed, were situated at a so much higher level than the others, that they escaped being submerged when the irruption of the oceanic waters took place. I cannot quit this neighbourhood of Gross Almerode without alluding to a remarkable hill of burnt clay, which occurs about half a mile to the south of the village. Here on the summit of a ridge is an isolated basaltic outburst between the Hirschberg and the Meissner, but nearer the latter. At no great distance from it is a vast mound or hillock of a burnt stone, which is neither more nor less than the beds of tertiary clays metamorphosed into Jasper or Thon- jaspis. This jasper varies greatly, not only in colour, but in struc- ture ; in places having an earthy conchoidal structure, and in others, one almost vitreous. There is a great diversity of opinion among local geologists as to its origin, some referring it to a true geolo- gical cause, others considering it as recent, and occasioned by the burning of the bituminous shale or Leber-Erz. Looking at the spot afterwards from a distance, its form was distinctly seen as rising above the surrounding ground, and re- sembling the crater of a volcano. I have little doubt myself that the metamorphism has been produced by geological causes, probably the escape of heated gases from below ; this is rendered the more likely by the vicinity of the basaltic outburst. But whatever the 1855.] HAMILTON ! TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 135 causes of the burning may have been, there can be no doubt that the sweUmg out of the whole mass has been caused by the expansion of the clay on being converted into jasper. Moreover it contains nu- merous cavities, fissures, and cracks, and is split up in every direction, so as to occupy more space than before the change took place. Another locality which we visited in the vicinity of Hesse Cassel, and where marine tertiary shells also occur, is a small hollow between Cassel and Miinden, near the village of Landwehrhagen. Numerous clay-pits were formerly opened here, and fossils were abundant ; but we only found a few broken fragments in the thrown out heaps. These were chiefly bivalves ; we recognized three or four species, viz. a Cardiiim, Cyprlna, Cytherea, and perhaps Pectunculus, enough to show the marine nature of the water in which the clay was deposited. This was overlaid by yellow marls, gradually passing upwards into fine yellow sand, but as far as we could see, quite unfossiliferous. This is exactly the same as occurs in the vicinity of Cassel, where the shelly marls and clays are overlaid by sandy Ijeds. The same formation also occurs in the section near Kaufnngen, where the clays with marine shells are overlaid by yellow sands ; in the latter case, however, the sands are fossiliferous. II. Tertiary Beds of Westeregeln near Magdeburg. I have already alluded to and explained the error I was led into in a former communication respecting these deposits. I had in- tended visiting the locality during the past autumn, but was de- terred from doing so, in consequence of having received information that the beds in question were no longer open or visible. I shall therefore only briefly state what I have learnt respecting their posi- tion. The fossils in question, a partial list of which is given in a former paper*, are found in a bed of fine greenish sand (Glauconite- Sand), of no very great thickness, irregularly covering up an exten- sive and valuable seam of Brown-coal, which is worked in the neigh- bourhood of Magdeburg and Westeregeln. In working the coal- beds, these sands are cleared away, and thus the fossils have been obtained. These sands, however, do not occur over that portion of the Brown-coal bed which is now being worked, and hence the im- possibility of obtaining fossils ; but it is probable that they will be again met with. The Brown-coal itself rests generally on a bed of blue clay, which lies immediately on Bunter-sandstein or Muschel- kalk. These Westeregeln sands appear^ from all accounts, to be the oldest fossiliferous beds in Northern Germany. How far they extend has not yet been fully ascertained. The next overlying fossiliferous formation of Northern Germany is the Septaria-clay of Berlin, which now appears, from Prof. Bey rich's report, to have been found over a considerable tract of country, comprising the whole of Brandenburg and a large extent of territory to the west, inasmuch as the concre- tionary nodules of Sternberg contain the same fossils as the Septaria- * See Quarterly Journal Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 292. L 2 136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, clay, and must consequently be referred to the same age. It is also found in the neighbourhood of Stettin, Oldenburg, Liineburg, and other places. Other tertiary beds also occur further north towards Hamburg, Schleswig Holstein, &c., which are, however, referred to a more recent period. They are aUuded to by Prof. Beyrich in his work on the tertiary shells of the North of Germany. The only two beds to which I wish to call the attention of the Society at present are the AVesteregeln or Magdeburg sands, and the Septaria-clay of BerUu. These two beds belong to one system, and are particularly interestins; as beins; the beds which have been shown bv the German geologists to have the greatest resemblance to those of Hesse Cassel and of Weinheim, as well as to those beds of Belgium with which the sands of Weinheim have been paralleled. One feature in the Section of the Ti'esteregeln or Magdeburg sands deserves particular attention, and it is the more remarkable inasmuch as it is in some respects at variance with what we know respecting the sands of Weinheim ; while on the other hand it confirms some of the views which I have stated respecting that formation. The Marine sands of Westeregeln overlie the Brown-coal beds, thus sho>ving the anterior existence of a freshwater or terrestrial tertiary period; whereas at AVeinheim and in the ]\Iayence basin the jNIarine tertiary sands repose at once, as far as our present information goes, on the under- Ivino: Carboniferous or Rothe-todte-lieo;ende formation. It is true that these lowest beds of tertiary sand, when we approach the margin of the basin (where alone they are seen reposing on the red sandstones), are non-fossiliferous ; and, being CAidently derived from the disinte- gration of the older rocks, cannot be assumed as proving with abso- lute certainty the non-existence of older tertiary beds nearer the centre of the basin. x\ll that we can say at present is, that none such have been discovered. III. The Relative Age of the Tertiary Beds of Northern Germany. There are three distinct localities to which I intend referring in the following observations, viz. : 1. The Mayence basin, and parti- cularly the Marine sands of Weinheim. 2. The Marine beds of Hesse Cassel, Biiude, &c. 3. The sands of Westeregeln and of Magdeburg. Philippi, in his notice of the tertiary fossils of the north-west of Germany*, gives the lists of fossils from three different localities belonging to the same epoch. 1. Cassel ; 2. Freden and Diekholz ; and 3. Luithorst. The results at which he has arrived are the same with respect to all these localities, viz. that the fossils in question have the greatest number of species identical with the Subapennine formation ; and the next greatest number identical with living species. He has made no comparison between the German and the Belgian formations, nor had he any opportunity of comparing the Cassel * Beitrage zur Kenntniss. Cassel, 1844. 18.5.5.] HAMILTON TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 13? beds either with those of Mayence to the south, or with those of Magdeburg and Westeregehi to the north, or rather N.E. Dr. F. Sandberger, in his work ah-eady quoted on the geological position of the Mayence tertiary basin, has identified the AYeinheim tertiaries with the Limburg beds of Belgium ; and more particularly has he identified the Weinheim sands with the Middle Limburg beds, and the overlying Cyrena-marls with the Upper Limburg. Then, adopting Philippi's view respecting the age of the Cassel beds, ! viz. that they belong to the Subapennine formation. Dr. Sandberger places them considerably above the Weinheim beds. And with regard to the formations of Northern Germany, he considers the sands of ^Magdeburg and Westeregehi as of the same age as the Wein- lieim sands ; and the overlying Septaria-clay of Celle, Berlin, and Mecklenburg, as of the same age as the Cyrena-marls of the Mayence basin (he. cit. p. 79). Prof. Bey rich, in his last work on the fossils of the tertiaiy forma- tions of the North of Germany, published in the Journal of the German Geological Society*, states that in his opinion the oldest North German tertiary formation, viz. that of the sands of Weste- regehi and Alagdeburg, belongs to the Lethen formation of Belgium, which is placed by Sir C. Lyell as the lowest member of the Middle Limburg series f, although Prof. Bey rich considers it as the lower Tongrian system, which properly belongs to the Lower Limburg series. The next youngest formation in North Germany, according to Prof. Beyrich, is the Septaria-clay of Brandenburg, Berlin, &c., which he identifies with the Belgian formations of Boom, Baesele, and other places south of Antwerp. These form, according to Dumont's classification, a part of the System of Riipelmonde [Systeme Rupelien), constituting the Upper Limburg beds of Sir C. Lyell. Prof. Beyrich also observes that it is as yet uncertain whether there exist in Northern Germany any beds exactly corresponding with those which Dumont has placed between the Riipelmonde and the Lethen beds, ! in other words, with the Middle Limburg beds : this he considers an important point, inasmuch as this is the Belgian deposit which has the greatest analogy with the Mayence basin. Having thus given the views of the German geologists who have principally occupied themselves with this question, I proceed to make a few observations on this question of relative age. It is a somewhat remarkable circumstance, that the marine depo- sits in the three localities above alluded to have such a small hori- zontal and even vertical development, apparently belonging in each case to such a short geological period ; and it has struck me as in the highest degree improbable that these three formations, situated at no considerable distance from each other, showing no evidence of super- position, and containing a certain number of organic remains in common, should be referred to three different periods. Beginning with the most southern formation, we have the Weinheim beds re- ferred to the Middle Limburg ; the next nearest beds, of Cassel, are * Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geol. Gesellschaft, vol. v. p. 277. t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 307. 138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, referred to the Subapemiine formation (although here I am bound to say that Prof. Beyrich is distinctly of opinion that these beds have been placed too high by Philippi) ; and then we come to the sands of Magdeburg, which are referred to the Lower Limburg, or even to the Barton clay ; while the overlying Septaria-clays are referred to the Riipelmonde system. There can be no doubt that Philippi, in his endeavours to point out the errors of his predecessors in referring the marls and sands of Cassel to the Plastic clay and the Calcaire grossier respectively, greatly overshot his mark and placed these beds too high. The following is the list of fossils which appear to be common to the Hesse Cassel and Weinheim beds. A more complete list of synonyms would undoubtedly have enabled me to extend it ; but, even as it stands, it marks a great resemblance between the two formations. List of Fossils common to the Hesse Cassel and Weinheim Tertiary Deposits. Panopaea intermedia, Sow. Pecten striatus, Milnst. <^ Goldf. Corbula striata, Lam. Eulima subulata, Risso. Cy prill a rotundata, Braun. Scalaria rudis, Phil. Cardita scalaris, Goldf. pusilla, Phil. Cardiura turgidum, Brander. Cerithium lima, Brug. Area dihivii, Lam. Tritonium argutura, Brand. Pectuuculus crassus, Phil. Pleurotoma belgicum, Goldf. Nucula margaritacea, Lam. Cassidaria depressa, v. Buck. placentina, Lam. Cypraea inflata, Lam. minuta, Defr. Bulla concinna, Wood. Modiola micans, Braun. Lamna denticulata, Ag. Pecten decussatus, Milnst. 8( Goldf. Notidanus primigenius, Ag. At page 293 of my former communication* I have given a very imperfect list of the fossils found in the Glauconite-Sands of Westere- geln ; imperfect, because it only contains the names of eighty-seven species, whereas I am informed that the total number of species found in that locality amounts to three or four times that number ; and yet that imperfect list contains twenty-five species common to the Wein- heim and Westeregeln formations. The resemblance between the Hesse Cassel and the Westeregeln beds, however, is by no means so great. In the lists which I have had an opportunity of consulting I do not find more than five or six species common to the two formations. I have already mentioned that, according to the views of Pro- fessor Beyrich, there are two distinct formations belonging to this period in the north of Germany, viz. the Sands of Westeregeln, and the Septaria-clay of Brandenburg, Berlin, &c. I am not aware that any evidence has yet been discovered of an intermediate bed of sepa- ration, or even of the distinct superposition of the Septaria-clay over the Sands of Westeregeln. The evidence of such distinction depends mainly on their fossil contents ; but, even admitting the super- position, the change of sedimentary deposit in which the fossils occur, from a Glauconite-sand to a blue clay or marl containing Septaria, * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. No. 39. 1855.] HAMILTON ! TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 139 would by altering the conditions of life be sufficient to cause a con- siderable modification in the organic remains, without referring the beds to distinct epochs. I have also stated that Prof. Sandberger identifies the Westeregeln Sands with the Weinheim Sands, and the Septaria-clay of Brandenburg with the Lower Cyrena-marl of the Mayence basin. Now this Cyrena-marl contains a great admixture of brackish-water forms, while nothing of the kind is found in the Septaria-clay of the north of Germany. The change in the Mayence basin is a purely local one ; and there is, therefore, no evidence of its being contempot'aneous with the Septaria-clay. It is true the Cyrena- marl overlies the Weinheim Sands, as the Septaria-clay overlies the Westeregeln Sands ; but that is no proof of identity of time, the changes in the two localities not being owing to the same causes ; and Prof. Sandberger has himself shown, in the lists which he has published (op. cit. p. &7), that the Marine Fauna of the Cyrena- marl has the greatest affinity with that of the Middle Limburg formation, the very same Belgian bed with which he had already identified the Weinheim Sands. I am therefore disposed to look upon the whole marine fauna of the Mayence basin as referable to one period, viz. the Middle Limburg, locally modified in its upper portion by the introduction of vast bodies of fresh water, or by its gradual separation from oceanic influence, by which the waters be- came brackish, and its organic contents more and more modified, until at length all traces of marine or brackish-water fauna disap- peared. With regard to the Cassel marine beds, I consider them as forming a portion of the same marine deposit, and constituting a link in that connection which must have existed between the Mayence basin and the Northern Ocean. Here again we find two petrographically distinct beds, viz. blue clay or marl and shelly sands ; but in this case the marls underlie the sands. In one locality, near Ober Kau- fungen, Septaria are abundant in the blue clays ; in others they are wanting. In this locality the overlying sands are full of marine shells, while near Landwehrhagen the sands which overlie the blue marl containing marine shells, are entirely devoid of organic remains. These are evidently mere local differences, such as may be observed on any coast at the present day. It is also worthy of notice that the marine beds in the neighbour- hood of Cassel are of no great thickness. This was no doubt owing to the earlier upheaval of the underlying secondary formations (pre- ceding the volcanic outbursts), which were ultimately raised to an elevation of more than 1000 feet above the sea, north of Cassel. This upheaval cut off all communication with the northern Ocean, and confined the waters to the Mayence basin, thereby exposing them to the influence of the freshwater rivers, and producing that brackish- water condition which we have already noticed. In the great district which forms the low undulating lands of the north of Germany, to the north of the Hartz and of the other moun- tain ranges which extend towards the Weser Bergland, and thence to the Haarstrang on the Ruhr, east of Cologne, the marine condition 140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jail, 3, of things having probably begun earUer, as shown in the Westeregeln Sands, lasted somewhat longer, until this region (also undergoing the influence of the elevatory action, though in a smaller degree) was likewise raised above the level of the sea, and became covered with a low swampy vegetation, the decay of which produced the overlying brown-coal deposits of Brandenburg and Prussia. I stated in my former paper {loc.cit. p. 288), that I could not admit the hypothesis of theMayence basin havingbeen an insulated inland salt lake without communication with the northern ocean. I endeavoured very imperfectly, not being acquainted with the geological features of the neighbourhood of Cassel and other places, to show that some com- munication with the Northern ocean, round the eastern flanks of the Taunus, must have existed, and that the subsequent closing up of this northern channel might have been brought about by the elevation of the Vogelsgebirge (erroneously stated Fichtelgebirge in my former paper, I. c. p. 294), or by other basaltic outbursts. A more accu- rate knowledge of the geology of Hesse Cassel convinces me of the great probability of this opinion. A line of volcanic outbursts, per- forating the surface in a thousand spots, extends from the neigh- bourhood of Frankfort and of Hanau, considerably to the north of Cassel, elevating the stratified beds to a considerable height, and thus causing a complete barrier to the connection between the Northern Ocean and the waters of the Mayence basin. These ter- tiary deposits are now consequently found in some places at an elevation of 1000 feet above the sea, as near Dransfeld ; and, judging from the configuration of the country and the elevation of the Bunter Sandstein, they were probably raised to a still greater height, although almost entirely removed by subsequent denudation ; while in other places they are found at a much lower level. Indeed the same argument will apply on a large scale to these volcanic outbursts and to the elevation of the Bunter-Sandstein, north of Cassel, which I have already used respecting the outbursts of the basaltic plateau of the Hirschberg and the surrounding district (see fig. 2, p. 134). We have here an instance on a large scale, and accompanied by the same results, of the phaenomenon already alluded to respecting the position of the basaltic plateaux of the Hirschberg, Meissner, and other places. I showed how the occurrence of these basaltic rocks in their present positions was owing to the molten matter having been forced up through the crevices in the troughs of the undulations into which the secondary formations had been thrown. Now the Bunter-Sandstein, north of Cassel, rises to a considerable elevation, in some places as much as 1000 feet above the sea, whilst between Cassel and Frankfort its elevation is comparatively slight. We may therefore consider the portion to the north of Cassel as representing on a large scale the anticlinal, while that to the south represents the synclinal portion of a vast undulation. This is confirmed by the dip of the Bunter-Sandstein, north of Cassel, which is to the south, dipping under the Muschelkalk between Cassel and Wilhelmsh5he. When the basalts subsequently burst forth, they found a readier passage through the lower or synclinal portion, than through the 1855.] HAMILTON ! TERTIARIES OF HESSE CASSEL. 141 anticlinal, and we consequently find the whole country between Frank- fort-on-Main and Cassel studded with basaltic outbursts, whilst to the north they are comparatively scarce, and ultimately north of Gottingen and Miinden cease altogether. To repeat then briefly the epochs and phaenomena above described, we find the first evidence of tertiary deposits in North Germany in the brown-coal and its associated underclays of Magdeburg. During the earher tertiary periods, the whole of Germany appears to have been dry land. At the same time, or at the termination of this pe- riod, a vast swampy region, covered with a semitropical vegetation, stretched along the base of the mountains of Germany, from Silesia and the confines of Poland to near the Eocene Ocean, which occupied those portions of Holland and of Belgium where its fauna has been preserved. A gradual subsidence took place, possibly contempora- neous with the period when the accumulations of Flysch or Molasse were being deposited, also in a gradually sinking sea-bottom on the northern flanks of the Alps. This swampy vegetation was then sub- merged beneath the ocean, and was being converted into Brown-coal, while a marine fauna was introduced, and lived and perished in the waters above. This great change, I am inclined to think, marks the limits of the Eocene and Miocene periods, as far at least as this part of the earth's surface is concerned ; for I have already admitted that we must not attempt to introduce such a strict procrustean rule as to assert that the limits of these periods (if we choose to adopt them) must be absolutely applied to the same epoch in all districts. The oceanic waters, thus admitted over a portion of Northern Germany, penetrated between the mountains of the Hartz and the Weser Gebirge, round the eastern flanks of the Westerwald and the Taunus, and along that deflexion through which the Upper Rhine now flows, until they reached those portions of the southern or Alpine ocean in which the Flysch and Nagelflue, and perhaps the Older Molasse, were deposited. During the period of this connection, the Marine-sands of Wein- heim were deposited, until the subsequent oscillation of the land first cut off the communication with the Southern Ocean, and subse- quently, by the elevation of the Muschelkalk and Bunter-Sandstein, in the north of Germany, raised a permanent barrier between the Mayence basin and the North German Ocean. This separation was subsequently confirmed by the numerous volcanic outbursts which have penetrated the whole surface of the country, from the banks of the Main near Frankfort, Hanau, and the Vogelsgebirg, northwards, to the region of Gottingen and Miinden. After this a period intervened, when in the northern plains of Germany, a swampy district, with a luxuriant vegetation, stretched along the mountain coast, covering up the marine formation of the Septaria clay, and giving rise to that upper Brown-coal formation which is now so extensively worked in Mark Brandenburg and the country about Frankfort on the Oder, extending to the frontiers of Silesia and of Posen. Thus those formations which we have endea- voured to identify with the Middle Limburg of Belgium are confined 142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 3, between the extensive Brown-coal deposits which (notwithstanding the ingenious hypothesis of a German author*, who attempts to show how these vast accumulations of vegetable matter were depo- sited in the sea) I am disposed to consider as formed on the spot where the plants originally grew, and consequently as a freshwater formation, raised perhaps only slightly above the level of the ocean, like the now existing cypress-swamps of Louisiana or the turf-mosses of more northern regions. Brown-Coal Deposits. ! I am thus led, before concluding these remarks, to add a few words respecting the various deposits of Brown- coal in the north of Germany, which are connected with the tertiary formations here alluded to. I am aware that there are many other deposits deserving notice, but this subject is too extensive to be fully considered at present. It is true that independently these Brown- coal deposits are not in themselves so conclusive as to geological epochs, in consequence of their not being necessarily so intimately connected with each other as is the case with true marine deposits. Still, when we can ascertain their age relatively to marine beds, we are enabled to come to some conclusion respecting their successive ages. Brown-coal deposits occur in all the three distinct localities to which we have alluded in this paper, viz. ! 1. In the Mayence basin are two distinct deposits ; first, between the true Marine-Sands of Weinheim and the overlying Cerithium and Littorinella limestones, and secondly, between the Littorinella limestone and the leaf-bearing sandstone. 2. In the Hesse Cassel deposit the great Brown-coal beds underlie the Marine Fauna. And 3. In the plains of the north of Germany there are again two distinct Brown-coal deposits ; first, under the Westeregeln Sands near Magdeburg ; and secondly, above the Septaria-clay of the Mark Brandenburg. Of these, the bed which underlies the Westeregeln Sands is unquestionably the oldest. That of Brandenburg may be contemporaneous with one of the Mayence basin deposits ; but there is no direct evidence of the fact. We have thus Brown-coal deposits of at least three, if not four, di- stinct periods. That of Cassel is probably contemporaneous with that of Magdeburg. The upper Brown-coal deposits of the Wetterau have been con- sidered as of the same age as those of the upper Cyrena-marl. I am, however, disposed to think, from the observations of D. Lud- wig of Nauheim, which I have only lately had an opportunity of perusing, that they must belong to a still younger period. They are described as occurring in hollows of decomposed basalt at Laubach, Salzhausen, and Berstadt, near the western limits of the great basaltic formations of the Vogelsberg. They rest upon or are imbedded in vast deposits of clay, derived from the decay, in situ, of the basalt itself, and are consequently posterior, not only to the basalt, but even to its decomposition, therein differing from the Brown-coal of the Westerwald, which has been elevated and broken up by the protrusion of the basaltic masses. * Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geol. Gesellsch. vol. iji. p. 217. 1855.] E. HOPKINS PRIMARY ROCKS. 143 I am aware how imperfectly these remarks have been thrown together, and how much still remains before the subject can be fully- exhausted. I would willingly have deferred the communication until the German Geologists had completed their investigations, or I myself had had further opportunities of examining the country. I have already stated my reasons for the course I have pursued. At the same time I trust that I shall not have been altogether wrong in bringing this subject before the Society, if I have directed the attention of the Members to a country, the geology of which has not been often discussed in these rooms, and respecting which we have still much to learn. January 17, 1855. The folio wins: communication was read : ! 'O On the Yertical, and Meridional Lamination of the Primary Rocks. By Evan Hopkins, Esq., F.G.S. [Abstract.] The author described wide regions in several parts of the world as exhibiting in their geological structure the phsenomena of successive vertical bands of schistose and crystalline rocks, parallel with each other, and having a meridional strike. This structural condition was illustrated by several extensive and highly finished sections, some of them traversing several hundred miles, made from the author's own observation in Panama, South America, Australia, and Ceylon. The section across the Andes*, for instance, exhibited parallel bands of quartzites, porphyry, mica-schists, greenstone, granite, gneiss, hornblende schists, trachyte, crystalline limestone, talcose schists, and clay-slates, occurring in variable succession, with a N. and S. strike, and with an almost uniform vertical dip. In plains and other places where the laminated structure has not been disturbed by local causes, the cleavage planes were shown to be more or less vertical ; but sometimes in high ridges with precipitous flanks the bands and laminae of rocks drop on both sides, from want of lateral support, thus giving the appearance of a radial or fan- shaped structure. Here and there on the edges of these laminated rocks rest hori- zontal sedimentary deposits ; and it was pointed out that many of these exhibited at the point of contact with the older rocks evidence of their undergoing the process of vertical cleavage or lamination ; the lines of stratification becoming gradually obliterated. Even com- pact mud and soil lying on the edges of the schistose rocks have been observed by the author to be subject (under certain conditions) to cleavage and interlamination with calcareous and siliceous matter. Mr. E. Hopkins maintained that in all parts of the world the old crystalhne or "primary" rocks exhibit (with local exceptions, insig- * See also Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. vi. p. 364, and PI. 31. 144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 17. nificant when compared with the whole) a uniform vertical cleavage or foliation, with a north and south direction ; and that the rocks in those countries, like AustraUa, part of India, Siberia, South America, Central America, and California, which preserve this meridional uniformity, are productive of gold, platina, silver, and precious stones on the decomposed edges of the schists ; whilst those regions which have been disturbed or bent from their normal position are more or less productive in masses of the ordinary minerals, and are compara- tively barren of the precious products. In speaking of the meridional structure, Mr. Hopkins alludes to the N.E. variation of the cleavage- planes in the northern hemisphere, more especially in the United States and Europe ; but, nevertheless, he believes that the general uniformity approximates more nearly to the true meridian than the magnetic meridian does. The author observed also that, from his acquaintance during numerous mining operations with the deep-seated rock-masses of the Andes and elsewhere, he was convinced that the great base below was more or less granitic strongly saturated with mineral waters, and that it passed upwards by insensible gradations from a crystalline heterogeneous compound to a laminated rock (as gneiss), and still higher up to schists in vertical planes ; the peculiar varieties of the higher rocks being dependent on the mineral character of the "parent rock" below; the schistose rocks forming, in short, the external terminations of the great universal crystalline base. Mr. E. Hopkins referred to some important remarks on parallel lamination of nearly vertical rocks and on cleavage, made inde- pendently by Humboldt*, M'Cullochf, Sedgwick |, and De la Beche ′ ; and, leaving for further consideration the question as to how the lamination and cleavage of rocks were brought about, he concluded by recommending the study of the primary rocks, with their various transitions and foliations, to the special notice of geologists, as being of extreme interest, and likely to throw great light on several important points in geological science. * " Sur le Gisement des Roches." t " Geological Classification of Rocks." X " Remarks on the Structure of large Mineral Masses," &c., Trans. Geol. See. 2 ser. vol. iii. ′ Geological Report on Cornwall and Devon. DONATIONS TO THE LIBRARY OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, From November \sty 1854, to December ZXstj 1854. I. TRANSACTIONS AND JOURNALS. Presented by the respective Societies and Editors. American Journal of Science and Arts. 2nd Series, vol. xviii. No. 54, Nov. 1854. C. U. Shepard. ! Three masses of meteoric iron at Tuezon, 369. J. L. Smith, ! Re-examination of American minerals, part iv., 372. A. Connell. ! Nomenclature of the metals contained in Colurabite and Tantalite, 392. Notice of Murchison's Siluria, 394. G. J. Brush.! Clintonite, 407- F. A. Genth. ! Contributions to Mineralogy, 410. Mineralogical and Geological notes, 417-427. Miscellanea, 431. Assurance Magazine and Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, No. 1 7, Oct. 1854. Basel. Versucli einer Beschreibung historischer und natiirlicher Merk- wurdigkeiten der Landschaft Basel. (23 parts in 7 vols.) 1 748- 1763. From W. Lonsdale, Esq,, F,G.S. Von den Versteinerungen der Gegend von Muttenz, 83 (plate). * Miinchenstein, 175 (plate). Prattelen, 281 (plate). ' Bottminger, &c., 387 (plate). St. Jacob, 581 (plate). Klein Hiinningen, 720 (plate). Rhiehen, 807 (plate). Beticken, 876 (plate). Liesthal, 1029 (plate). * ! Lausen, &c., 1151 (plate). Schauenburg, &c., 1265 (plate). dem Amte Homburg, 1400 (plate). Waldenburg, 1540 (plate). Oberdorf, &c., 1611 (plate). Bubendorf, &c., 1809 (plate). Ramstein, &c., 1889 (plate). (Jer Landgraftsch. Sissgou, 2098 (plate). der Herrsch. Farnsburg, 2215 (plate). Eptingen, &c., 2300 (plate). Arisdorf, &c., 2410 (plate). Rohtenflue, &c., 2155 (plate). Kilchberg, &c? 2591 (2 plates). VOL. XI. ! PART 1. M 146 DONATIONS. Bengal Asiatic Society, Journal. New Series, No. ^1, No. 4. 1854. H. Piddington. ! Examination of coal from Darjeeling, 381 . Canadian Journal. October 1854. From the Canadian Institute. A. Murray. ! Geology of Western Canada, 49. Biography of Sir R. J. Murehison, 52. A. Tylor. ! Changes of the sea-level, b'] . Products of coal ! Parrafine, %. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal. 6 Vols, and 4 odd Nos. (181^7-34). From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Several Geological Memoirs and Notices. Franklin Institute, Journal. Vol. 58. No. 4. Oct. 1854. Haarlem. HoUandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappente, Natur- kundige Verhandelingen. 2nd Series, vol. 4. 1848. H. R. Goeppert. ! Place of growth and deposition of the coal plants (plates). Halle. Der Naturforscher. 24 vols. 1774-1789. From TF. Lons- dale, Esq., F.G.S. Vol. i. 1774. J. F. Gmehn. ! Beytrage zu der Wiirtembergischen Natur-ge- schichte der achten thierischen Versteinerungen, 87. J. S. Schroeter. ! Abhandlung von den Nautiliten der Weimar- ischen Gegend, 132. J. E. I. Walch. ! Abhandlung von den Lituiten, 159 (plate). Lithologische Beobachtungen [Ammonites, Be- lemnites, Terebratulites, Strombites, &c.], 196 (2 plates). Sage. ! Ueber den weissen crystallisirten Blevspat [Translation], 207. J. G. F. Meineke. ! Abhandlung von dem Mangel der Wiirklichen Originale zu den mersten Versteinerungen, 221. C. G. V. M . ! Beschveibung und Abbildung der Tropfhohle bey Slains, im Nordlichen Schottland [Translated fi*om Pen- nant, &c.], 255 (plate). Vol. ii. 1774. G. A. Griindler. ! Beschreibung und Abbildung zweier natiirlichen Terebratuln in welchen ihre Einwohner oder Thiere befind- hch sind, 80 (plate). J. E. I. Walch. ! Abhandlung von den concentrischen Zirkeln auf versteinten Conchyhen, 126. Lithologische Beobachtungen [Fossil tortoise- shell. Fish-scales?, Crab, and Coral], 149 (plates). J. S. Schroeter. ! Abhandlung von den Ammoniten der Weimar- ischen Gegend, 169. Mazeas. ! Beobachtungen iiber das Alaunerz zu Tolfa, in der Nachbarschaft von Rom, und iiber das zu Polinier in Bre- tagne [Translation], 216. Sage. ! Beobachtungen iiber den Lasur und dessen Zurbreitung zur Malerey [Translation], 237. -. Vol. iii. 1774. D. F. Ch. Giinther. ! Beschreibung der gestreifen Bohrmuschel [Terebratula] in dem Hochf. Cabinet zu Rudolstadt, 83 (plate). DONATIONS. 147 J. E. I.Walch. ! Beytrage zur natui'geschichte der Bohrmuscheln [Terebratulai], 87 (tigure). J. Ch. Meineke, ! Lithographische und Mineralogische Beschrie- bung der Gegend um Oberwiederstedt in der Grafschaft Mannsfeld, 127. J. E. I. Walch. ! Abhandlung von Urspning des Landes, 156. Baron von Hiipsch. ! Beschreibung einiger neu entdeckten ver- steinten Theile grosser Seethiere [From Antwerp], 156. J. E. I. Walch. ! Geschichte der Pholaden im Steinreiche, 184. Lithologische Beobachtungen [Long encrinites ; rare shells], 215 (figure). Dr. Hunter. ! Anmerkungen iiber die so genannten Elephant- knochen, welch e am Ohiostrome in America gefunden worden [Translation], 237- Lavoisier. ! Auflosung des Gj7)sum [Translation], 240. (Naturforscher.) Vol. iv. 1/74. J. Fr. Gmelin. ! Beytrage zu der Wiirtembergischen Naturge- schichte der achten thierischen Versteinerungen, 145. J. S. Schroeter. ! Abhandlung von den iibrigen Schnecken der Weimarischen Gegend, 179. J. E. L Walch. ! Lithologische Beobachtungen [Fossil shells in jasper; Fossil shells and wood in one matrix; Roe-stone fossils], 210. . Vol. V. 1775. J. S. Schroeter, ! Geschichte der Patellen [&c.] in Steinreiche, 102 (plate). Capt. von Areuswald. ! Geschichte der Pommerischen und Meck- lenburgischen Versteinerungen, 145. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Mineralogische Bemerkungen, 169. . Vol. vi. 1775. J. E. I. Walch. ! Lithologische Beobachtungen [Nerites from Courtagnon ; Orthoceratites from Maestricht ; Pholadites from Petersburg : Long Encrinites ; Fossil tortoise-shell ; Great Belemnites], 165. iEsper. ! Abhandlung von dem Original der kugelformigen Korper in den vitriolhaltigen Schiefern, 190. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Mineralogische Bemerkungen, 205. F. Musard. ! Von den Versteinerungen, 243, 252. . Vol. vii. 1775. Kleiner Beytrag zur Mineralgeschichte von Bayern und der Pflaz, 195. J. E. L Walch. ! Lithologische Beobachtungen [Tubulites, Nau- tilites, and Patellites from Mecklenburg], 211 (plate). J. S. Schroeter. ! Abhandlung von einigen seltenen Metall-miit- tern und Minern, 217- . Vol. viii. 1776. ^ J. S. Schroeter. ! Geschichte der Patellen [&c.] in Steinreiche. Capt. von Ai-enswald. ! Geschichte der Pommerischen und Meck- lenburgischen Versteinerungen [Star-fish; Encrinites and Trochites; Echinites and Spines; TubuHtes; Orthoceratites; Belemnites], 224. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Mineralogische Bemerkungen [Encrinites (figure); Cylindrite; Entomolithe], 245. M 2 148 DONATIONS. J. E. I. Walch. ! Lithologische Beobachtutigen [Sphaeronite (figures); Spongite; Encrinites and Pentacrinites ; Tere- bratulite ; Ammonites], 259. J. G. Wisger. ! Beschreibung der Bredewinder Holile, 280 (plate). De Luc. ! Abhandlung von einem sonderbaren Echiniten, 286 (plate). (Naturforscher.) Vol. ix.l 776. Chemnitz. ! Nachricht von einigen sonderbaren Orthoceratiten, 241. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Mineralogische Bemerkungen [Roe-stone-like porpites (? Melonites) (figures) ; Siphuncle of Ammonites ; Sutures of Eehinites ; Fossil bird-nest], 248. J. E. I. Walch. ! Lithologische Beobachtungen [Fossil shells; Eehinites ; Trilobites ; Crocodile skull ; Orthoceratites ; Globular Porpites (? Melonites)], 267 (plate). J. S. Schroeter. ! Abhandlung von den [Fossil] Muscheln der Weimarischen Gegend, 295. Vol. X. 1777. J. J. Ferber. ! Verzeichnis der vorziiglichsten Bergwerke in dem Churfiirsthenthurm Bayern und der dazu gehorigen Ober- pflaz, 112. -. Vol. xi. 1777. Dr. von Scheffler. ! Sendschreiben an H. Walch von dem Ur- sprung des Sandes, 122. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Abhandlung von den Corallien im Reiche der Versteinerung, 128. J. E. L Walch. ! ^Abhandlung von den Sternbergischen Verstein- erungen, 142. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Sendschreiben an H. Walch von den Braun- schweigischen Encriniten, 161. J. S. Schroeter, ! Abhandlung von den Muscheln der Weimar- ischen Gegend, 1/0. -. Vol. xii. 1778. Prof. Lesken. ! Abhandlung von einigen sich wandelnden zum Felspat gehorigen Steinen aus Labrador, 145 (plate). Danzen. ! Beytrag zur Geschichte des Welt-auges oder Lapis mutabilis, 164 (figures). J. Ch. Meineke. ! Nachtrag zu seiner mineralogischen Beschrei- bung der Gegend um Oberwiederstedt, 235. -. Vol. xiii. 1779. Prof. Hacquet. ! Nachricht von einer sonderbaren Versteinerung [Coral], 91 (figure). J. E. L Walch. ! Leber dieselbe Versteinerung, 94. Lithologische* Beobachtungen [Potsdam En- trochite-jasper ; Belemnites (figures)]. J. S. Schroter. ! Abhandlung von den vorziiglichsten Eisenstufen, vv'elche am Stahlberge und der sogenannten Mommel bey Smalkalden gefunden werden, 113. J. F. Gmelin. ! Beytrag zu der natlirlichen Geschichte Wiirtem- bergs aus der Classe der Erden und Steine, 132. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Fortsetzung der Beytrage zu der merkwiirdigen Steinarten aus der Gegend bey Oberwiederstedt, 160. DONATIONS, 149 (Naturforscher.) Vol. xiv. 1780. J. C. F. Meyer. ! Versuche mit dera Stolpener Basalte, 1. J. E. I. Walch. ! Lithologische Beobachtungen [Langenhcim fossils; Orthoceratites ; Gryphites ; Nautilites], 9 (plate). H. Sander. ! Von dcr Goldwiische am llheine, 3/. . Vol. XV. 1781. Prof. Hermann. ! Ueber einige Petrefacten [Trigoniae], 115, (plate). J. G. Georgi. ! Abliandlung von den Unreinigkeiten der Roch- salzes, sonderlich im Russischen Reiche, und den Mitteln es da von zu reinigen, 184, Schreber. ! Versuche mit der sogenannten Hallischen Mond- milch, 209 (figures). . Vol. xvi. 1781. Bock. ! Beschreibung zvveyer vom Bernstein durchbrungenen Holzstiicke, nebst einigen Anmerkungen iiber den Ursprung des Bernsteins in Preussen, 5/ (plate). J. S. Schroter. ! Nachricht von einen neuentdecktcn Muschel- raarmor aus dem Herzogthura Karnthen, mit Schillerflecken, 160. . Vol. xvii. 1782. J. Cli. Meineke. ! Beschreibung einiger merkwiirdigen Steinarten und Mineralien in der Gegend von Oberwiederstedt in der Graffsch. Mannsfeld, 35. J. S. Schroter. ! Neue Bemerkungen iiber Kleine natiirliche Am- monshorner [Foraminifera], 117. Haase. ! Chemische Versuche mit einer Art Tripel, 226. . Vol. xviii. 1782. G. F. Goetz. ! Beytrage zur mineralogischer Geschichte der Graff scliaft Hanau, 86. J. S. Schroter. ! Ueber einige VersteineiTingen aus der Herr- schaft Heydenheim im WUrtembergischen, 123. Prof. Sander. ! Beschreibung einer Tropfsteinhole in der Land- graffschaft Sansenburg, 167. J. S. Schroter. ! Nachtrage zu seinen Nachricht vora opalisiren- den Muschelmarmor, und Beytrag zur Geschichte des Lapis mutabilis, 194. J. Ch, Meineke. ! Ueber die hypothetische Verrauthung, dass viele Petrefacte Ueberbleibsel einer praadamischen Vorwelt sind, 252. -. Vol. xix. 1783. Mayer. ! Nachricht von polnischen Opalen und Welt-augen, 1. Dr. Kiihn. ! Beschreibung einer bey Eisenach gefundenen Encri- niten-platte, 96 (plate). J. Ch. Meineke. ! Ueber verschiedene Gegenstande aus der Na- turgeschichte, sonderlich des Steinreichs, 185. -. Vol. XX. 1785. Dr. Schopf. ! Mineralogische Bemerkungen iiber einen Theil der Schvveizergebiirge/ 129. Mayer. ! Zusatz zu seinen Nachricht von den polnischen Opalen, 171. 150 DONATIONS. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Nahere Erlautemng iiber einiger Schiefer- und Erz-arten aus dem Mannsfeldischen, 180. (Naturforscher.) Vol. xxii. 1787. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Ueber verschiedene Gegenstande aus dem Miner alreiche, 145. J. S. Schroter. ! Nachrichten von einigen Russischen Mineralien, Aug. Haasse. ! Von einen mineralogischen Laugensalz, 183. Vol. xxiii. 1788. J. S. Schroter. ! Nachrichten von einigen Russischen Mineralien, 54. G. F. Goetz. ! Beytrag zur Mineralogischen Geschichte der Graftschaft Hanau, 102. C. C. Gmehn. ! Mineralogische Beobachtungen in einigen vul- canischen Gegenden am Rheine, 114. Vol. xxiv. 1789. J. Ch. Meineke. ! Merkwiirdigkeiten aus dem Mineralreiche [Mannsfeld copperslate, &c.], 163. J. G. Geissler. ! Nachricht von einen inlandischen so genannten Labrador- oder sich wandelnden Steine, 189 (figures). Schreber. ! Lithologische Bemerkungen. Halle. Zeitsclirift fur die Gesammten Naturwissenscbaften. Heraus- gegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine fiir Sachsen und Thiiringen in Halle. Vol. i. 1853. Baur. ! Ueber Shepard's Entdeckung von Geysirn in Kalifornia, 120. Bischof und Giebal. ! Ueber Aptychus, 135. Deicke. ! Die Structur des Roggensteines bei Bernburg (plate), 188. Giebel. ! Fischreste im buntene Sandstein bei Bernburg (plate), 30. Ueber das Alten der St. Cassianer Ablagerungen, 34. Ueber Quenstedt's fossile Menschenzahne im Bohnerz, 122. * Ueber L. v. Buch, 203. Ueber Koprolithen, 206. * Ueber Zekeli's Gasteropoden der Gosauformation, 285. Ueber Ammonites dux, n.s., aus dem Muschelkalk von Schraplau (plate), 341. Ueber einige Pflanzenreste im Braunkohlensandstein bei Skopau, 350. Heintz. ! Ueber Owen's Thalit, 37. Ueber Ulex' Beobachtung des Schwefelwasserstoft in einer Erdschicht bei Hamburg, 132. Krause. ! Ueber Plettner's Untersuchung der Braunkohlenfor- mation in dem Mark Brandenburg, 125. Leo. ! Diluviales Knochen-lager bei Frankenhausen, 447. E. Sochting und A. LeyfFert. ! Vorkommen und Bildung der in andern Krystallen eingeschlossenen Krystalle, 6. Sochting, ! Ueber Jenaische Muschelkalk-petrefacten und ein fragliches Mineral daher, 119. Kiinstliche Darstellung Greenokits, 346. Suckow. ! Zur mineralischen Verwitterung, 433. DONATIONS. 151 Ulrich. ! Voltait vom Rammelsberge bei Goslar, 12. Literatur. ! Oryctognosie ; Geologic ; Palseontologie. (Halle. Zeitschrift.) Vol. ii. 1853. Andrae. ! Ueber Hohlen- und Spalten-bildung in Steiermark, 338. Fossile Friichte aus dem Steinsalz von Wieliczka, 341. Giebel. ! Zum Andenken des verstorbenen Prof. E. F. Germar, 31. Bemerkungen zu Spiecker's Abhandlung iiber Sigillaria Sternhergi, Miinst., 34. Sochting. ! Die Basalte und Tertiarsehichtungen in Gottingens Umgegend eigenthumliche Metamorphose, 29. Spiecker. ! Sigillaria Sternhergi, Miinst. des bunten Sandsteins zu Bernburg (2 plates), 1. Thiirnlex. ! Wasserdurchbruch in der Steinkohlengrube " Hum- boldt" bei D51au, 38. Literatur. ! Oryctognosie; Geologic; Pala^ontologie. Vol. iii. 1854, Chop. ! Versteinerungen im Sonderhauser Muschelkalk, 58. Giebel. ! Eine Eschara im Planermergel, 54. Ueber Nomenclatur in der systematischen Geognosie, 125. Versteinerungen im Muschelkalk bei Lieskau, 192. Ueber einen Trilobiten aus den Wettiner Steinkohlen- schichten (plate), 266. Gliickselig. ! Schlaggenwald, 257. Greifenhagen. ! Ueber das Vorkommen des Rothgiltigerzes auf der Grube Bergwerkswohlfart bei Zellerfeld, 341. Das Nebengestcin der Bocksweiser Bleiglanz- gangc (plate), 350. Kohlmann. ! Ueber die Bildung des Grundcises in der Saale bei Halle, 40. Prediger. ! Geognostiche Beobachtungen am Siidlichcn Hartze (plate), 364. Richter. ! Mittheilungen iiber Thiiringen, 49. Schmidt. ! Owen's, Carpenter's und Davidson's Untersuchungen iiber die Brachiopoden (2 plates), 325. Schmidt. ! Diluviales Knochenlager bei Gera, 130. Sochting. ! Berichtigung zu Lachmann's Karte von Braun- schweig, 54. Ueber Krystalle in Krystallen, 268. Gelbbleierz als Versteinerungsmaterial, 274. Spieker. ! Pleuromoia, neue fossile Pflanzengattung und ihre Arten, gebildet aus der Sigillaria Stembergi im bunten Sandstein (3 plates), 176. Ulrich. ! Ueber Misy aus dem Rammelsberge bei Goslar, 22. Wimmer. ! Krystallographische Notiz (plate), 334. Die Gauge im Felde der Gruben Ring und Silber- schnur bei Zellerfeld (plate), 344. Witte. ! Ueber die Vertheilung der Warme auf der Erdoberflache (2 plates), 26. Zeuschner. ! Geognostische Schilderung der Gangverhaltnisse bei Kotterbach und Poracz im Zipser Comitat, 7- Literatur. ! Oryctognosie ; Geologic ; Palaontologie. 152 DONATIONS. Linnean Society, Transactions, vol. xxi. part 3, 1854. , Presidential Address by Thomas Bell, Esq., May 24, 1854. * , List of Fellows, 1834. -, Proceedings, Nos. 52-58. Notice of Dr. Mantell, 235. Dr. T. Thompson, 240. Baron von Buch, 241. A. Aikin, Esq., 304. Professor Jameson, 306. C. Stokes, Esq., 312. G. F. Fischer de Waldheim, 318. Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 1853-54, No. 8. M'Andrew, Robert.!" On the Geographical Distribution of Tes- taceous Mollusca in the North-East Atlantic and neighbour- ing seas," 8. Ferguson, W. ! " On the Raised Beaches of the Frith of Clyde, with Notices of the Discovery of Numerous Ancient Canoes in the Neighbourhood of Glasgow," 131. Moss, Rev. J. J. ! " On the Chemical Properties of the Torbane Hill Mineral," 159. London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. 4th series, vol. viii. No. 54, Dec. 1854. R. P. Greg.! On Meteorolites, 449. A. Sedgwick. ! On the May Hill sandstone and the palaeozoic system of England, 4/2. . No. 55 (Supplement), Dec. 1854. A. Sedgwick. ! On the May Hill sandstone and the palaeozoic system of England, 489. Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Memoirs. 2nd series, vol. xi. 1854. E. W. Binney. ! On the action of old coal-pit water upon iron in the Pendleton Colliery, 2/. Medical Circular. Nos. 123-128. Milan. Giornale dell' I. R. Istituto Lombardo di Sc. Lett, ed Arti e Bibliotheca Italiana. Nuov. Ser. vol. iv. E. Lombardini. ! L'idraulico condizione del Po nel territorio di Ferrara (3 plates), 3. Rapporto della Commissione incaricata di riferire sulle esperienze eseguite dal Prof. P. Gorini ad illustrazione della sua opera, sulla formazione delle montagne, 168. . Vol. V. Prof. Massalongo. ! ^Prodromus florae fossilis Senogalliensis (4 plates) [with list of works by Italians on fossil plants], 197. G. Curioni. ! Rapporto sulla Carta geognostica del Tirolo e del Vorarlberg, 508. . Ease. 31, 32 (vol. vi.). E. Cornalio. ! Sul Pachypleura Edwardsii. Nuovo sauro acro- donte degli strati triasici di Lombardia (2 plates), 45. DONATIONS. 153 Monthly American Journal of Geology and Natural Science. Vol. i. 1831-32. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Numerous Geological Memoirs and Notices. Netherlands. Yerhandelungen uitgegeven door de Commissie belast met het vervaardigen erner geologische beschrijving en Kaart van Nederland. Tweede Deel. 1854. From the Societe Hol- landaise des Sciejices a Haarlem. Verslag tot Octobre 1853, 1. J. Bosquet. ! Les crustaces fossiles du terrain cretace du Duche de Limbourg (plates), 13. G. A. and F. A. W. Venema. ! De Barnstein in de provincie Groningen. P. Harting.! Ilet Eiland Urk; and W. C. H. Staring.! Het Nederlandsoh Diluvium (maps), 15/. Lijst der Versteeningen uit de tertiaire Gronden van Gelderland en Overijssel, 18/. J. Bosquet. ! Quelques nouveaux Brachiopodes du systerae Maes- trichien (plate), 195. Verslag van de Commissie, van Octobre 1853 tot Octobre 1854. Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Journal. New Series, vol. ii. part 3, 1853. J. Lea. ! The New Red of Pennsylvania and a fossil Saurian from that formation (plates), 185. Some new fossil Molluscs from the Wilkesbarre coal formation (plate), 203. T. A. Conrad. ! New tertiary and cretaceous shells of the United States (plate), 273. Proceedings. 1852. No. 12-34. D. D. Owen. ! New mineral from California, 108. J. Lea. ! Eschara Claibornensis, 109. F. A. Genth. ! Minerals accompanying gold in California, 1 13. ? Strontiano-calcite, 114. C. M. Wetherill.! Phoenixville molybdate of lead, 119. F. A. Genth.! Rhodophyllite, 121. D. D. Owen. ! Geology of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, 189. M. Tuomey. ! Tertiary shells, North Carolina, 192. T. A. Conrad. ! Tertiary strata of St. Domingo and of Vicksburg, 198. Notes on shells, and descriptions of new species, tertiary and cretaceous, 199. F. A. Genth. ! New mineral from California, 209. Riviere, A. Annales Sciences Geologiques . prem. ann. 1842. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Numerous Geological Memoirs and Notices. Royal Astronomical Society, Memoirs. Vol. xxii. 1854. , Monthly Notices. Vol. xiii. 1853. Statist, The. Vol. i. No. 1, Oct. 1854. Statistical Society of London, Journal. Vol. xvii. pt. 4, Dec. 1854. 154 DONATIONS* Stockholm. Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar. For 1852. Biografi ofver Wilhelm Hisinger, 385. . Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Forhand- lingar. For 1852. Bahr. ! Om den formodade metallen Aridium, 161. Helleday. ! Analys pa mineralvatten vid Fahlun, 193. Igelstrom. ! Mineralogiska underrattelser om Wermskogs socken, 18. Palmstedt. ! Om platina i silfermjnt, 220. Erdmann. ! Om vattenstandet i maleren 1851, 37. Om jattegrytor vid Gunnebo, 238. Lindstrom. ! Om Gottlands hojning, 194. . For 1853. Igelstrom. ! Mineral- Analyser (Dolomite, Limestone, Serpentine, &c.), 33. Strasbourg. Me'moires de la Societe du Museum d'Histoire Natu- relle de Strasbourg, tome iv. 2 et 3 livr. 1853. Marcel de Serres. ! Sm* la distribution primitive des vegetaux et des animaux a la surface du globe. Dr. Carriere. ! Sur la chaux carbonatee dans les Vosges. W. P. Schimper. ! Palaeontologica Alsatica. Miocene Palms. Xyphosures, Ammonites, and Chelonichnium of the Trias. Vaud. Societe Vaudoise des Sciences NatureMes, Bulletin. Nos. 30, 31. Dr. J. Delaliarpe (Secretaire). ! Les demiers travaux de la Societe (Geologic), 229. Prof. Lardy. ! Sur la Carte geologique de la Suisse par MM. Studer et A. Escher de la Linth, 246. E. Renevier. ! Sur une Ammonite gigantesque du Gault, 252. Dr. Campiche. ! Sur la Carte geologique des Environs de Ste. Croix, 253. Morlot. ! Sur une dent fossile d'elephant trouvee pres de Morges, 255. E. Renevier. ! Sur la terrain neocomien qui borde le pied du Jura, de Neuchatel a la Sarraz (with plate), 261. Morlot, Merian et Heer. ! Sur I'identite des Chara Meriani et C. helicteres (with plates), 278. C. Gaudin et Heer, ! La flore tertiaire des environs de Lausanne, 247, 280, 286. Troyon et Morlot. ! Sur I'eboulement du Tauredunum, 281. Morlot. ! Sur un echantillon de phosphate de plomb, 294. No. 32 (vol. iv.). Seances, 1-13. S. Chavannes. ! Sur la geologic d'une partie du pied du Jura comprise entre le Nozon et Yverdon, 14. Ch. Gaudia. ! Sur une nouvelle espece de Chara fossile, 28. Prof. Morlot. ! Sur I'eboulement du Berney, 37. A. Morlot. ! Sur les pohs glaciaires de roches en place dans la domaine de la molasse, 38. Observation d'une superposition de diluvium a I'erratique, 39. Sur le quaternaire en Suisse, 41. DONATIONS. 155 Vienna. Jahrbuch der K. K. Geol. Reich sanstalt, 1854. No. 1. Dr. F. Hochstetter. ! Geognostische Studien aus dera Bohmer- walde, 1. K. Ritter von Hauer. ! Ueber die Zusammensetzimg einiger Mi- neralien mit besonderer Rucksieht auf ihren Wassergehalt, A. Heinrich. ! Beitrage zur Kenntniss der geognostischen Ver- haltnisse des mahrischen Gesenkes in den Sudeten, 87. J. Jokely. ! Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Erzlegerstatte bei Adam- stadt und Rudolphstadt im sikllichen Bohraen, 107. Dr. K. Peters. ! Die salzburgischen Kalkalpen im Gebiete der Saale, 116. W. Ilaidinger. ! Barytkrystalle, als Absatz der neuen Mineralbad- hausquelle in Karlsbad, 142. M. V. Lipoid. ! Der Nickelbergbau Nokelberg im Leogangthale, nebst geologischer Skizze letzteren, 148. Karl Koristka. ! Bericht iiber einige im Zwittawa-Thale und ein siidwestliclien Mahren ausgefiihrte Hohenraessungen, 161. W. Haidinger. ! Zwei Schaustufen von Brauneisenstein mit Ker- nen von Spatheisenstein in der Sammlung der k. k. geolo- gischen Reichsanstalt, 183. Chemical researches in the Laboratory of the K. K. Reichsan- stalt, 193. Proceedings of the K. K. Reichsanstalt. E. Suess. ! Section of the Hallstatt Salzberge, u.s.w., 196. C. V. Ettinghausen. ! Fossil plants from the neighbourhood of Budweis, 197. Dr. Noggerath. ! Fossil wood from the brown-coal near Bonn, 198. S. Reissek. ! Microscopic analysis of the clay with pisolite of the Dachstein, 198. Fr. Zekeli. ! Structure of the Hippurites, 199. Fr. Ragsky. ! Analyses of Graphites, 201. Fr. Rolle and others. ! Rocks of the Taunus, 201. C. V. Ettinghausen. ! Miocene fossil plants from Hegyalla, north of Tokai, 202. Fr. Rolle. ! Coal-bearing tertiary beds in Obersteiermark, 202. Fr. Zekeli. ! Structure of the Caprinae, 202. Fr. Foetterle. ! Geology of Bosing, Presburg, 204. Fr. V. Hauer, ! New Cephalopods from the Hallstatt beds, 204. Fr. Zekeli. ! Structure of the Radiolites, 205. K. Peters.! Tertiai-y beds between Flachau and Wagrein, 206. F. V. Sidl.! Tertiary basin of Wittingau, 208. M. Homes. ! Tertiary fossils from Raussnitz, north of Au- sterlitz, Moravia, 209. Fr. Hochstetten. ! Goldwashings in the Bohmerwald, 210. C. v. Ettinghausen. ! Fossil plants from near Erlau, 211. J. Jokely. ! Geology of Erlau, Upper Hungary, 211. J. L. Carnaval. ! Limestone with lead ore, &c., in Carinthia, 212. C. V. Ettinghausen. ! Representatives of the Euphorbiaceze in geologic times, 214. J. Czjzek.! Tertiary basin of Budweis, Bohemia, 215. 156 DONATIONS, ETC. Fr. V. Hauer. ! Fossils from Lugano and Mendiisio, 216. Fr. Foetterle. ! Sulphur and alumina in the Siebenbiirge, 217. M. Homes. ! Tertiary fossils from Girgenti, compared with those of the Vienna Basin, 218. V. R. V. Zepharovieh. ! Mining district of Bukovina, 219. J, Czjzek. ! Anthracite deposits of Budweis, Bohemia, 224. A. Hoffmann. ! Section of the coal measures near Padochau, 226. A. Tomeschek. ! Geology of the CoUio, 226. J. Jokely. ! Crystalline limestones of South Bohemia, 227- K. Peters. ! Fossil mammalian bones in the Loess of Lee- benstein, 227. G. Meneghini. ! Cretaceous fossils from North Italy, 228. M. V. Lipoid. ! Geology of Grossarl, Gastein, and other valleys, 22.9. C. V. Ettinghausen. ! Fossil plants of Heiligenkreuz near Kremnitz, 229. J. Grimm. ! Auriferous deposits of the Siebenbiirge, Hun- gary, and Bohemia, 230. C. V. Ettinghausen. ! Heer's tertiary flora of Switzerland, 232. Price-list of mineral produce, 251. II. GEOLOGICAL CONTENTS OF PERIODICALS PURCHASED FOR THE LIBRARY. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. No. 84, Dec. 1854. Dunker u. Meyer's Palseontographica. 1854, vol. iv. 1 Lieferung. H. Jordan and H. von Meyer. ! Ueber die Crustaceen der Stein- kohlen-formation von Saarbriicken (2 plates), 1 . Fr. Goldenburg. ! Die fossilen Insecten der Kohlen-formation von Saarbriicken (4 plates), 17- . 2 Lieferung. Fr. Unger. ! Jm-asische Pflanzenreste (2 plates), 39. H. V. Meyer. ! Jurasische und Triasische Crustaceen (2 plates), 44. Ueber den Jugendzustand der Chelydra Decheni aus der Braunkohle des Siebengebirges (plate), 56. Anthracotherium Dalmatinum aus der Braunkohle des Monte Promina in Dalmatien (plate), 61. Leonliard und Bronn's Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde. 1854. 5 Heft. Schafhault. ! Beitrage zur nahern Kenntniss der Bayern'schen Voralpen (2 plates), 513. Hartleben. ! Das Vorkommen von Quecksilber in der Liinebm-ger Haide, 560. Letters, Notices of Books, of Mineralogy, Geology, and Fossils. DONATIONS. 157 (Jahrbuch.) 1854. 6 Heft. A. von Strombeck. ! Ueber die Echiniden des Hils-Konglomerates in N.W. Deutschland, 641. J. C. Deicke.! Ueber die Petrifikation der Konchylien-Schaalen in der Schweitzer-Molasse, 65/. O. DiefFenbaeh. ! Ueber die Erz-Gange und das Gang-Gebirge von Nord-Carolina und den angrenzenden Staaten, 663. Letters, Notices of Books, and of Mineralogy, Geology, and Fossils. III. GEOLOGICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS. Names of Donors in Italics. Agassiz, L., and H. Strickland. Bibliographia Zoologiae et Geologlae, vol. iv. From the Ray Society. Alberti, F. von. Beitrag zu einer Monographie des Bunten Sand- steins, Muschelkalks und Keupers, und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer formation. From W. Lonsdale, Fsq., F.G.S. Alder, J., and A. Hancock. Monograph of the British Nudibran- chiate Mollusca, part 6. From the Ray Society. Austen, Rev. J. H. Guide to the Geology of the Isle of Purbeck. From T. R. Jones, Esq., F.G.S. Back, Capt. Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition in 1833-35. With Appendices by Dr. Richardson and Dr. Fitton. F?v?n W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Baier, J. J. Oryctographia Norica. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Bakewell, R. Introduction to Geology : 5th edit. 1838. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Barrow, John. An account of travels into the interior of Southern Africa in the years 1797 and 1798. 2 vols. Frotn W. Lons- dale, Esq., F.G.S. Bianconi, J. J. De mari olim occupante planities et colles Italiae, Grsecise, Asise Minoris, &c., et de setate tcrreni quod geologi appellant " Marnes bleues," dissertationes. Fasc. quintus. Blumenbach, J. Fr. Manuel d'Histoire Naturelle. Translated from the German by S. Artaud. 2 vols. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Bohadsch, J. B. De quibusdam animalibus marinis. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. 158 DONATIONS. Buckingham, J. S. Travels among the Arab Tribes inhabiting the countries east of Syria and Palestine. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East India Com- pany, vol. i. Froyn the Directors of the Hon. E. I. Company. Cornalia, Br. E. Notizie Zoologische sul Pachypleura Edwardsii. ? . Second Copy. Fro7n J. R. Instituto Lombardo, Cotta, B. Geognostische Wanderungen : Geognostische Beschrei- bung der Gegend von Tharand. Die Lagerungsverhaltnisse an der Grenze zwischen Granit und Quader-sandstein bei Meissen, Hohnstein, Zittau und Liebenau. From W. Lonsdale^ Esq., F.G.S. Darwin, C. Monograph on the Sub-class Cirripedia : Balanidse. From the Ray Society. Daubeny, Dr. C, On the importance of the study of Chemistry as a Branch of Education. Davidson, T. Descriptions of a few new recent species of Brachio- poda. Edwards, H. Milne. Elemens de Zoologie. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Ferguson, W. The raised beaches of the Firth of the Clyde. Fleming, Rev. Dr. John. Philosophy of Zoology. From W. Lons- dale, Esq., F.G.S. Fortis, A. Beschreibung des Thales Ronca im Veronischen Gebiet. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Gutbier, Aug. von. Geognostische Beschreibung des zwickauer Schwarzenkohlengebirges und seiner Umgebungen. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Holl, F. Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Jones, T. Rupert. Lecture on the Geological History of the vicinity of Newbury, Berks. Kapp, Christian. Neptunismus und Vulkanismus in Beziehung auf von Leonhard's Basalt-gebilde. From W, Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Kelaart, Dr. E. F. Prodomus Faunae Zeylanicse, vol. i. and vol. ii. part 1. Kloden, K. F. Die Versteinerungen der Mark Brandenburg. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Langius, C. N. Historia Lapidum figuratorum Helvetiae ejusque viciniae. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. DONATIONS. 159 Linnaeus, C. Fauna Suecica. From W. Lonsdale^ Esq., F.G.S. Tchihatchef, P. de. Depots tertiaires d'une partie de I'Asie Mineure. Torrubia, Joseph. Vorbereitung zur Naturgescliichte von Spanien. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Tuckey, Capt. J. K. Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816, with Appendix by Prof. C. Smith. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Ure, Dr. A. New System of Geology, 1829. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. "Wittwor, L. 0. Outline of Geology. 2nd edit. 1847. From W. Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S. Zejpharovich, V. R. von. Beitrage zur Geologic des Pilsener Kreises in Bohmen. THE QUAETERLY JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, January 31, 1855. The Rev. T. J. Prout, A.M., was elected a Fellow. The following communications were read : ! 1. Additional Observations on the Silurian and Devonian Rocks near Christiania in Norwtay, ! on presenting M. Theodor Kjerulf's new Geological Map of the District. By Sir Roderick I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. &c. &c. During an excursion to Norway and Sweden in the year 1844, I drew those conclusions respecting the order of the older sedimentary formations in the environs of Christiania, which, having first been enounced in the Quarterly Journal of this Society, were afterwards published in greater detail and with a more accurately finished section in the work entitled * Russia and the Ural Mountains*.' * See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 471. The correct section is given in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. ii. Miscell. p. 71 ; ibid. vol. viii. p. 182 ; and * Russia in Europe,' &c., vol i. p. 13. Since the present notice was read, M. Kjerulf has sent to me the Memoir in German, which accompanies his map, entitled * Das Christiania-Silurbecken, chemisch-geognostisch untersucht,' 4to. Christiania, 1855. In acknowledging this favour, I beg to state that this author does not seem to have been acquainted with my original communication on the subject ; for the paper by Forchhammer, to which alone he refers, is in the Norsk language, and forms a part of the account of that Scandinavian Meeting of 1844 at which I gave VOL. XI. PART I. N 162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, These views developed the existence of a vast trough or elongated basin of Silurian strata, the direction of which lengthwise is from S. and by W. to N. and by E., and which in the parallel of Christiania has a width of about thirty English miles. This trough was shown to consist of two low tracts, on either side of a high intervening plateau ; each lower lateral tract being composed of a full series of all the Silurian strata (Lower and Upper) ; and the central higher ground, of Old Red Sandstone or Devonian strata. This exposition of a symmetrical order, from the base of the stratum containing the oldest known remains through Lower and Upper Silurian rocks, and thence through about a thousand feet of overlying red sandstone, was naturally dwelt upon by me with great satisfaction : for, in exploring the remaining parts of Scandinavia where such palaeozoic formations were present, no other district could be discovered in which so complete and continuous a succession was to be seen. The great Russian Empire exhibits no such clear Silurian base as this Norwegian trough presents ; whilst even the symmetrical Silurian basin of Bohemia, so justly celebrated through the labours of M. Barrande, is inferior in one respect, ! viz. in not exposing, like the Norwegian example, a great overlying mass un- equivocally of Devonian age. Although my explanation of this order, as first given at the Meeting of the Scandinavian Men of Science in June 1844, was warmly approved by my associates who were present (including Leopold von Buch, Berzelius, and Forchhammer), it met with an opponent in M. Keilhau, who, though he had published his * Geea Norvegica ' and a map of Norway which is very praiseworthy for its mineral features, maintained ideas essentially distinct from my own respecting the consecutive order ; and who still, as I understand, does not admit the metamorphism of some of the Silurian strata into crystalline slate (harte-schiefer) ! a point I endeavoured to explain satisfactorily to this Society many years ago. Under these circumstances, I have long wished to see some free Norwegian arise, who, looking fairly at nature, would say whether the order I had indicated was exact, or if not, who would correct it ; and who would further test it by a close examination of the strata, and by laying down their outlines on a map. Fortunately, I met with Mr. David Forbes, the brother of our universally beloved and respected former President, and, finding that he was frequently at Christiania, I urged him to produce before the Geological Society some fruits of his own observations on the rocks of Norway. I also particularly requested him to obtain some data of detail the first explanation of the true order of the region. In fact, whilst the memoir of M. Kjerulf contains much valuable new matter, particularly his descriptions and analyses of the igneous and metamorphic rocks, and also lucid diagrams explana- tory of the physical relations of the strata, his chief sections {ea;. gr. those of p. 51) are, as he himself states, analogous to that general transverse section which I offered to the Christiania Meeting of 1844, and which was repeated in the above-mentioned works, and lastly in mv ' Siluria ' of 1854, pp. 319, 320. ! [R. I. M. May 23, 1855.] 1855.] MURCHISON ! CHRISTIANIA. 163 respecting the Silurian formations of Christiania, and to procure a competent survey and admeasurement of them. Whilst Mr. D. Forbes will give you his own views on the crystalline rocks, I have to thank him for having obtained from his friend M. Theodor Kjerulf the map which is herewith exhibited. On it are delineated the bound- aries of the Lower and Upper members of what M. Kjerulf terms the "Silurian Basin of Christiania," and of the overlying Devonian ; the dips of the strata being generally noted. M. Kjerulf has also furnished some data to Mr. D. Forbes, among which the following are important : ! Feet. The Lower Silurian schists and limestones have a thickness of . 860 The Upper Silurian limestones and flagstones 150 Total thickness 1010 In various publications, and specially in my last work *Siluria,' I have adverted to the phsenomenon, that, notwithstanding the thin- ness of the Scandinavian strata of this age, they exhibit as complete a " natural system " as in countries where they are expanded to many thousand feet of vertical dimensions. Thus, above the bottom beds (often only a few feet thick) of fucoid-sandstone resting upon gneiss or older granite, we meet with the so-called Alum-slates, recently illustrated by the publication of their fossils by Angelin, some of the forms of which were known long ago to Hisinger and the older Swedish naturalists. Whether at Andrarum or other places in Scania where I have examined it, or on the flanks of the Norwegian trough under consideration, this zone of schist has nowhere a greater thickness than from 60 to 80 feet, whilst its equivalent in Wales (the Lingula-flags) has a thickness of many thousand feet, as assigned to it by the British Government Surveyors, who place it as the bottom rock of the Silurian System. Still, notwithstanding this vast disproportion in dimensions, the thin shred of Scandinavia has afforded many more Trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Battus^ and Olenus, than the grand British mass. In consequence of its fauna, M. Barrande has recognized the Alum-slate of Scandinavia as being the exact representative of his primordial Silurian zone of Bohemia. Then, in the succeeding few hundred feet of black schists, with occasional courses of limestone, which constitute the chief body of the Lower Silurian rocks, we have just the same profusion of typical fossils, whether they be Asaphi, Illceni, Trinuclei, or simple-plaited OrthidcBy as in the capacious mountain escarpments of Wales and Siluria ! lu parts of Scandinavia, and particularly near Christiania, a lime- stone charged with the Pentamerus oblongus is, as in other parts of Europe (as well as in America), the band which separates the Lower from the Upper Silurian, and which, according to the predominance of fossils of the one or the other, may locally be classed with either group. N 2 164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jail. 31, In Britain, however, the Pentamerus oblongus is unquestionably a Lower Silurian type, being found in the Llandeilo rocks as well as in the Upper Caradoc, and never in the Wenloek formation*. But at whatever horizon the division be draw^n ( ! a horizon which every far-travelled geologist knows must vary in different countries ! ), it is undeniable, that in Scandinavia, Russia, and Bohemia there is not the slightest trace of that local dislocation which has partially affected the British strata between the Lower and Upper Caradoc. In Norway and other parts of Scandinavia, the overlying strata of shale, limestone, and sandstone which are laden with Upper Silurian forms are everywhere perfectly conformable to the Lower Silurian ; and, even in the Bay of Christiania, the Wenloek limestone and shale charged with a profusion of Corals and Shells are seen to undulate upon and with underlying masses of the black Lower Silurian slates, in the horizontal space of a few hundred yards. Feeble in vertical dimensions as the Upper Silurian is said to be by M. Kjerulf, his statement is quite in accordance with my own observations, which would not assign more than 80 or 90 feet to the limestone subdivision, and 70 or 80 to the flag-like sandy strata which, containing Chonetes {Leptcena) lata and other fossils, repre- sent the Ludlow rocks, and pass up into the bottom-beds of the Old Red Sandstone, as seen on either side of the great plateau of Ringe- rigge exposed in my original section. Even in Gothland, that large island which is exclusively composed of Upper Silurian rocks, M. de Verneuil and myself could never recognize a greater united thickness than 200 or 300 feet, including a sandy representative of the Ludlow rocks, with some subordinate courses of an oolitic limestone. Yet, there also the fossils are very decisive of the age of the rocks, parti- cularly those of the Wenloek limestone ; whilst the meagre represen- tative of the Ludlow rocks, whether seen at Mount Hoburg in Goth- land or near Ofved-Kloster and the Lake Ring in Scania, where it is a purplish tilestone, is w^ell marked by its OrthonotcBy Cypricardice, Leptcena lata, Avicula retroflexa, and Cytherina (Lepej'ditia) Balfhicaf. Having previously dwelt upon the great geological value of such data and comparisons in showing that the age of ancient deposits is never to be indicated by their thickness merely, I have naturally great satisfaction in seeing my views confirmed, as respects Norway, by an accurate local observer. In addition to the indications on his map, M. Kjerulf has commu- nicated to Mr. D. Forbes a few notes, both on the sedimentary rocks and on the eruptive and metamorphic rocks. Thus, in speaking of the Devonian or Old Red Sandstone, which, * M. Kjerulf classes the Pentamerus-limestone with the Upper Silurian, and is, I have no doubt, correct ; for in Norway, as in Courland, the Pentamerus oblongus is almost always associated with a profusion of Wenloek species. ! [R. I. M., May 23, 1855.] t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. pp. 25, 34, &c. 1855.] MURCHISON ! CHRISTIANIA. 165 he says, everywhere overlies the Upper Silurian, and to which he assigns a thickness of 900 feet, M. Kjerulf attributes the absence of fossils (none having been found in it) to a contemporaneous volcanic or igneous action, which caused a deposit of the tufaceous matter whereof the Lower Devonian is composed. The higher parts become more sandy ; grains of quartz appearing, and finally a coarse red conglomerate. Some peculiarities of the trap and porphyry districts are mentioned, and the cavities of the amygdaloid (mandelstein) are said to be often occupied with natrolite, green-earth, calc-spar, fluor-spar, striped chalcedony, quartz, prehnite, apophyllite, and sometimes with curious nodules of anthracite in calc-spar. Breccias appear in great force ; one of these occurring between the Old Red Sandstone and the augite-porphyry, and another between the augitic and the felspathic porphyry. It is further stated, that there is no silicification of the slates or limestone in contact with granite or porphyry ; the first being simply indurated, and the second converted into marble. Some other structural phsenomena are briefly touched upon, among which it is said that the veins proceeding from granite appear to be of augite-porphyry, and that the veins emitted from the syenite are of felspar-porphyry. For my own part I have merely to state that, as far as I am acquainted with them, the observations of Mr. D. Forbes and M. Kjerulf are in unison with the opinions expressed by M. Forch- hammer and myself, particularly in respect to the metamorphosed schists, sandstones, and limestones of Silurian age, and also in demon- strating that the chief outbursts of the igneous rocks of this region, and specially of the porphyries, were posterior to the deposit of tlie Old Red Sandstone. In conclusion, let me say that, although I failed in leading Prof. Keilhau to agree with me respecting the order of succession from flanks to centre, or in the identity in age of his " harte schiefer " and my Lower Silurian, it was the simple inspection of his own geo- logical map of the Christiania Territory which first led me to entertain views which I realized by personal surveys. By inspecting the map of Keilhau, the geologist will see, that the whole of that which is now called the " Silurian basin," as circumscribed by gneiss, has a major axis of 120 miles long from Langesund, on the S.S.W., to the Lake Miosen, on the N.N.E. He will further observe, that the northern and southern portions of this region, particularly the latter, have been occupied by vast masses of those eruptive rocks (whether grouped as granites or porphyries) which have been emitted subsequently to the formation of the Old Red Sandstone. Hence it is, that in the parallel of Christiania only is there to be seen a full and symmetrical development of all the Silurian strata ; the eruptive rocks merely showing themselves in that district as dykes and bosses of protrusion, or partial superjacent sheets. 166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jail. 31, 2. On the Causes producing Foliation in Rocks ; and on some observed cases of Foliated Structure in Norway and Scot- land. By David Forbes, Esq., F.G.S., A.I.C.E. The study of the metamorphic and crystalline rocks has of late years attracted much attention, and the researches of Darwin, Sharpe, and others have brought forward many facts particularly interesting and important. It will probably, however, be admitted, that, notwithstanding the labours of these geologists, great diiference of opinion exists as to the formation and structure of these rocks, and that at present we are not in possession of sufficient data to enable us to place the question upon a firm basis. It is therefore of importance that as many observations as possible be laid before geologists working at this subject ; and it is consequently hoped that the present communication may not prove unserviceable in advancing the inquiry. The observations here brought forward have with a few exceptions been made during a residence of some years in Norway, where the foliated rocks play so important a part. The others are the result of some short excursions in Scotland made for the express purpose of comparison. For a long period, and it may be said until late years, it was the generally received opinion that the lines of foliation in rocks were lines corresponding in direction or identical with the lines of stratifi- cation, and were produced by the alteration of these lines by meta- morphic action. This view of the case can no longer be considered tenable, and the observations of many geologists have shown that foliation frequently takes place at a different angle to that of strati- fication. Darwin seems to consider this as almost invariably the case, and remarks that, even should they correspond in the strike, they would not correspond in the dip ; and Ramsay, in his paper " on the Lower Palaeozoics of North Wales," considers that there is no doubt that in many cases the foliation of the Anglesea rocks runs much across the dip. Many other observers might be quoted on this point ; but, on the other hand, several geologists of high reputation seem to con- sider these cases as exceptional, and that in general the foliation is developed according to the lines of stratification. (Case 1.) ! As bearing on this point, I observed in the Highlands of Scotland, near Crianlorich, on the road to Tindrum, in Perthshire, regular beds of a blue limestone, resting upon a dark greenish-grey mica-schist, and dipping 32< N.E., with an inclination in the course of the strata of 24< S.E. This limestone was most completely foliated by the introduction of small plates of white mica, so that it often could hardly be distinguished by the eye from gneiss. Here the foliation in the limestone appeared perfectly identical with the planes of bedding, as shown by the coloured bands and large beds of the limestone. This was apparently also the case in the gneiss ; but in the crust or stratum above the limestone on the surface of the ground the foliation was very twisted and irregular. 1855.] FORBES FOLIATION OF ROCKS, 107 (Case 2.) ! At Jsegersborg, near Christiansand, in Norway, the foliation of a highly crystalline white limestone in schist was found to be parallel with the apparent lines of bedding (see fig. 1). It Fig. 1. ! Section of foliated limestone and gneiss at JiBgersborgy near Christiansand. (See also page 173.) Height of Section about 8 feet. A. Granite. a, a. Ordinary gneiss. b, Quartzose gneiss. c, c. Gneiss. df d. Crystalline white limestone, e, e. Augitic limestone. f,f. Micaceous limestone. will frequently, however, be found very difficult to prove satisfactorily when the line of foliation coincides with that of bedding ; as in many cases, and particularly in Norway, there are rarely any normal stra- tified beds in so close contact as to render the matter perfectly indisputable. Keilhau seems, however, to consider the cases where the foliation does not agree with the stratification as exceptional, and mentions*, evidently with this impression, a case where he has observed in Thelemarken a thick bed of very characteristic gneiss situated amongst other crystalline strata in which the mica and gneiss struc- ture, as a whole, was developed at right angles to the real planes of stratification. It is possible also that the coincidence of foliation and stratifica- tion would be found much more frequently the case, were it not for the very general occurrence of the disturbing influence of a pre- viously existing cleavage-structure, ! or of a more or less inclined position of the beds during the time foliation occurred, ! or, lastly, of the intrusion or approach of igneous rocks. * Norske Mag. for Naturvidenskab, New Series, vol. i. p. 70. 168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, Where cleavage is previously existing in rocks, it appears very reasonable to suppose that the folia would arrange themselves along the lines of cleavage, which may be regarded as so many cracks or vacuities extremely convenient for the development of crystalline matter. These spaces probably may be much more diffused than would appear at first sight. For we may suppose matter compressed so as to give it a cleavage-structure, and this pressure then removed or only relaxed : the elasticity of the mass itself (however small) would naturally cause a certain degree of relaxation throughout its entire body, giving it, in consequence, a general porous structure ; the pores being of course elongated and flattened in the direction of the planes of cleavage, or at right angles to the compressing force. Afterwards, when the foliating forces, which cannot be other than chemical, come into action in a mass in this state, we may fairly expect that the lines of fohation will be identical with these lines ; ! which seems to be the reason that we so often find the lines of cleavage and foliation parallel. In case the chemical action here alluded to was so intense as to obliterate the cleavage-planes, then we have no guarantee that the lines of foliation will follow these planes. In some cases possibly the cleavage may have taken place after foliation, and in some measure accommodated itself to these lines as offering the least resistance. The superincumbent pressure, likewise, must be taken into account in considering the arrangement of foliation ; as it appears likely that this would act against any vertical position of the crystals ; and the elongated and flattened appearance generally seen in the cry- stalline minerals inducing foliation appears doubtless the result of this action. Foliation and cleavage have both, I believe, been referred by some to electric or magnetic action ; but I am afraid that it is too general to refer to these causes effects that we do not at first sight compre- hend. If it be found, as I believe to be the case, that electricity traverses more easily in the direction of the cleavage-planes than across them, I think tliis argument has no further weight than as confirming the porous structure here supposed as consequent on the relaxation of a previously applied pressure ; as it seems very probable that the resistance offered to the current in this direction would, in consequence, be less than across the grain, ! and we know that most non-metallic mineral substances are very imperfect conductors, whereas space, or air rarefied by heat or exhaustion, are conductors, though not equal to the metals themselves. Darwin and Sharpe (the latter in his paper on the Highlands) put forward the view that cleavage and foliation are identical, ! that is, are parts of one and the same process, the former being but the first stage of the latter. To this I must object, and I believe that they are not only distinct phsenomena, but that the causes producing them are also distinct ; as in foliation we must have chemical action brought into operation, whilst in cleavage no such action is requisite, and the phsenomena admit of a mechanical explanation. 1855.] FORBES ! FOLIATION OF ROCKS. IG9' We can only regard the truly cleaved rocks as mechanical aggre- gates ; and the more foliated or crystalline such rocks become, the less perfectly do we find the cleavage-planes developed. The microscopic researches of Sorby* and others have proved that in slates possessing the most perfect cleavage we have a mass composed of minute rounded grains of mica, decomposed felspar, quartz-sand, phosphate of iron, and other substances, all easily recognizable, and having all the characters of a waterworn deposit, apparently not in any way mineralogically different from the state they were in when originally deposited as a sediment. In fact they are nothing further than a consolidated mud, in which a lamellar structure has been induced by mechanical action ; and the synthetical experiments of Sorby on this subject give the most conclusive evidence as to the mechanical nature of cleavage ! Admitting that cleavage and foliation were identical, how incon- sistent with the parallel structure of cleaved rocks should we find the numerous cases of complicated and contorted foliated structure, which are so common, and where it is almost impossible to believe that these contortions have arisen from any twisting of the lines, either of stratification or cleavage, as the mechanical forces then brought into play would be so compound as hardly to be conceivable. It must, nevertheless, be admitted, that the lines of foliation and the planes of cleavage do often agree and are parallel to one another ; and several opportunities of confirming this have come under my observation. (Case 3.) ! In Espedalen, Norway, the foliation of the mica- schists and hornblende-gneiss is parallel to the cleavage of the clay- slates of the district, both running nearly E. and W., and dipping N. at various angles from 10< to 50<. The line of bedding cannot be determined, but seems probably to be in the line of cleavage. (Case 4.) ! On the side of Loch Lomond, at Luss, I observed that the clay-slate there quarried has a cleavage-strike of N.E.- S.W., and dip of 70< S. ; the stratification being uncertain. A little further north the mica-schist appeared (the points of contact were hidden by the soil), and the strike was found to be 65< N.E.- S.W., with a dip of 60< to S. ; which may be regarded as nearly coinciding. (Case 5.) ! In the slate-quarries at Luss we have also instances of the cleavage-lines being bent by coming in contact with quartz-veins, just as described by Mr. Sharpef; but I found that, where these veins occurred, not only were the ends of the cleavage-planes bent, but around the quartz-vein there was developed a distinct curved foliation, induced by a deep-green chlorite, with here and there a little mica. This foliation sometimes extends for a short distance into both the slate and the quartz, but appears quite independent of the cleavage, though with an evident relation to the curves of the veins themselves, which are very irregular. The quartz itself is * Edin. Pliil. Journal, July 1853. t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. v. p. 11". 170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jail. 31, sometimes foliated by the chlorite, so as to resemble a green mineral. The annexed diagram, fig. 2, will give an idea of these conditions. Fig. 2. ! Quartz-vein in clay-slate at Luss, Loch Lomond^ Scotland. In general in foliated rocks there is a totally altered structure, and we have many instances where they hardly possess any character in common with cleaved rocks. Thus, even the parallelism of the lines cannot be considered invariable ; we certainly have some cases where the foliation coincides vrith the bedding and not with the cleavage, and the property of splitting into laminae in certain directions is often not possessed by foliated rocks at all, particularly if the foliating mineral be not itself of laminar structure. We find certainlv that in considerable di- stricts of country the cleaved rocks are totally \ different from those in another district, just as one formation might be expected to differ from another ; but it is doubtful if we ever find such abrupt and total changes as come in such rapid succession in the beds of foliated rocks. (Case 6.) ! In a quarry on the roadside about two miles from Crianlorich, in Perthshire, I found the strike N.W.-S.E., with dip 30< N.E. ; the rock consisted of very thin beds which alternately pre- sented the character of perfect and highly micaceous mica-schist and of extremely quartzy schist, so that it was not possible to call one single linear foot by the same name. Other cases more unusual will be noticed in the course of the communication. The production of foliated structure is not confined to the intro- duction of laminae of one or two mineral substances, as mica, horn- blende, chlorite, &c. ; it may be produced by minerals widely dif- ferent in chemical composition and mineralogical character, and the presence of which is only to be accounted for by the supposition that the constituent elements must have been at hand in the unmetamor- phosed rocks, although in a different state of combination. It is apparently also a necessary requisite in the production of foliated arrangement, that the minerals thus formed be of a different chemical constitution to those composing the mass of the rock itself. I may here bring forward some instances of very distinct and de- terminate foliation produced by minerals not usually found under these circumstances. (Case 7.) ! On the heights immediately above Christiansand, in Norway, probably at a distance of two miles from the town, the section represented by fig. 3 was taken. The prevailing rock is here gneiss (a ?), composed of black mica, white quartz, and white and red felspar, with sometimes specks of black oxide of iron. The strike of the foliation runs nearly N. and S., and the dip varies from 1855.] FORBES ! FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 171 Fig. 3. ! Section of gneiss, limestone, and granite, at Stampekjtjern, on the Heights above Christiansand, Norway. W. E. a, a. Gneiss. c, c. Bands of augitic gneiss in the limestone. b, b. Foliated, crystalline, pink A, A. Granite (each band is about 10 ft. thick). limestone. 30< to 45< East. The strike inclines in course of the foliation about 10< towards S. The section here represented is E. and W. nearly, or at right angles to the strike ; and, coming from the east, we have first the gneiss, which sometimes is slightly granitic, but always preserves its regular foliated structure ; ! next we find a bed, about 14 feet thick, of coarsely crystalline pink limestone, in which a beautiful foliated arrangement is visible (as shown in the specimens now exhibited), by the presence of numerous small crystals of a green augitic mineral and white scapolite. Sometimes these minerals are so abundant as to present a very striking appearance, at other times we have only single lines of these crystals, with the intermediate limestone free from them ; in all cases, however, both in this bed and throughout, they arrange themselves in distinct lines, which are invariably parallel to the lines of foliation of the gneiss itself. No tendency to split along these hues is present. Next we have some small beds (c c) of what may be termed gneiss, but in which the same augitic mineral appears to replace the mica, giving the mass a green appearance. The beds between this and the granite are of limestone, similar to the above, but of white colour and foliated in the same way. The granite (A), which now shows itself and is about 10 feet thick, is composed of white felspar, quartz, and black mica, is coarse-grained, and follows the general line of the beds. On its sides, where it touches the limestone, it is in some places impregnated to a small depth, but very strongly, with the same green augite ; and in cavities at the junction we find aggregations of garnets, scapolite, and augite, sometimes finely crystallized. Beyond the granite we have beds of white limestone like the former and similarly interstratified, if we may use the term, with beds of augitic gneiss, until we again come to another and larger vein or bed of granite, of similar character to the former band, and under which we again find the regular gneiss, still preserving the unaltered 172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31. line of foliation. In the different beds of limestone I did not observe any mica whatever. (Case 8.) ! On the other side of Christiansand, about five miles from the town, west of Torresdale River, we have very extensive beds of a white crystalline limestone, very similar to, and foliated like, the last-mentioned. A section is seen in fig. 4, and represents a quarry near the top of a mountain called Pusaasen. Fig. 4. ! Section of gneiss and limestone at Pusaasen Mountain, near Christiansand, Norway. a. Granitic gneiss ; not distinctly foliated. b. Quartzose, brownish, foliated gneiss. c, c. White, crystalline, foliated limestone (about 15 feet exposed). *r, x. Indeterminable broken and weathered mass, filling joint. The section is taken about parallel to the strike, or 40<N."W.--S.E. The strata incline towards the south, and dip at 15< S.W. At the top of the section on the north side we have a considerable mass of gneiss (a), without a grain (or nearly granite-gneiss), with no foliated arrangement apparent, very quartzy, and containing but very little mica. This abuts against a bed of very quartzy gneiss (Z>), where the lines of the foliation give the appearance of its having been doubled up. This gneiss contains numerous crystals of iron-pyrites in the lines of foliation, and by their oxidation it has acquired a rust-brown colour. Between these two gneiss rocks we have a joint filled up with a broken, decomposed, and weathered mass (x), of undistin- guishable character ; but below the whole is a large bed of white crystalline limestone, foliated by lines of augite-crystals, precisely as in the last case ; the foliation is here parallel to the upper and lower surfaces, or the foliation, of the gneiss above it. About 15 feet of the limestone bed is uncovered ; the lower 3 feet is coarser-grained than the upper 12 feet. At a few spots mica is seen present, foliating the limestone in a similar direction. (Case 9.) ! On the same side of the Torresdale River, and about two miles west of the last locality, can be seen an extremely interesting 1855.] FORBES FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 173 case, in which the Unes of fohation are carried out quite independently of the nature of the minerals hy which they are formed. It will be understood by referring to fig. 1, p. 167, where we have an overlying granite (A), below this a bed of ordinary black micaceous gneiss (a a), sending forth a small arm (6), very quartzy and losing itself in the surrounding white, coarse-grained, crystalline limestone {d), of which a thickness of about 8 feet is uncovered and is here represented ; in this we find several blackish detached patches of gneiss (c). The line (//) crossing the lower part of the section represents an apparent line of bedding, very regular, and showing itself the more strongly, from the foliation of a few inches on the upper side princi- pally being much closer than throughout the rest of the mass. This line, as shown in the section, runs nearly E. and W., or at right angles to the strike, and inclines 20< from N. to S. The strike itself is within a few degrees of N. and S., and inclines 15< to E. The portions of the limestone marked e in the section, fig. 1, are foliated by crystals of blackish-green to light-green augite and white scapolite ; in the part marked ff the foliation is produced by the presence of laminae of mica. Now when the lines of foliation are examined, which are well developed and distinct, it will be seen that these invariably run in one direction throughout the mass, no matter what minerals produce the foliation itself; also that this direction coincides with the line of apparent bedding. Not many yards above, and at right angles to this, the section represented in fig. 5 was made, showing as much as was uncovered Fig. 5. ! Section of granite, gneiss, and limestone at Jcegersborg, near Christiansand, Norway. A. Granite. a. Granitic gneiss. b. Ordinary gneiss. Foliated crystalline limestone. c. by soil or debris. This presents a much-disturbed appearance ; the central part appears to have been broken through by a fault, and we have on the east side, on the surface, granite (A) ; below this, gneiss (?), without grain, passing into regular gneiss (6), and then the limestone (c c) cut up by granite. On the other side, the granite is absent ; and we have gneiss, similar to the former and without grain, at top, and then the limestone, in which rounded masses of granite 174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, are seen, as if protruding from large supplies behind. We also see a small vein of granite, not more than a few inches thick, losing itself in the grainless gneiss at top. We have lastly some gneiss showing itself in a very peculiar shape, and becoming grainless when near the granite. The general foliation of the limestone and gneiss seems to agree. The section, fig. 1, p. 167, would cut across this at the extreme right of the diagram where the distortion is least. (Case 10.) ! Besides the more regular beds of limestone here de- scribed, several apparently quite detached pieces (varying considerably in size) may be seen completely surrounded by the gneiss. Fig. 6 represents the shape of one of these detached masses * . The limestone Fig. 6. ! Outline of one of the detached limestone-masses in gneiss at Jcegersborg, near Christiansand. is precisely similar to the other, and is foliated by the same minerals as in the last case ; and even here the lines of foliation in the gneiss appear to be carried out without disturbance through these lime- stone-masses. (Case 1 1 .) ! A very interesting arrangement of the foliated struc- ture, very similar to that of the garnets in mica-schist, was found by me at Lindflid, on the borders of Ongsteens lake, between Brats- berg and Nedeness Amt, in Norway, and apparently extending over a considerable area, probably of some square miles. The rock here is a species of talcy mica-schist, and contains innumerable nodules of dichroit, of a white or bluish-white colour, sometimes exhibiting the Fig. 7. ! Mica-schist with nodules of Dichroit, Ongsteens Vand, Norway. pecuHar and characteristic play of colours. These nodules are nearly of a size, about that of a walnut, and the foliation of the mica bends itself around them, producing a very peculiar appearance from the immense number of the nodules present and the extreme regularity of their disposition, which can be seen at a glance. The whole would appear as the effect of some arranging force, in conjunction with the ordinary action of foliation. The cases of foliation which I have hitherto brought forward have been all caused by the introduction of silicates, but in many cases I * Scheerer also has some remarks on the occurrence of these masses of lime- stone at Christiansand, N. Mag. f. Naturv. vol. iv. part 2, p. 158. 1855.] FORBES FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 175 have observed that the same phsenomena have been caused by the appearance of totally different chemical compounds. (Case 12.) ! At Pusaasen, a little north of east of the locality de- scribed above, and illustrated by fig. 4, p. 172, we have a bed of lime- stone, apparently either the same, or one parallel to it, which lies on gneiss, and appears to run in the same direction as the former. Here I found that several feet of the lower part of this bed were foliated by the introduction of the mineral termed chondrodite (a fluosilicate of magnesia), which was arranged perfectly parallel to the micaceous foliation of the gneiss, as well as of that of the limestone. It may be also mentioned that the chondrodite here is associated with the black spinel, precisely as at Sparta in the United States. I have also observed in Norway many cases of foliation where this structure has been induced by the presence of small laminae or folia of oxide of iron, sometimes to the almost total exclusion of other foliating minerals. I have found this to be the case, on the small scale, in Nissedal, at Langoe, and at Dybsund Holm, near Krageroe. On a larger scale, it appeared at Ronningen, in Drangedal, where the gneiss was often very strongly foliated by scales of oxide of iron, and having a very characteristic red appearance. This foliation appeared not to disturb in any way that of the adjoining gneiss. The foliation of rocks by means of oxide of iron is not peculiar, however, to Norway, From observations recently communicated to me by Lieut. Aytoun, Bengal Artillery, this is often the case in Hindostan. He states that at one of the small outliers of the Kup- put-good range of mountains a very fine example of this may be seen. The rock is a siliceous talcy schist, and strikes N.N.W., dipping 50< E. ; the beds thus foliated are from 60 to 80 feet thick, and extend for several miles. In some hand-specimens received from Mr. Aytoun there are portions of the talcy schist having the talc entirely replaced by scales of black magnetic oxide of iron, which also shows itself particularly well developed along the joints. In the valley of the Mulpurba, about eight miles south of Belgaum, in the Deccan, Mr. Aytoun has observed many instances of mica- schist and clay-slate running 5< N.W., and dipping 80< E., in which small bands, from ^ to ^ inch thick, were foliated by oxide of iron, and many hand-specimens of which possessed a distinct polarity. It is often the case in Norway that some strata or parts of strata, extending often for miles, present a peculiar foliated arrangement, due to the introduction or appearance of certain metallic compounds and the greater or less exclusion of the usual foliating silicates. Thus at Kongsberg, near Tvedestrand, in Drangedal, in Espedalen, and several other places I have found various sulphurets showing them- selves ; and at Modum and Snarum, also at Vena, near Askersund in Sweden, arseniurets show themselves under similar circumstances. The details connected with these occurrences are particularly interesting, and important also in an economical point of view ; but they cannot be brought within the limits of this communication : I trust, however, at a future period to bring some observations on the subject before the Society. 176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, The cases already described show in some measure the wide range and extraordinary difference in mineralogical or chemical composition of the substances producing foliated structure ; and I think it must be admitted that we have no such analogous phsenomena characteristic of the cleaved rocks, and that these facts would be opposed to the view that cleavage and foliation were the effects of one action. Mr. D. Sharpe, in his excellent paper " On the Foliation and Cleavage of the North of Scotland*," has brought forward another argument in support of the identity of these two phsenomena, namely the arrangement of grand semicylindrical arches in which the lines of foliation and cleavage together form the defining boundaries. My excursions in Scotland were too short to form even a faint idea of these arches. It seemed to be not improbable, however, that these lines, which appear so regular upon Mr. Sharpe' s map, might be found continued into Norway, where I was better acquainted with the rock-structure. I could, however, make nothing of them, and must candidly confess that I relapsed into that state of despair described by Mr. Sharpe as '* the first impression of an observer entering a district of gneiss or schist in search of order in the arrange- ment of their folia." The geological map of Norway now produced, and which is by Keilhau, has indicated on it a resum^ of most ob- serv^ations of strike and dip made in that country prior to 1849, and probably more experienced observers than myself may be able to reduce these lines to a system. I am sorry that time has not per- mitted me to mark down on the map a great number of observations made by myself or collected from friends, since its publication. In an attempt to generalize the lines of foliation in the district around Arendal and Krageroe in an examination of that tract made by Mr. Dahl and myself, and published last year in Norway t, we were unable to come to any more definite conclusion than that these lines generally varied from N.W. to E. and W., and were in the main parallel to the line of coast. The dip was found extremely variable at all angles, from 13< to 90<, S.E., S., up to S.W. Contorted arches are of constant occurrence in the gneiss districts in Norway, but they seem to be connected with local phsenomena. Some are very interesting, and the arrangement shown in fig. 8 is one difiicult of explanation. (Case 13.) ! We have in fig. 8 a section of a ravine near Krageroe (the section being broken in the centre to admit of both sides being shown, otherwise impossible from the scale) . The ravine at the bottom is probably not 50 feet across, and the precipice of the side is about 60 feet high. The angles dip in opposite directions on the respective sides of the ravine ; on the one side, N.W. at various angles up to vertical ; on the other, pretty constant at about 60< S.E. The dotted lines show what may be supposed to have been the continua- tion of the jagged edges of the strata, and are confirmed by the blocks of similar configuration lying loose in the ravine below. The central boss a represents a mass something between granite * Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, 1852. t See also Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, No. 42, Part II. Miscell. p. 9, &c. 1855.] FORBES FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 177 Fig. 8. ! Section at Lykkens Grube, near KrageroCy Norway. DC B X. Alluvium. a. Granitic gneiss. A. Granite ; b, c, d, e, granite veins. b. Ordinary gneiss. and gneiss, of undefined character ; and above is seen a small vein of coarsely grained granite (b) containing numerous crystals of brown titanite. The contorted structure of the foliation here observed is, I think, due to the entrance of the granite-vein and the occurrence of the granitic gneiss, v^hich seems in this case to be nothing more than gneiss into v\rhich granite has infiltrated from large masses of this rock, not seen in the section, but vsrhich are in the immediate neighbourhood. Nov7 as to the influence of the intrusion of the igneous rocks on foliation, it seems to me that the two are very intimately connected, and that, in many cases at least, foliated structure seems to arrange itself in planes connected with the configuration of the intruded or underlying igneous rocks. Mr. Sharpe admits that the occurrence of such rocks has a very disturbing influence on the regularity of his arches ; but it may be fairly questioned whether such arches may not themselves be due to the appearance or approach of such igneous rocks. Looking at Norway, we find no considerable tract of country exempt from the constant occurrence of such igneous rocks ; and, as far as my experience goes, these rocks seem generally to have an apparent influence on the lines of foliation. Fig. .3 (p. 171) gives a good illustration of this; as also fig. 1 (p. 167) and fig. 5 (p. 173). (Case 14.) ! Fig. 9 also represents a similar case at Pusaasen near Christiansand, where we have a granite-vein (A) about 3 feet thick, breaking through gneiss (?) into crystalline limestone (c) similar to that previously described, and foliated by augite, scapolite, and mica ; below the small vein of granite (B), the gneiss (b) is more calcareous and augitic ; but above, it is of the ordinary character, and does not contain carbonate of lime. The strike is E. and W., and the dip 25< to the South. VOL. XI. ! PART I. O 178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, Fig. 9. ! Section at Pusaasen, Christiansand. ^|i^|g^gpg|gp^|ipi^^^^^ a. Gneiss. b. Calciferous and augitic gneiss. c. Foliated crystalline limestone. A. Granite vein (3 feet thick). B. Smaller granite vein. The foliation here, in the gneiss, in the augitic calcareous gneiss, and in the limestone, is parallel in each rock, and to the general run of the imbedded vein of granite. On the coast near Krageroe we have also numberless instances of the foliation of the gneiss having the same direction as the veins of granite may have on an immense scale. Near Smedsbugten v\^e have, for instance, no less than seven enormous veins, or rather beds, of granite visible on the side of the mountain arising abruptly from the sea, and all of vvrhich run N.N.E., dipping to the W. at an angle of about 40<. Betv^^een each of these are great beds of gneiss, the general foHation of which is parallel to the beds of granite, and the whole appears to be several hundred feet in height. In the paper by Mr. Dahl and myself, previously quoted, other instances will be found. It is frequently also the case, where veins of trap make their ap- pearance, that the foliation is found parallel or greatly influenced. On the side of the road about two miles from Inverarnon, in Perthshire, I observed a vein of grey porphyritic trap, containing specks of iron and copper pyrites, and running N.-S., with a dip of 20< W. On both sides of the trap, the mica-schist, which was quartzy and contained black mica, had the same angle of foliation as the imbedded trap-vein. This I found also to be the case about two miles further north from this, where a large vein of syenitic trap, running nearly hori- zontal, showed itself. Here, however, as small veins ramified from the main body of trap, the coincidence was not always so carried out as in the previous case. Similar cases to these were found in Drangedal, at Vedfald, where two veins of mottled serpentine-trap made their appearance. That the intrusion or approach of igneous rocks is always the cause of foliated structure cannot be insisted upon ; and I am aware that many cases occur exhibiting appearances quite diiferent from the above- mentioned : still at the same time it is a circumstance worthy of con- 1855.] FORBES FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 179 sideration, as being in some cases the agent in causing as well as modifying foliated structure. Whatever may he the cause of the arrangement of foliation in cer- tain directions, I believe that most geologists agree in supposing that fohation itself is due to the action of heat, which has reduced the rock in situ to a fluid, or at least semifluid state, to which some add the action of gases and pressure. On this point I would wish to make some remarks ; and I may premise by stating, that to me foliation appears to be the result of chemical action in recombining the elements existing in amorphous sedimentary rocks, together with a simultaneous molecular move- ment of the products thus formed ; also, that this action is efi'ected by heat, but has taken place at temperatures lower than even neces- sary to change the external form of the masses, or to produce any semifusion or even softening. As corroborative of this, I may refer to fig. 10, which Keilhau Fig. 10. ! Section of the gneiss in the Island of Jomfruland^ Norway. has also observed and made mention of*. It represents an appear- ance in the gneiss on the island of Jomfruland. Here we have a vein of hornblendic character running across the gneiss, and disturbed by the fault AB, which throws it downwards. On examining the lines of foliation, it will now be found that those lines which are most distinct are not at all affected by the fault, and continue throughout with the greatest regularity ; so that it can hardly be doubted, that the foliation of the gneiss took place later than the formation and subsequent dislocation of the hornblende vein ; and consequently we cannot suppose that the mass could have been in a fused or softened state at the time of fohation without the obliteration of these appearances. Again referrmg back to fig. 8, p. 177, it will be seen that the fault b, the origin of which apparently was previous to or simultaneous with the granite-vein, has altered the position of the foliation on the one side and bent it upwards. The faults c, D, and e do not effect this at all. If, however, the rock had been in a semifused state when foliation took place, or when the granite-vein was injected, we should have * Norske Magazin for Naturvidenskab, vol. iii. p. 175. o2 180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, expected that the faults would have been obliterated, or that both sides would have been equally affected. At the hmestone quarry on the road to Crianlorich, previously de- scribed, p. 166, where the limestone is foliated, we have the foliation affected by faults and curved, and in one place a portion enclosed between two faults had the foliation curved on both sides in a nearly circular direction ; so that there is here also reason to believe that the foliation took place subsequently to the faults, which otherwise would not have retained the sharp and defined angles here seen. In submitting this opinion as to the temperature at which foliation took place, it can be objected, however, with reason, that in the present state of chemical science we have no right to assume that such che- mical action and arrangement can take place in solid bodies without external change of form. Chemists will no doubt admit that in homogeneous bodies of one composition we may have a complete change of molecular arrangement without any change of form ; ! thus, that a mass of bar-iron from being fibrous may become crystal- line ! that sugar-candy may from an amorphous state become crystal- line ! that large crystals of sulphur may change their structure, be- coming an aggregate of small crystals belonging to a different crystalline system ! that the sandstone bed of a blast furnace or the bricks of kiln-walls may by the action of heat acquire a columnar or basaltic structure. But in all these cases we have no chemical action, no production of other and totally distinct compounds as in foliated rocks, ! we have only the results of a molecular arranging force * . It is necessary, therefore, before the view I have brought forward, with reference to the production of foliated rocks at comparatively low temperatures, can be securely established, that we have some data to prove that such action and changes can really take place. I endeavoured, therefore, to procure experimental proof of this with direct reference to the rocks, but met with many difficulties. Thus, I often could not succeed in regulating the heat to sustain such temperatures as seemed necessary, and found that, the instant a pasty or semifluid state was induced, I could not obtain satisfactory results. The action of the air in oxidizing the iron present as prot- oxide to the state of peroxide also introduced a new element which would have been gladly dispensed with. On taking, however, a rock like steatite, which we have in Norway in such quantities as to use it as a building-material, ! and which is at once one of the most infusible of rocks, and nearly altogether free from iron, ! I was not annoyed by the above difficulties, but found another obstacle in the way. The results, however, on prolonged treatment of this rock, were so satisfactory as to be very encouraging as a beginning, and I found that a slightly foliated structure was evidently being induced. The * See also Hausmann on Arsenikglas, &c., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. vii. part 2, page 2. 1855.] FORBES FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 181 pieces subjected to heat were, however, always more or less broken up and friable, evidently from the unequal expansion and contraction of the mass. To obviate this, it seemed necessary to have the auxi- liary aid of pressure ; and, in order at the same time to make expe- riments on a somewhat larger scale, I proceeded as follows. Having some small blast-furnaces at disposition, I placed slabs or blocks of the rocks in question under the bottoms of them, which were composed of a stamped mixture of clay and charcoal-dust, ! and which consequently protected them from the action of the air, whilst at the same time they were exposed to a certain amount of pressure from the slag and metal above them. This pressure varied as the sump was filled with slag or metal, or a mixture of both, and as the former was of average density 3, and the latter 5, and as the depth was about 3 feet, we might have a pressure of from 7 to 12 lbs. per inch. These experiments were made in Norway in a district where no great variety of rocks were obtainable, and as they occupied a very long time I can only here give the results of one or two, which, however, are so far satisfactory. I exposed large slabs of an impure, rather micaceous clay-slate, about 4 inches thick, 6 feet long, and 4 feet broad, under these cir- cumstances, to the action of heat continued for some months, but which never was so intense as to cause fusion or even softening, as the slabs, even if they had been broken up, retained their original outward form and sharp edges. From the pressure and the unequal distribution of the superincumbent weight, they were very frequently, if not ahvays, broken up, and consequently had to be removed, so that generally some metal or slag is adherent to the pieces ; ! also it some- times happened, when little cracks had arisen in the protecting lining of clay and charcoal, that the pieces would be found permeated to great distances with small veins of metallic matter, so fine as to render it astonishing how it could have occurred. In all cases, however, where a softening had taken place, the result was spoiled, and the foliated arrangement, which is otherwise so distinct, would be more or less obliterated or totally destroyed. From the specimens now shown to the Society it will be seen that the original slate is unrecognizable, and that we have a rock of a white (probably feldspathic) ground, with specks of a black mineral arranged with a distinct foliated structure. The appearances here presented are strikingly like some of the rocks of the district, where syenite comes in contact with mica-slate. The specimens, though not large, are, I think, quite characteristic. Again, on repeating these experiments with soapstone, using blocks of this material (which is very abundant and is cut up with axes and saws), I formed the bottom of a furnace of cubes of this stone, 1 foot square, cemented by Stourbridge clay. After several months, under precisely similar circumstances, the blocks retained their external form and their sharp edges precisely as at first ; even the axe-marks can be distinguished upon them. On fracture, however, it is seen that in parts they have all the outward appearance of the chlorite found at Brevigstrand in Norway ; 182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, and here and there we observe small aggregations, evidently arising from foreign matters present in the original soapstone, which have separated themselves. In repeating this experiment with a view to the economical use of soapstone for the bottom of furnaces, I found that the metal had broken through the protecting lining (which in this case was not so thick), and had gone right through the substance of the soapstone blocks, which had acted as a filter. The blocks themselves retained their form completely, and were perfect at the joints ; but below them was found a large mass of metal which had percolated through them ; and the blocks themselves were converted into heavy semi- metallic masses, much resembling in appearance the magnesian rocks impregnated with metallic ores found in the veins of this district. It was also easy to see that an arranging force had likewise come into play, as the sulphurets of the various metals previously existing in the matte as a homogeneous compound, were here separated and showed themselves distinctly crystalline. Many other experiments of a similar character were made ; but, as they were principally connected with the formation of minerals, they are not so immediately related to this subject. The above facts are, however, I think, sufficiently conclusive to show that we may have an altered chemical, as well as molecular, arrangement at temperatures below that at which softening is pro- duced. That we may, however, sometimes have an arrangement analogous to foliated structure in rocks generally considered as of igneous origin, and which have been fluid, must be admitted. The structure of graphic granite illustrates this well ; and Sedgwick mentions that the granite of St. Austell in Cornwall has a grain. Keilhau men- tions*, that in a granitic rock at a place called Salmelic, in Norway, he found a parallel structure, sufficiently distinct to determine a strike and dip, induced by the presence of crystals of flesh-coloured ortho- klase. This arrangement cannot, however, I think, have anything in common with that found sometimes in volcanic rocks, and which is often seen in slags and glass, produced artificially, and which seem probably due to similar causes as those producing the ribboned structure of glacial ice. In the specimen of glass here produced we have an arrangement evidently due to this cause and to a subsequent crystallization superadded, in which the crystalline arrangement has followed the strise of the glass, previously invisible. Some rocks certainly igneous may have been formed in a similar manner ; but here, in the case of the glass, we do not have the chemical action as in the production of foliated rocks ; since the glass is only to be regarded as a homogeneous body, modified by crystalline forces, according to pre-existing lines. It will be found that many minerals apparently possess in them- selves a certain independent arranging power. Minerals do not only * Noiske Mag. f. Natuiv. vol. ii. p. 372. 1855.] FORBES ! FOLIATION OF ROCKS. 183 show themselves in the same crystalHne form, but have hkewise a tendency to arrange themselves preferably in certain figures. Thus crystals of grossular from Brevig, in Norway, almost always occur as hexagonal rings of single crystals, the interior and surrounding mass being only the matrix. Crystals of augite from the Canary Islands were found to arrange themselves parallel to the long axis of the prism. Many other instances might be cited that are doubtless quite familiar. I have now only to notice some points regarding the chemical composition of the foliated rocks, as compared with the other truly sedimentary beds. This has by some been considered so different as to preclude the idea that foliated rocks have been formed from rocks similar to the present formations, without supposing that some ingredients must have been added to, or taken away from such. Thus the amount of alkali has been supposed much greater. On examining the later analyses by Taylor of the carboniferous rocks. Hunt's analyses of the lower and upper Silurian rocks, and others, it will be seen that when we subtract the organic matter and other volatile substances, as carbonic acid, &c., we have then no greater difference than that usually found in different series of the foliated rocks. In fact, many of these contain but very little alkali. Bischoff makes hornblende-schist to contain only 1'45 per cent, of potash and soda together, and the averages of two analyses of mica- slate give 6' 67 per cent, of alkali ; but, considering that the quartzy schist contains so much less, the average will probably not be more than we find in the fossihferous strata. Thus Hunt found in the upper and lower Silurian beds of East Canada 5*05 and 5*59 per cent, of alkali respectively. In the clay slates (azoic) of Norway, Kjerulf has found* between 5 and 6 per cent., and some of the slates analysed by Bischoff gave up to 8^ per cent. ; but whether fossiliferous or not, is not mentioned. I think, therefore, there is no necessity for supposing with Forch- hammer that the alkali in the foliated rocks is derived from the vapours of potash and soda exhaled from the melted granite. This view is so extremely Plutonic, that I think it ought only to be ac- cepted when we can find no more moderate doctrine. It seems to me more probable, that, if there really was a deficiency of alkali (which I doubt) in the strata before being metamorphosed, or rather foli- ated, in Norway (as Forchhammer especially alludes to the Norwegian rocks), we should rather seek to account for its subsequent presence by the supposition that these strata have been changed whilst sub- merged, and by the infiltration of sea-water and consequent decom- position of the salt by silica. This is consistent also with the known upheaval of the land in Norway. Keilhau has advanced the idea of a silicification of the limestones as they approach the crystalline rocks. I have analysed several ; * Norske Mag. f. Naturvid. vol. viii. 184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 31, namely, from Stampekjsern, Jaegersborg, and Pusaasen, near Christian- sand, from Boedalen, in Gulbrandsdalen, and dolomite from several localities near Krageroe, as well as crystalline calc-spar veins near Arendal ; but in none of these specimens have I found this the case ; and no silica was present except that contained in the mechanically inter- mixed minerals. In fact, the limestone, on the contrary, seems gene- rally purer than that found in fossiliferous strata ; and this is ac- counted for by the tendency which the chemical action producing foliation has to separate and recombine all extraneous matters. In one of these limestones and in several of the azoic rocks, I have found considerable per-centages of carbon present. This has also been found to be the case by Kjerulf, who has found as much as 4^ per cent, of carbon in some of the clay-slates of Norway. I have also observed the frequent occurrence of graphite (which may be looked upon as foliated carbon) in these rocks, often developed on the sides of the joints, as in Svadsum, Gusdal, Opdal, and other places. Again, anthracite occurs in the gneiss, at Kongsberg, and near Arendal ; at the point of junction with the gneiss at Narestoe I have found it in nodules in the granite. Phosphate of lime is also fre- quently present in the gneiss. From these facts it would appear not unreasonable to question whether many of the metamorphic rocks of Norway may not ori- ginally have resulted from the alteration of fossiliferous strata, without at the same time at all deviating from Sir Roderick Murchison's views in his admirable exposition of the Norwegian Silurian system ; as we may suppose that this very system may have covered considerable areas of the country, and by its destruction given rise to at least some part of the present metamorphic or crystalhne rocks. In fact. Sir Roderick Murchison has described in his paper* a case where a por- tion of the Silurian system near Christiania has actually undergone a change into gneiss by contact with granite. Without going further into detail as to the chemical relations of this part of the subject, I think that the observations and remarks which I have just laid before the Society would tend to strengthen the evidence in favour of the following views : ! 1 . That foliation and cleavage are two distinct processes not neces- sarily connected ; and that those cases where they are parallel or identical generally result from previously induced cleavage-structure. 2. That foliated structure is the result of chemical action com- bined with a simultaneous arranging molecular force, developed at heats below the fusion or semi-fusion of the rock-masses ; and that, when we find a similar structure induced in rocks which are known to have been previously in a fused state, this has been developed subsequently to the solidification of such rocks. 3. That the arrangement of foliation is often due to the presence or proximity of igneous rocks, and has a tendency to follow the direction * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. i. 1855.] RAMSAY PERMIAN BRECCIA. 185 of any lines present in the rocks, whether of cleavage, of stratifica- tion, or of striae of fusion, ! following preferably those lines offering least resistance ; and lastly, that there are considerable reasons for supposing that the foliated rocks, even of Norway, may be chemically altered fossiliferous strata. In conclusion, I have but to add, that, in laying these remarks and observations before the Society, I have hoped that they might not be altogether unworthy of notice, notwithstanding that they may in some points differ from the views already set forth by very eminent geologists. February 16, 1855. Annual General Meeting. [For Reports and Address, see the beginning of this Volume.] February 21, 1855. Edward Hull, Esq., A.B., was elected a Fellow. The following communication was read : ! On the Occurrence of Angular, Subangular, Polished, and Striated Fragments and Boulders in the Permian Breccia of Shropshire, Worcestershire, ^c. ; and on the Probable Existence of Glaciers and Icebergs in the Permian Epoch. By Andrew C. Ramsay, F.R.S., F.G.S. Introduction. ! The sedimentary strata which contain the frag- ments of striated and polished rocks to which I am about to call attention belong to the inferior portion of that which has been defined as the " Permian Group " by Sir Roderick Murchison, the true geological horizon of which in England was first explained by Professor Sedgwick, in his celebrated memoir, *' On the geological relations and internal structure of the Magnesian Limestone and the lower portions of the New Red Sandstone series," &c. It is of the last-named division of this series that they probably form a part. The speciality of the subject of this memoir scarcely requires me to enter upon points connected with descriptive geology further than may be needful to explain the true position of the Breccias alluded to ; and the detailed sections subsequently given, having that object in view, should therefore be considered chiefly as explanatory of the general relations of the subdivisions of the Permian and Bunter strata to each other. It is, however, proper to state that the general position of the Permian rocks skirting the coal-fields of North Wales, Coalbrook Dale, and Staffordshire was first indicated in Sir Roderick Murchison's Map, published in 1839*. They are there coloured as Lower Red Sandstone with subordinate calcareous conglomerates ; and their lower boundary he defined by the outcrop of the Coal, while the upper he shaded off into the New Red or Trias * ' Silurian System.' 186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, properly so called. The line of demarcation between the Permian and Bunter rocks has, however, lately been accurately defined by the Geological Survey, and while some supposed Permian areas have been expunged from the map, others, that up to this time have been considered of Triassic age, have been added to the Permian. In the great work on the Silurian region, &c., the structure of the Permian rocks is also truly described -near Alberbury, Enville, and in South Staffordshire, and the beds of calcareous conglomerate near Enville and the Lickey are mapped and clearly described*. Respecting the Breccias (which are quite distinct from these con- glomerates), up to this date different views have been taken by geo- logists from that advocated in this memoir, for most of the patches have been considered either as immediately connected with volcanic outbursts*)*, or else described as stratified trappoid conglomerates, containing a few fragments of stratified rocks, the whole being sup- posed to be derived from neighbouring igneous masses, or from me- tamorphosed strata now concealed J. After a prolonged examination of every part of these breccias in Staffordshire and Worcestershire, and of every opening exposed, whether by nature or in quarries, and after many hundred specimens were broken and examined by myself and others on the Geological Survey, I have come to the conclusion that in every locality they are truly sedimentary and rudely stratified, and also that the fragments were rarely derived from neighbouring rocks, but generally had travelled from a distance. It is satisfactory to find, that as regards the stratified and lithological character of these fragments, I am borne out by so distinguished an authority as Dr. Buckland, who in 1819 most accurately described this breccia as it occurs in the Bromsgrove Lickey and Clent Hill range, stating its true sedimentary nature, and that it contains *' pebbles that agree in substance with the quartz-rock of the Lower Lickey, mixed with pebbles of common white quartz, black and variegated jasper, flinty and chloritic slate, many varieties of porphyry, and of grey and variegated com.pact and granular sandstone ′." Allowing for differ- ences of nomenclature, it is easy to see that the character of many of the fragments is the same with some of those subsequently described in this memoir. In the summer of 1852 I traced the boundaries of the Permian breccias that run between the Bromsgrove Lickey and the Clent Hills, having previously visited similar rocks on the flanks of the Abberley and Malvern range. Though much struck with the size and angularity of the fragments, and with the marly paste in which they are imbedded, I did not then venture to propose to myself the solution of these and other peculiarities, at which I have since arrived, viz. that they are chiefly formed of the moraine matter of glaciers, drifted and scattered in the Permian sea by the agency of icebergs. * ' Silurian System,' p. 59. f Ibid, pp. 138, 139, 496, &c. X Professor Phillips's " Geology of the Malvern Hills," &c., p. 162. See also Mr. Jukes's '* Memoir on the South Staffordshire Coal-field." ′ Transactions of the Geological Society, 1st Series, vol, v. pt. 2. p. 507. 1855.] RAMSAY ! PERMIAN BRECCIA. 187 But when, in connexion with my duties on the Geological Survey, I began in 1854 to inspect these rocks near Enville, and afterwards revisited the equivalent strata in South Staffordshire, and on the Abberley and Malvern Hills, their true nature gradually dawned on me, and on the 18th of July I wrote to our late deeply lamented President, announcing what (if true) I considered a discovery of con- siderable value. Though I was unaware of the circumstance at the time, it appears that two authors had previously hinted at the possible agency of ice in two epochs, ! palaeozoic and secondary. In the 'History of the Isle of Man' (1848), p. 89, in describing the con- glomerate of the Old Ked Sandstone, Mr. Gumming compares it to " a consolidated ancient boulder-clay formation," and continues, " Was it so, that those strange trilobitic-looking fishes of that sera (the Coccosteus, Pterichthys, and Cephalaspis) had to endure the buffeting of icy waves and to struggle amidst the wreck of ice-floes and the crush of bergs ? These are questions which we may perhaps venture to ask, but which we dare not hope to have solved till we know something more than at present we know of the history of the boulder-clay formation itself." It may be remarked as a curious coincidence, that, when in Worcestershire I arrived at the conclusion that the Permian breccias are also boulder-clays, my thoughts at once reverted to the more ancient Old Red conglomerates of Scotland, and I stated at the time to my colleague Mr. Howell that they might afterwards turn out to have had a similar origin. In a paper published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, February 1 850, pp. 96 and 97, Mr. R. Godwin- Austen observes that " the great blocks of porphyry of the middle beds of the New Red series in the West of England, included in sands and marls in- dicating no great moving power, seem to require some such agent as that of floating ice to account for their position." In the following observations I hope to carry this subject considerably further, and to show, not only that there were icebergs of Permian date, but also partly to indicate the district whence the glaciers descended that gave these icebergs birth. Geological Description of the principal localities of the Breccia ; and its comjwsition and character. ! The Coal-fields of North and South Staffordshire, Tamworth, Coalbrook Dale, and the Forest of Wyre are partly bordered by Permian rocks which lie unconformably on the Coal-measures, and in most places once covered these fields, but have been partially removed by denudation. Patches of Permian strata also rest very unconformably on the Silurian rocks of the Ab- berley and Malvern Hills. The Bunter or New Red Sandstone which forms the base of the Trias, has been divided by the Geological Survey into four subforma- tions*, some of which are occasionally absent. The best and most complete typical sections of these rocks occur on the east side of Coalbrook Dale, or in the country between Bridgenorth and Patting- ham. The section there is shown in fig. 1. p. 188. * Fiist "made out and described by Mr. Hull. 188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, Fig. 1. ! General Section of the four subdivisions of the Bunter Sandstone. Bridgenorth Severn. 1. Permian sandstone and marl. 2. Lower, soft, brick-red, and variegated sandstone. 3. Coarse conglomerate or pebble beds ; pebbles well-rounded. 4. Upper, brick-red, and variegated sandstone. 5. White and brown sandstone and red marl, resting on a calcareous conglo- meratic base, succeeded by 6. New Red marl. Some one of these four members lies generally quite unconformably on the Permian beds, unless where they chance to be faulted against each other. In the Midland Counties and on the borders of Wales, the Permian section is different from that of Nottinghamshire and the north of England. The magnesian limestones are absent, and the rocks principally consist of alternations of deep red marl and brown and red sandstones, calcareous conglomerates and breccias, which are almost entirely unfossiliferous. The most complete section occurs south of Bridgenorth in the country between Enville and the Forest of Wyre. This ground, as coloured on the maps of the Geological Survey, was mapped by Mr. Aveline and Mr. Hull, the latter of whom supplied me with the following section. Fig. 2. ! Section of the Permian rocks between Enville and the Forest of Wyre. s.w. N.E. Permian. Bunter. Fault. 1. Coal-measures. '2. Sandstone and red marls, containing two beds of calcareous con- glomerate, marked X and x'. 3. Coarse breccia. _4. Sandstone and red marls. 5. Lower brick-red oi* variegated sandstone. 6. Pebble-beds or conglomerate. The general dip is easterly, and varies from 2< to 6< ; and the breccia (No. 3) dips distinctly beneath the overlying marls and sandstones. No. 4. On the N.W., various members of the Bunter Sandstone abut on the Perm.ian strata by means of a fault. The same takes place on the East, between Enville and Bewdley ; but in the neighbourhood of Bobbington the inferior brick-red sandstone* rests directly on the higher Permian strata. Nearly the whole of this series is repeated by a North and South fault which intersects the country about two miles to the east of the Severn. It is a down- throw on the West, probably of from 300 to 400 feet. Though dili- * No. 5 of the Bunter beds of the above diagram, fig. 2. 1855.] RAMSAY ! PERMIAN BRECCIA. 189 gently searched, no fossils have been discovered in these beds except the impression and part of the bark of the stem of a tree, about two yards long and a foot in diameter, which relics were found last summer by Mr. Hull and myself in the higher calcareous conglome- rate (marked x ' in fig. 2) near Four Ashes. The pebbles of these conglomerates are mostly well-waterworn, but some of them are sub- angular ; they chiefly consist of numerous fragments of carboniferous limestone, mixed with pieces of chert, sandstone, quartz, quartz-rock, Silurian limestone of doubtful date, greenstone, felspathic trap, banded felspathic ash, red granite, red sandy marl, red sandstone, black slate, red jasper, and hornstone. These were collected at Gatacre Hall and the Four Ashes. The carboniferous limestone pebbles by far predominate ; and few of the fragments of any kind exceed 3 or 4 inches in diameter. The nearest carboniferous limestone is that of the Titterstone Clee Hills, about twelve miles distant on the south- west. The Coalbrook Dale limestone contains chert, and is about fifteen miles ofi" on the north-east ; and in the same district occur igneous and quartz rocks not dissimilar to those found in the con- glomerates. Some of the other pebbles may have come from the Welsh Border, near the Longmynd ; but all of them may have been drifted by ordinary marine action. The true Breccia is separated from the calcareous conglomerate by about 100 feet of brown calcareous sandstone and marl. The brec- ciated stones are imbedded in a deep-red hardened marly paste. They are mostly angular or subangular, with flattened sides and but slightly rounded edges. The pieces collected consist chiefly of frag- ments of micaceous schist, micaceous sandstone, quartz-rock, grey sandstone, chert, purple grit, green sandy slate (one of them polished and scratched), black sla'te, altered slate, greenstone, felstone, fel- spathic ash, and reddish syenite. The last is doubtful. A nodule of ironstone was also observed, and a few quartz-pebbles. None of them are larger than 6 or 8 inches in diameter. There are no rocks answering to the majority of these in the immediate neighbourhood ; and with the exception of the chert, syenite, and ironstone-nodule, the rest lithologically resemble the Cambrian sandstones and slates of the Longmynd, and the Lower Silurian slates, quartz-rocks, and igneous rocks at and east of the Stiper Stones. The distance from the Enville Breccia to these parts of Shropshire and Montgomery- shire is from twenty to thirty miles in a straight line ; and, if the inference be correct that any of the stones are derived from that district, they must have travelled at least that distance. The South Staffordshire coal-field would be surrounded by Per- mian rocks, were it not that north of Cannock the pebble-beds (No. 3 of the Bunter Section, fig. 1, p. 188) overlap and rest directly on the coal-measures. On the east, between Beaudesert and Watling Street, the pebble-beds (3), white beds (5), and marl (6) are faulted against the coal-measures. In other places the Permian rocks abut against or rest on the carboniferous strata, except at Kingswinford and Old- swinford, where for a short space they are cut out by an increase of the boundary fault. The most complete section of the Permian beds 190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, Fig. 3. ! Section of the Permian rocks of Clent Hill. Clent Hill. ' 1. Coal-measures. Alternations Permian. {:: Bunter. { of red marl and sandstone, with two calcareous bands. Breccia, about 450 feet thick. Pebble-beds or conglomerate. Upper brick-red and variegated sandstone. in this area occurs at the south end of the coal-field, between the coal-measures and the summits of the Clent Hills and the Bromsgrove Lickey. The diagram (fig. 3) shows their arrangement. The breccia here consists of pieces of various rocks imbedded in a hardened, red, marly paste. Like those near Enville, they are gene- rally angular, or have their edges but slightly rounded. Their sides are often flattened, sometimes polished, and occasionally scratched. They rarely exceed a foot in diameter. On Clent Hill the fragments consist of felstone-porphyry, greenstone-porphyry, greenstone-amyg- daloid, ribboned slate, black and green slate, red sandstone, quartz- conglomerate, and felspathic ash. In a section near Romsley, stones of the same nature were found, including altered sandstone, conglo- meratic ash, banded felspathic ash, quartz-rock, variegated marl, quartz-pebbles, altered slate, ribboned slate, and blocks of a coarse conglomerate. The igneous rocks of Staffordshire are very different from those in the breccia ; and none of the other kinds quoted occur in that di- strict, with the exception, perhaps, of the quartz-rock, which might be compared to that of the Lickey. There is, however, good reason why the quartz- rock of the breccia should not have been derived from the altered Caradoc of the Lickey. This ancient ridge is bounded by two faults, one being a downthrow on the east, and the other a downthrow on the west. On the east the white sandstone, and on the west the Permian rocks abut against it : see fig. 4. The con- tinuous ridge of the Bromsgrove Lickey and the Clent Hills, crowned by the breccia, is higher than the Caradoc Hill ; the Permian rocks Fig. 4. ! Section of the Bunter, Permian^ and Caradoc rocks of the Lickey. W. Bromsgrove Lickey. E. 1. Altered Caradoc. 2. Permian marls and sandstone. 3. Breccia. 4. White beds (Bunter). 5. Red marl (Keuper). forming a fine escarpment, the beds of which have a westerly dip. Were they prolonged from a quarter of a mile to a mile, the higher 1855.] RAMSAY PERMIAN BRECCIA. 191 beds would cover the Caradoc sandstone ; and, were it not for the fault, some of the marls and sandstones beneath the breccia would, if prolonged, also cover these altered Silurian strata. It may therefore be assumed that this old ridge was buried under lower Permian sedi- ments before the breccia was accumulated, and therefore none of the brecciated fragments would be likely to be derived from these altered Caradoc sandstones. In this case, the nearest places to which we can refer the component fragments of the breccia are the Longmynd and the Silurian country east of the Stiper Stones. There we have numerous beds of green, grey, and purple grits, together with rib- boned slates near Shelve and in other places, identical in structure and colour with those in the breccias, quartz-rock at the Stiper Stones, and all the varieties of greenstone and felspathic ash men- tioned in the list. The next nearest places where such ashes occur, are Pembrokeshire and the remoter parts of North Wales ; but, for other reasons besides proximity, it is safer to suppose they were derived from the Cambrian and Silurian regions between Church Stretton and Chirbury (Shropshire and Montgomeryshire), than from the more distant counties of Pembroke, Merioneth, and Caernarvon. The summit of the hill called Frankley Beeches is crowned by an outlier of breccia ; and it also forms a piece of ground about a mile and a half long a little to the west of Northfield, a good section of which occurs in the lane leading from Northfield to Bangham pit. The larger stones lie mostly towards the top. Many of them consist of Caradoc limestone (Upper Caradoc of some geologists), and cal- careous sandstone and conglomerate, some of them attaining a dia- meter of about two feet. I submitted a collection of the fossiliferous pieces to Mr. Salter, who determined the following species : ! Strophomena compressa. Mytilus mytilimeris. Orthis calligramma. Encrinurus punctatus. Atrypa reticularis (very common). Favosites alveolaris. Spirifer trapezoidalis. Petraia bina. Leptgena depressa. subduplicata. transversaiis. Heliolites interstinctus. Rhynchonella semisulcata. Scalites (Trochus) lenticularis. Pentamerus oblongus (rare and small). Euomphalus funatus, var. sculptus. undatus. Goniophora cymbaeformis. lens. Serpulites. Besides the blocks containing these fossils, the breccia includes fragments of other calcareous sandstones, ribboned slate like that near Shelve, quartz-rock, porphyritic felspathic ash, felstone and greenstone, like that of the Lower Silurian rocks, purple conglo- merates, similar to those of the Longmynd, and yellow sandstone and black chert, the latter like that of the carboniferous limestone. The Upper Caradoc limestone and fragments of calcareous sand- stone and conglomerate are peculiar. They do not resemble the Caradoc beds of Walsall, Builth, Malvern, May Hill, or the Lickey ; but, both lithologically and zoologically, they are like the equivalent strata that rest unconformably on and once formed the beaches sur- rounding the Longmynd and adjacent Lower Silurian rocks, where, in situ, they contain green and purple slaty fragments and pieces of 192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, felspathic trap derived from the waste of that ancient Cambrian and Lower Silurian island. They may be identified by this circumstance, for in no other place with which we are acquainted does the Upper Caradoc assume this character ; and Mr. Salter also gives the con- firmatory opinion, that the assemblage of fossils nearly resembles some of the groupings in the parent rocks near Hope. It is there- fore difficult to escape from the conclusion that the rocks generally must have travelled from that country across a space from forty-five to fifty miles. Between the Forest of Wyre and the south end of the Malvern Hills several patches of the breccia occur at intervals, resting on the coal-measures and on the Silurian rocks of the Malvern and Abberley range*. The most northerly is that at Wars Hill, about two miles west of Kidderminster. It lies directly on the coal-measures ; and on the east the Bunter pebble-beds and Lower brick-red Sandstone are faulted against it. Fig. 5. ! Section of the Bunter and the Permian bedsy with Breccia, at Wars Hill. W. Wars Hill. E. Fault. 1. Old Red Sandstone. 2. Coal-measures. 3. Permian sandstone and marl, with breccia on top. 4. Lower brick-red sandstone, and 5. Pebble-beds (Bunter). This breccia contains fragments of grey sandstone, very common, grey slate, ashy sandstone, highly felspathic sandstone, felspathic trap, and carboniferous limestone chert. The paste that binds them together is a bright-red marl. No very good sections are exposed ; and the component stones of the breccia are apparently never larger than 8 or 10 inches in diameter. A calcareous conglomerate, iden- tical in structure with that near Enville, underlies the Breccia, being separated from it by sandy and marly beds. The relative positions of the breccia and this conglomerate are therefore the same at Wars Hill and Enville, and there is no reason to doubt that, in general terms, they are equivalents. About three miles further south, a similar breccia occurs on Stagbury Hill, one mile and a half west of Stourport. This also rests on the coal-measures, and helps to form a connecting link between the Enville and the Abberley breccias, which lie indifferently on several of the older Palaeozoic formations. On Stagbury Hill the mass dips east, at angles of about 50<, and the pebble-beds are faulted against it, their junction being, however, con- cealed by the alluvium of the Severn f. * In consequence of the quantities of felspathic angular fragments which came out from beneath the sward, these patches were coloured as igneous rocks by Sir Roderick Murchison, who also informs me that no quarries were at that time opened on the hills. t Notwithstanding the alluvium, there is no real obscurity about this fault, which has been traced. 18.)5.] RAMSAY PERMIAN BRECCIA. 193 Fig. 6. ! Section of Coal-measures, Permian, and Banter at Stagbury Hill. w. stagbury Hill. Severn. Fault. 1. Coal-measures. 2. Permian bi'eccia. 3. Pebble-beds (Bunter). The brecciated fragments consist of felstone, felspathic ash, green- stone-porphyry with large crystals of felspar, greenstone, ribboned slate, grey and purple grit, like that of the Longmynd, coarse con- glomerate, and red micaceous stones like pieces of the Old Red Sand- stone. Excepting this last, the assemblage of rocks, and even their distinctive peculiarities (of ribboned slate, felspathic ash, &c. ), are again characteristic of the Longmynd, and of the Lower Silurian series west of the Stiper Stones. The breccia is from twenty-seven to thirty-five miles distant from that country ; and the largest mass observed in it may be about a foot in diameter. A remarkable outlier of breccia forms Church Hill, about six miles west of Stagbury, nearly halfway between Stourport and the Titter- stone Clee Hill. It is about three-quarters of a mile in diameter, and rests unconformably on the Coal-measures, serving as a mark to show that the breccia once extended many miles across the country to the west, and that it has been since removed by denudation. The included angular stones are fine altered sandstones, grey and purple grits, red conglomerate (sometimes in masses of 2 and 3 feet in diameter), greenstone and felspathic porphyries, felspathic ash, grey and green slate, variegated and red marls, red felspathic por- phyry, arenaceous limestone, and altered black sandstone. The stones are unusually angular and broken, and the bright-red marly base is larger in quantity than in most of the other localities. Most of the stones possess the accustomed resemblance to the Cambrian rocks and Llandeilo flags with their included igneous masses in Shropshire and Montgomeryshire ; and the limestones, by their fossils, belong undoubtedly to Caradoc of the Montgomeryshire type. Pi. few miles further south, this breccia again appears in two places on the Abberley and Woodbury Hills. Both of these patches rest unconformably on Upper Silurian shales and limestones ; and Fig. 7. ! Section at Woodbury Hill. Fault. 1. Upper Silurian shale and limestone. 2. Permian breccia. 3. Brown and white sandstone and marls (Upper part of Bunter), 4. Red marl (Keuper). . VOL. XI. PART I. P 194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, both, forming the highest crests of their respective ridges, dip towards the New Red Sandstone plain at Hundred House and Great Witley. The Permian rock contains subangular fragments and larger boulder-like blocks of greenstone (very numerous), felstone, brec- ciated ashy conglomerate, greenstone-amygdaloid, felspathic ash and porphyry, purple grit, red conglomerate (with rounded pebbles), micaceous marl (Old Red ?), green-banded slate, ribboned slate, and altered black and green slate. As in the other localities, the rock may be described as a rudely stratified breccia. At Abberley Hill, some of the masses are from 2 to 3 feet in diameter, and in one of the quarries near the base of Woodbury Hill I saw one half-rounded boulder-shaped fragment which measured 2 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 foot in diameter. Following the Abberley and Malvern chain to the south, the Breccias again appear for about one mile and a half between Berrow Hill and the Teme, and also at Woodbury Rock, on the south side of that river, near Knightsford-bridge. On Berrow Hill they rest on a thin strip of Coal-measures ; but a little further south they overlap this, and lie directly on the Old Red Sandstone. On the east, the upper part of the white sandstone is faulted against them. w. Fig. 8. ! Section of Berrow Hill. Berrow Hill. Fault. 1. Old Red Sandstone. 2. Coal-measures. 3. Permian breccia. 4. White sandstone (Bunter). 5. Red marl (Keuper). In this breccia we find greenstone, purplish-grey brecciated trap, felstone, felspathic porphyry, purple grit, and slate, grey and ribboned slate, brown sandstone, quartz-rock, red conglomerate, calcareous sandstone, limestone, and a few pieces of granite. On Berrow Hill, the largest fragments observed were about a foot in diameter. At Woodbury Rock, purple grits form the great majority of the fragments, and many of the boulders are unusually large, one of them, of reddish conglomerate, attaining the size of 4 feet by 3, by 1^ deep. With the exception of some small pieces of granite, which may be derived from the Malvern Hills further south, the whole of the specimens again resemble the rocks of the Long- mynd and the Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Silurian rocks west of the Stiper Stones. A rock of similar structure to the rest of the breccias appears at Alfrick ; but, as it seems more likely to be of Bunter than of Per- mian date, I shall pass it over for the present. It is bounded on the west by the same fault that ranges along the east side of the 1855.] RAMSAY PERMIAN BRECCIA. 195 Abberley and Malvern range, and from thence, with slight breaks, passes further south to the shores of the Severn*. At the south end of the Malvern Hills, between Bromsberrow and Howlers Heath, a strip of Permian breccia occurs, about a mile and a half in length, lying unconformably across the strike of the Upper and Lower Silurian rocks. A part of the same band, thrown further south by a fault, stretches for about three-quarters of a mile between Little London and Vineyard. It rests unconformably on the Upper Silu- rian rocks and the Old Red Sandstone, and both the strips are cut off at each end by faults, which throw the upper brick -red beds (No. 4 in fig. 1) of the Bunter Sandstone against them. They are each about an eighth of a mile in width, dipping southerly under the upper brick-red or variegated sandstone, at angles of about 25<. Fig. 9. ! Section of the Bunter and Permian beds south of Howlers Heath. S. Howlers Heath. N. 1 4. White and brown sandstone, with bands of marl (Bunter). 3. Upper brick- red sandstone (Bunter). 2. Permian breccia. 1. Silurian rocks. Above No. 4 comes the New Red marls. Among numerous sub- angular fragments of the breccia were found pieces of quartz, quartz- rock, quartzose sandstone, purple grit, reddish conglomerate, green- ish-grey grit, black and blue slate, ribboned slate, Silurian limestone, greenstone, felstone, felstone-porphyry, and granite like that of the Malvern Hills. Some of the other fragments, such as the black slate and limestone, alike resemble Malvern and Shelve rocks ; but the majority have the character common to the Longmynd rocks, from which they are distant about forty-seven miles. They are generally of no great size, the largest observed rarely exceeding 6 or 8 inches in diameter. The Breccias on one horizon ; and extent of the area which they occupy. ! I have now described these Breccias as occurring in ten localities, exclusive of small outliers, or mere minor separations of the same mass by local faults. Though occurring at intervals, there can be little doubt that they all belong to one Permian horizon. In the Enville country (fig. 2, p. 188) they are both overlaid and under- laid by marls and sandstones of true Permian type, the lower beds including two bands of calcareous conglomerate. These, as a whole, dip beneath the Upper New Red Sandstone to the east, and again rise from under it in the southern part of South Staffordshire, where, in consequence of unconformity, the higher Permian beds are over- lapped by the Upper New Red Sandstone ; and, the lower brick-red sandstone being absent, the pebble beds rest directly on the Breccias (fig. 3, p. 190). Between the Bromsgrove and Clent Hills and the * Lately traced by Mr. Howell. p2 196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, South Staffordshire Coal-field, the Permian section is, in general terms, the same as that of the Enville country ; like it, including two highly calcareous bands. Around the South Staffordshire Coal-field, north of Northfield on the east, and Kingswinford on the west, the Permian strata exposed seem all to form portions of the series that lie below the Breccia. Between Enville and Bewdley, the identity of the breccias is ?sufficiently apparent, two large strips being merely separated at the surface by means of a north and south fault. Between Bewdley and the south end of the Malvern Hills, they occur at six distinct inter- vals, resting on Coal-measures, Silurian rocks, and Old Red Sand- stone ; and in none of these places do we find the marls and sand- stones that elsewhere rest upon and underlie them. The same may be said of the Church Hill outlier. This would seem to indicate that the breccias in places overlap the Lower Permian strata ; and this may be easily accounted for, if we suppose that a tract of country of irregular outline was gradually depressed during the accumulation of the series, so that the original margins of the lower strata were by degrees overlapped, and the breccias deposited on still sinking land. There is, in truth, no good reason why these detached masses should be supposed of different dates ; for structure and mode of occurrence alike point to their identity. If then the Staffordshire, Enville, Abberley, and Malvern breccias be all of one origin and date, either cropping out directly from underneath the Bunter Sandstone (except where faulted), or being associated with beds that do so, there is reason to believe that, along with the rest of the Permian strata, they may to a great extent underlie the greater part of the Bunter series between Malvern, Enville, and South Staffordshire ; just as, by parity of reasoning, we conclude that the coal-fields of Staffordshire, Coalbrook Dale, the Forest of Wyre, and the thin strips on the flanks of the Abberley Range, near Martly, are also probably connected deep below the surface. The chances are in favour of this general continuity of Coal-measures ; and, if they are not invariably united, it is probably because parts were removed by denudation before or during the deposition of the overlying formations. The same may be said of the Permian strata of which the Breccia forms a member ; and, if they either are or were continuous at any time between out- crop and outcrop, they cover or covered an included area estimated at about 500 square miles. But at the south end of the Malverns they dip southerly, near Northfield at the south-east end of the South Staffordshire coal-field they dip easterly, and north of Enville they are cut off by a fault ; so that to some extent they must ! and for aught we know they may ! extend beneath the New Red Sandstone over a much greater area. Character of the stones in the Breccia ; and whence derived. ! The lithological nature of the imbedded fragments has already been described. Everywhere, in spite of exceptional fragments in the Mal- vern district, they seem to be derived from one set of rocks ; they are all enclosed in the same red marly paste, and they are mostly angular 1855.] RAMSAY ! PERMIAN BRECCIA. 197 or subangular. A well-rounded waterworn pebble is, in places, of rare occurrence. The surfaces of a great majority of the pebbles are much flattened, numbers are highly polished, and, when searched for, many of them are observed to be distinctly grooved and finely striated. The striae in some are clear and sharp, and run parallel to or cross each other at various angles; while in others, though you see their remains, age and surface-decomposition have impaired their sharpness and roughened the original polish of the stone. I have stated that (if lithological character be any guide) the fragments (with rare exceptional pieces) seem to have been derived from the conglomerates and green, grey, and purple Cambrian grits of the Longmynd, and from the Silurian quartz-rocks, slates, fel- stones, felspathic ashes, greenstones, and Upper Caradoc rocks of the country between the Longmynd and Chirbury * . The south end of the Malvern Hills is from forty to fifty miles, the Abberleys from twenty-five to thirty-five miles, Enville from twenty to thirty miles, and South Staffordshire from thirty-five to forty-five miles distant from that country. The question then arises, by what process were so many angular and subangular fragments transported so far ; many of them being a foot, and some two, three, or even four feet in dia- meter ; the whole in places forming a deposit of several hundred feet in thickness ? Why also are they angular, and not well-rounded, like the pebbles of the great conglomerate-beds of the Bunter Sand- stone ; and why have they flattened sides, and often polished and striated surfaces ? Fossils of the Permian : and Stratijication of the Breccia. ! There seems no special reason to doubt that the Permian beds of the mid- land counties are of marine origin, like the magnesian limestone series of Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, and the North of England ; although, except the remains of the tree near Enville, no native fossils have yet been discovered in them, either on the borders of Wales or on the east side of Coalbrook Dale, in Staffordshire, or on the flanks of the Malvern Hills. There are, however, identical deposits lying between Leamington and the neighbourhood of Tamworth, in which a few fossils were found. In this district these beds have heretofore been described as belonging to the Bunter Sandstone f, appearing as they d(/not far below the true New Red or Keuper marl. The error arose from the absence of the pebble-beds and the lower and upper brick- red sandstones of the Bunter Series (fig. 1, p. 188); and thus it happens that between Leamington and the country a little to the south of Tamworth, the white and brown sandstones, 5, fig. 1, p. 188 (that immediately underlie the New Red marl), rest directly on the Permian sandstones and marls, which were thus naturally mistaken for the lower parts of the Bunter strata. Having satisfied myself, on purely stratigraphical and lithological grounds, that these were true Permian strata, the truth of this surmise was further confirmed * In part, the Shelve country. t Memoir by Sir R. I, Murchison and Mr. Strickland, Transact. Geol. Soc. 2nd Sen, vol. v. p. 331. 198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL. SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, in 1852, when I found fragments oi Lepidodendron and Catamites'^ in a quarry near Exhall. Encouraged by this discovery, these rocks were diligently searched for fossils during the completion of the geolo- gical lines by Mr. Howell, and in the same quarry a few casts of a shell were discovered by our collector Mr. Richard Gibbs, which Mr. Salter considers to be of Permian type and more allied to Strophalosia than to any other genus. The silicified trees found near Allesley and Me- riden, and apparently several species of Caulerpites and Breea now in the Warwick Museum f, belong also to the same rocks (formerly supposed Bunter species) ; and, in addition to this, it is interesting to know that the beds near Kenilworth in which the Labyrinthodon Bucklandi was found by Dr. Lloyd ;jl belong to the same series. This reptile, previously considered of Bunter date, must therefore be transferred to the Permian period. Beds of calcareous conglomerate are associated with the strata in which all of these fossils were found, and are similar to those which underlie the breccia near Enville ; and it is not improbable they may be general equivalents ; in which case, trees, reptile, and marine shells are of earlier date than the great deposits of breccia. The Permian marls and sandstone near Enville, that overlie the breccias, are in no respect dissimilar from those that lie beneath ; and the breccias themselves, whenever well exposed, are seen to possess a distinctly stratified structure. Not only do the stones generally lie on their flat sides, but sometimes there are long marly and sandy layers and beds in the midst of the mass. Fig. 10. ! Stratified Permian Breccia. 'V.tUo Glacial origin of the Breccia. ! They were therefore deposited in water with considerable regularity, and, as we have seen, over a large area. It is altogether unlikely that the stones were poured into the sea by rivers in the manner in which some conglomerates are formed on steep coasts, where mountain-ridges nearly approach the shore, 1st, because the fragments, being derived almost exclusively from the Longmynd country, if the sea then washed its old shores, no * Prof. E. Forbes considered it to be Catamites Mougeotii? Mr. Salter thinks it Calamites Suckovii, a Carboniferous species. t Caulerpites oblonga, C. triangularis, C. biangularis, Breea entassoides. No precise locality is given for these specimens. + Transactions of the British Association, 1849, Sections, p. 56. 1855.] RAMSAY ! PERMIAN BRECCIA. 199 river-currents passing out to sea could carry such large fragments from thirty to fifty miles beyond their mouths and scatter them promiscu- ously along an ordinary sea-bottom ; and, 2ndly, if the rivers merely passed from the Longmynd across a lower land to the sea, transporting stones and blocks of various size, these would have been waterworn on their passage seaward after the manner of all far-transported river-gravels, whereas many of the stones are somewhat flat, like slabs, and most of them have their edges but little rounded. Neither could ordinary marine currents move and widely distribute fragments so large that some of them truly deserve the name ol boulders ; and, except in the case of earthquake-waves, which here and there produce an occasional debacle on a shore, I have no faith in violent currents of sea-water (such as have been sometimes assumed to result from imagined sudden great upheavals of land), washing across hundreds or thousands of square miles, and bearing along and scattering vast accumulations of debris far from the parent rocks. This is an assumption without proof. It is also unlikely, and I think impossible, that large debris of this kind could be distributed over so wide an area by the sifting process which Mr. Darwin has shown probably to take place on the east coast of South America, in consequence of movements communicated into deep water during long-continued heavy gales. Neither have they been moved along sea- shores, or subjected to breaker action, like the stones of the Chesil Bank, or of the conglomerate of the Upper New Red Sandstone, all the pebbles of which are true pebbles, spherical or oval, and smoothed by long attrition. If, then, they were not distributed by any of these agents, there remains but one other means of transport and distribution ! the agency of ice. 1st. There is in proof, the great size of many of the fragments, ! the largest observed weighing (by a rough estimate) from a half to three-quarters of a ton. 2nd. Their forms. Rounded pebbles are exceedingly rare. They are angular or subangular, and have those flattened sides so peculiarly characteristic of many glacier-fragments in existing moraines, and also of many of the stones of the Pleistocene drifts, and the moraine matter of the Welsh, Highland, Irish, and Vosges glaciers. 3rd. Many of them are highly polished, and others are grooved and finely striated, like the stones of existing Alpine glaciers, and like those of the ancient glaciers of the Vosges, Wales, Ireland, and the Highlands of Scotland ; or like many stones in the Pleistocene drift. It has been said that in any breccia or conglomerate the stones may be scratched. In other ancient breccias I have never observed it ; and I think that in the Permian fragments the experienced eye will have no difliculty in recognizing the peculiar characteristics of glacial scratching. By way of contrast, I exhibit some of the pebbles of the upper new red conglomerate. This subformation has been traced over many hundreds of square miles, from Derby to the shores of the Mersey, 200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, and from thence to the neighbourhood of the Abberley Hills. Its component stones are often from 3 to 9 inches in diameter ; but, un- like those in the breccias, they are all beautifully rounded ; and, where they touch in the rock, they are not scratched, but indent each other at the points of contact ; the indentations being, I believe, due to the fact, that, while these gravels were still incoherent (they may be dug out now with pickaxe and shovel) over great areas, the upper parts of the New Red series, the Lias, and perhaps other newer strata, were piled upon them, and the vertical pressure, consequent on this vast superincumbent pile, induced a lateral pressure in the loose-lying pebbles of the conglomerate ; so that, being squeezed, not only downwards, but outwards, they ground on each other, and, partly by the aid of intervening grains of sand, circular indentations were formed, sometimes an inch in diameter. Occasional earthquake- waves would assist this process. These marks rarely occur in the Permian breccia ; for, whereas in the case of the conglomerates we have sand mingled with the pebbles in the breccias, we find 4th. A hardened cementing mass of red marl, in which the stones are very thickly scattered, and which in some respects may be com- pared to a red boulder-clay, in so far that both contain angular flat-sided and striated stones and boulders brought from a distance. I conceive, therefore, that the peculiar forms, polish, and markings of many of the stones indicate that these characteristics have been produced by the agency of ice of the nature of glaciers, for mere coast-ice would have picked up and drifted away numerous rounded pebbles from the beach, and not a great majority of angular flattened stones, such as form the breccias wherever they occur. If this conclusion be correct, and if the parent rocks whence the stones were derived be properly identified, then it follows that the ancient territory of the Longmynd and the adjacent Lower Silurian rocks, having undergone many mutations, at length gave birth to the glaciers, which, flowing down some old system of valleys, reached the level of the sea, and, breaking ofl" into bergs, floated away to the east and south-east, and deposited their freights of mud, stones, and boulders in the neighbouring Permian seas. The few fragments of granite and syenite mingled wdth numerous Longmynd fragments in the Malvern area would not invalidate this conclusion, for what more likely than that the floating bergs should sometimes have stranded on or grazed along some of the higher Malvern hill-tops that, as islands, dotted the Permian Sea, and that they thus picked up a few fragments to be mingled and deposited with the foreign material wherever they chanced to melt ? It is in vain now to look for the terrestrial indications of these old glaciers on the hills and sides of the existing valleys. The country has passed through too many revolutions and denudations in later periods to permit their traces to remain. It may, however, be asked, what relation do the present levels of the Longmynd and of the breccias bear to each other ? The higher points of the Longmynd, Stiper Stones, and Corndon Hill attain a height of from 1500 to 1700 feet above the level of the 1855.] RAMSAY ! PERMIAN BRECCIA. 201 sea. On the Clent Hills and Bromsgrove Lickey the breccias are from 800 to 900 feet above the sea-level ; and on the Abberley and Malvern Ridge they are from 800 to 1000 feet high in their highest positions. In none of the other places where they occur do the breccias reach so great an elevation. There is, therefore, at present no disparity so great between the relative elevations of the Longmynd Range and the breccia as to induce a belief in the probability of ice- bergs breaking away from glaciers on that old shore and floating in the Permian seas ; but it must be recollected that in Britain great disturbances of the strata have taken place since Permian times, and in various places alluded to in this memoir the Permian strata dip at all angles between 6< and 50<, so that their present relative elevations give but little clue to their ancient physical relations. A general tilting upwards of the country to the amount of 1< to the west would raise the Stiper Stones from 1000 to 2000 feet higher above Abberley Hill and Bromsgrove than they are at present ; and 2< or 3< would double and treble this difference, and yet make no very sensible change in the relative slopes of the ground. Apart, however, from such speculations of mere tilting, there is one point which may possibly bear upon the subject more directly, although I am not inclined to attach too much value to the circumstance. A great fault lies between the Longmynd and the Breccias on the east. Beginning in the Upper Silurian rocks, near Gladestry in Radnorshire, it passes to the north-east by Presteign, Bucknall, Hopesay, and Church Stretton to x\cton Burnell, and from thence to the Severn, where it splits and passes in two branches, one towards Uppington, the other to the west side of the Wrekin, throwing down the Bunter Sand- stone on the west for the last ten miles of its course. It is also a downthrow of about 2000 feet on the west near Hopesay, and between Hopesay and Church Stretton it varies from 1500 to 2000 feet. Affecting all the rocks from the Cambrian to the New Red Sand- stone, this dislocation may possibly have had its throw increased at different epochs ; but, assuming for the sake of argument that the main throw happened after the close of the Permian period, by annulling the fault, or in other words shifting up the Longmynd on the west to the amount of the throw, we obtain a configuration of the ground by which the relative levels of sea and land might have been greatly modified during the Permian epoch. This naturally leads to another question. It will be remembered that the Caradoc limestone (immediately underlying the Wenlock or Pentamerus shale) rests directly and unconformably on the Longmynd rocks ; and in a former memoir* I showed that, while the Caradoc and Upper Silurian beds were being deposited, the land consisting of the Longmynd and overlying Lower Silurian gradually sank and was en- cased in a thick coating of all the Upper Silurian rocks ; and, seeing that it is partly surrounded by high-lying outliers of Old Red Sand- stone, it is more than probable that this formation may have been added to the pile. The Wenlock and Ludlow rocks alone of this neighbour- hood attain a thickness of 3000 feet. Now the Permian brecciated * Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 296. 202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, fragments being principally formed of Longmynd grits and of the Lower Silurian slates and igneous rocks east of the Stiper Stones, we get an approximation to the date of the denudation of those great masses of strata that once entombed the more ancient palaeozoic rocks. In other words, they must, in part at least, have been stripped from the hills that they enveloped before or during the Permian period, otherwise the underlying rocks would not have been reached and degraded by the help of the glaciers. Objections answered. ! There is a common objection not yet ex- ploded that may be raised to the view taken in this paper. I allude to the argument, that, the earth having gradually cooled, by radia- tion from its circumference, down to a late Secondary, or even Ter- tiary period, this radiation affected the entire climate of the world, and gave tropical characters to its fauna and flora far down in geo- logic time. To treat this subject in detail would lead to a discussion too lengthened and elaborate to be introduced as a subordinate part of a memoir the main object of which is simply to explain the origin of what seems to be an ancient boulder-clay ; but, as the question of an ancient tropical uniformity of climate is still frequently asserted, it cannot in this place be altogether omitted. Regarding the palaeozoic faunas, many palaeontologists are of opinion that there is no ground whatever for attributing to them a tropical character. This was certainly the opinion of our late la- mented President, with whom I have often conversed on the subject. Further, the different assemblages of species in equivalent formations in various localities, even in Silurian times, would seem to indicate that the laws of distribution were the same then as now. Neither has it ever appeared to me that the style of reasoning is at all con- clusive which asserts that the Secondary faunas were necessarily tropical because of the peculiarities of form. Of late tertiary date there was an age when elephants ranged every latitude from India to the confines of the Arctic Circle. Is there any reason why at an earlier period Ammonites, Belemnites, and great Saurians should not have done the same ? What applies to animals may apply to many plants ; and, if this be insufficient, we have in the arguments enforced by Sir Charles Lyell respecting different distributions of sea and land good cause for many variations of climate*. * The greatest difficulty in the case seems to he in the occurrence of Coal- measure plants in places beyond the Arctic Circle, in Bear Island and the Green- land shores, the loose cellular structure of which plants would seem to indicate that they could neither have been long withdrawn from the stimulus of light, nor yet have endured the long-continued action of frost. (Dr. Hooker, Memoirs of the Geol. Survey, vol. ii. part 2. p. 396.) The whole problem is in many ways obscure, and it is probably a mixed question, some of the elements of which we have not yet got hold of; but it may surely be assumed that the dogma of uni- versal tropical climates dependent on central heat, so far from being proved, is daily losing ground. One argument may be adduced against it, which I think is deserving of attention. The average melting-point of ordinary lavas is said to be something intermediate between those of silver and copper, or about 1934<. Assuming the increment of internal heat as we descend to average 1< for every 60 feet below the first 60 feet, 1855.] RAMSAY PERMIAN BRECCIA. 203 In connection with this supposed universality of tropical climate, it has been objected that the nature of the Permian fauna and flora affords an argument against the possibility of glaciers existing in Permian times in this area, more especially as the Permian flora suc- ceeds and nearly resembles the flora of the Coal-measures, supposed by many to have a tropical character. To this it may be replied ! 1 st. That there is nothing in the Permian marine fauna essentially tropical, and of the habits of the one solitary Labyrinthodon we are altogether ignorant. 2nd, It was the opinion of Dr. Mantell, and has been confirmed by Dr. J. D. Hooker, that the Carboniferous flora indi- cates, not a tropical, but a moist, equable, and temperate climate*, possibly such as that of New Zealand ; in which country, it will be remembered, there are glaciers at the present day in the southern island f. If indeed, after the early stage of growth, the beds of carbonaceous matter that formed coal accumulated in a manner at the temperature of rocks would rise to the melting-point of lava at 113,100 feet beneath the surface, assuming for these latitudes a constant temperature of 50< at the depth of 60 feet. It does not, however, therefore follow, that they should melt at that depth, for this might be interfered with by pressure ; but it may be assumed that under such circumstances the rocks might be considerably altered, if subjected to this high temperature for a great length of time. I attribute, for instance, in some cases, the metamorphism of shales or slates into gneiss to their approaching the sphere of such influences. Now (on the authority of Mr. W. Hopkins, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 59), " the present effect of the internal heat is about one-twentieth of a degree" on the mean superficial temperature ; but to affect the external climates of the globe 1< Fahr. (namely twenty times the present amount) " the descending rate of increase must have been twenty times as great as at pre- sent, about 20< Fahr, for every 60 feet ; and, if the superficial temperature were thus raised about 10< Fahr., the temperature at the depth of 60 feet would, ac- cording to the same law, exceed 200< Fahr., and all but surface-springs would be springs of boiling-water. This physical state of our planet would scarcely, per- haps, be deemed consistent with the conditions of animal life at the more recent geological epochs." To this conclusion many geologists are steadily arriving ; and for many years I have held that internal heat, at least since the formation of the oldest fossiliferous rocks, has not materially modified the climates of the world. On the foregoing data an argument in favour of this view may be drawn from the rocks themselves. Let us suppose that the external climate was affected by internal heat only 1< Fahr., involving an increment of 20< Fahr. for every 60 feet of descent, then, instead of reaching the equivalent temperature of the surface- melting-point of lava at 113,100 feet beneath the surface, we should reach it at a depth of about 5700 feet; and, were the average surface-temperature incj^eased 10<, we should reach it at a depth of about 580 feet. The thicknesses of many British formations have been determined by the Geological Survey. Thus in North Wales the Barmouth and Harlech grits are about 7000 feet thick without our reaching their base, and 25,000 feet of Lower Silurian strata are conformably superimposed on these, giving a total of 32,000 feet. But, as a rule, the rocks are not highly altered. The slates are cleaved and hardened ; but it is only in a few places, where granite or other allied rocks have been intruded into them, that they become so changed as to deserve the title of metamorphic. 1 have elsewhere shown (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. ix. p. 170), that the Welsh igneous bosses that effect this alteration were simply the nuclei or centres of the Lower Silurian volcanos ; and in areas removed from these the rocks remain unmetamorphosed ; which ought not to have been the case, had the rocks in general attained and long maintained the temperature of melting lava at a depth of only 5700 feet. * Memoirs of the Geological Survey, vol. ix. part 2. p. 399. t I derived this information from the late Dr. Mantell, who informed me that he had received descriptions of them from his son. 204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 21, all analogous to the mode of formation of peat-mosses*, this of itself would form an argument against the tropical character of the car- boniferous flora, for peat-moss only grows and largely increases in temperate and cold climates. If these arguments hold good for coal- measure plants, they are equally applicable to those of the Permian period, which are much fewer in number and consist principally of Ferns, Catamites, ConifercB, and a few Sea-weeds. Even if the Car- boniferous period could be proved to be altogether tropical, a glacial episode in Permian times would not be so remarkable, seeing that the unconformity of the Permian on the Carboniferous rocks is everywhere so great that there is evidently no passage or direct sequence in the strata, and probably between the close of the Car- boniferous and the beginning of the Permian epoch a long period elapsed during which our Carboniferous rocks were upheaved above the waters. In connexion with the nature of the ancient life of the fossiliferous Permian rocks of the North and East of England, a third argument remains, which has even more weight than the former two. The precise relation of the midland Permian beds to the true magnesian limestone series has not yet been completely demonstrated. The Alberbury rocks do not belong, as has been generally supposed, to the true magnesian limestone of Professor Sedgwick, but are formed of a breccia on the same horizon with and strongly resembling that of the Abberleys and South Staflbrdshire, except that, instead of trap and sandstone, the Abberley fragments are derived from the carboniferous limestone to the north-west. For various reasons I believe that the true magnesian limestone series is higher in the Permian scale than the rocks of the midland counties f, but the question is yet uncertain, the absolute proof being wanting. How- ever this may be, why, considering the evidence adduced, might there not be a glacial episode, marked by a consolidated Boulder- clay, during Permian ages, just as we have had one in late Tertiary times, that may be said nearly to approach our own ? If the newer Crag, and all the Pleistocene beds of the South and North of England, of Ireland, and Scotland, and the deposits now forming, were thrown far back in time, solidified, and highly disturbed, we should cer- tainly^, because of their fauna, include them all in one geological epoch. Uncertain subdivisions might be based on the presence of peculiar mammals, but the shells would be so nearly the same that all geologists would agree in referring them to one period, and possibly even Miocene beds might be included, but as a lower stage. Yet in the midst of this period, and indeed since our existing shells appeared, we have had in these latitudes a rigid arctic climate, with its glaciers, its great moraines, and floating bergs, scattering detritus from the Welsh, Irish, and Highland hills. The thickness of rocks aflbrds no safe test of the time occupied in their accumulation, but sometimes it aids in the rude estimate, and, compared even to the * See also Lyell's ' Elements,' 1851, p. 335. t See ' Silurian System.' 1855.] RAMSAY ! PERMIAN BRECCIA. 20.5 midland part of the Permian strata, the Crag and Pleistocene beds are, as masses, sufficiently meagre. There is one point of resemblance between these Permian breccias with their associated strata and the Pleistocene drift deposits worthy of note. In the latter fossils are much scattered, and in most of the beds of rare occurrence. They are still more scarce in that part of the Permian series with which the breccias are associated. I have thought, that, in like manner, this paucity of life may be connected in these latitudes with the glacial phsenomena of the Permian and the Bunter periods, and I no sooner mentioned this to Professor E. Forbes than he suggested that it might also be connected with the great break in life that has taken place between Palaeozoic and Secondary times. In connexion with this, in so far as it affects the Bunter rocks, I may state that near Wribbenhall in part of the pebble-beds (of Bunter date) there are breccias strikingly resembling those of Permian strata ; and also near Astley, a little S.W. of Stourport, and probably at Alfrick, at the base of the white sandstones there is a recurrence of the same phsenomenon. It is possible that these may have been reconstructed from the waste of the older Permian brec- cias ; but when I examined them, I felt more disposed to attribute them to direct glacial action, and now incline to connect them with the passage quoted from Mr. Austen's Memoir, in which he attri- butes the transport of large blocks in the New Red Sandstone to glacial agency. 206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. POSTPONED PAPERS. On the Correlation of the Eocene Tertiaries of England, France, and Belgium. By Joseph Prestwich, Jun., Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. [Read June 21, 1854*.] [Plate VIII.] Contents. Part I. ! Lower Beds, ! the London Group. ′ 1. Known foreign Equivalents. ′ ?. Grouping of the Lower Tertiary Strata in France, Belgium, and England. ′ 3. Correlation of the several Divisions of the Lower Tertiaries. ! The Thanet Sands and Systerae Landenien inferieur. ′ 4. The Woolwich Sands (lower part of) and Sahles de Bracheux. ′ 5. Middle beds of the Woolwich and Reading Series, ! the Fluviatile Clays and Lignites ; Lignites du Soissonnais. ′ G. The Upper Woolwich beds ; the Pebble beds ; Gres, Poudingues, and Sables (D'Archiac). ′ 7. The Relation of the Lower Members of the French Series to the Sables Divers and Lits Coquilliers, or the Glauconie Moyenne. ′ 8. The London Clay and Systeme Ypresien inferieur, or Glaise Ypresien ; not represented in the Paris Tertiary District. ′ 9. The Lower Bagshot Sands ; Systeme Ypresien superieur or Sables Ypresiens ; Lits Coquilliers and Sables divers, or Glauconie moyenne. ′ 10. Conclusion. Table of Equivalents. Explanation of Plate. Part I. ! Lower Beds, ! the London GROUpf . ′ L Known foreign Equivalents. In a former paper J I pointed out the distinctive palseontological and physical features of the London Clay and the Bracklesham Sands. Having on a previous occasion shown that there exists a close analogy * For the other Communications read at this Evening Meeting, see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. pp. 454 et seq. t The correlative description of the upper groups is unavoidably deferred to a later period. ! J. P. X Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 43.5. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 20/ between the latter deposit and the Calcaire grossier* ! a conclusion confirmed and rendered more definite by subsequent observations ! and having established the relation which the Tertiaries of London bear to those of Hampshire, the comparison between the main divisions of the London, Hampshire, and Paris groups becomes comparatively easy. At the same time, owing to the absence or obscurity of several intermediate links in the Hampshire group, the exact correlation of each varied member of the more distant groups of Paris and London would not be perfectly clear without the addi- tional assistance of the Belgian Tertiaries, which, as they aiford a type in many respects more closely allied than the Hampshire series to the Paris Tertiaries, serve to complete the chain of evidence. This comparison of the Belgian Tertiaries was, as far as the Lower divisions are concerned, not practicable until the clear and exact order of superposition established by M. Dumontf , chiefly upon very accurate physical evidence, and confirmed by the important palaeontological evidence recently brought forward by Sir Charles Lyell;};, settled the true grouping of these strata ′. The lists of fossils from the Lower tertiary beds of Belgium, previous to those drawn up by Sir Charles, and those more recently published by M. Omalius d'HalloyH, ^^^^ either too erroneous or too incomplete to allow geologists to correlate satisfactorily, upon such grounds, this series with that of France and of England^. In this part of the paper I shall confine my observations to those Tertiary beds, which, commencing immediately above the Chalk, are in England limited above by the Bracklesham SandSy in France Jjy the Calcaire grossier, and in Belgium by the Systeme Bruxellien of Du- mont. My object will be to show the more exact correlation of the strata beneath that zone, and to claim for the London Tertiaries, as a group, a distinct and independent position under that of that Paris * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. p. 378. t Trans, of the Acad. Roy. de Bruxelles, vols. vi. xvi. xviii. 1839-1851. X Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 277, 1852. ′ The Tertiary palaeontology of Belgium had nevertheless received some very valuable contributions in several papers by M. De Koninck, and the larger mono- graph of M. Nyst ; whilst the general geology had been partially illustrated by M. Galeotti and M. Omalius D'Halloy. Sketches of local sections and a few good general sections are much wanted, however, to facilitate the study of the Belgian tertiaries. II Abrege de Geologie, 1853. \ One instance occurring at the onset ! in the lowest Tertiary beds of Belgium ! affected the bearing of the whole sequence ; for, by some mistake, in previous works on Belgian Geology, amongst the fossils of the " Tufeau de Lincent," or " Landenien inferieur," a number of Calcaire grossier species, including the Num- mulites Icevigatus, had been introduced ; this is now proved to be an error. M. D'Archiac, who has given two most excellent sketches of the relation of the Belgian strata with those of France, had very properly overruled this anomaly, and fixed, with his usual discrimination, the correlation of all the more important and leading middle divisions (Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. x. p. 168, and Hist, des Prog, de la Geol. vol. ii. p. 500). Another step has also recently been made in correlating the higher beds by the evidence brought forward by M. Hebert proving the close relation of the fauna of the Limbourg beds with that of the Gres de Fontainbleau (Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, 2nd ser. vol. vi. p. 459). 208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. group, of which latter the Calcaire grossier may be taken as the centre and the type*. (See Table.) In France the Calcaire grossier forms so well-marked and definite an horizon, that no difference of opinion exists with reference to its range and characters. The Bracklesham Sands in this country, and the Systeme Bruxellien in Belgium, are the equivalents of this portion of the French series, and afford a base-line equally well-defined. Between this geological level and the Chalk the strata are very variable. Their relative position in the mass is, however, perfectly apparent ; but yet there is in this portion of the French and English tertiary series one division only of which the exact synchronism stands recognized on sufficient combined physical and palseontological evidence, viz. that division formed by the lignites of the Soissonnais and the fluviatile beds of Woolwich and Lewishamf . In France and Belgium, the zone of the Nummulites planulatus in the upper part of the Soissonnais Sands and of the Ypresian series forms the only other well-established zoological horizon in these lower beds. On stratigraphical grounds the Ypresian Clay of Belgium had also been referred by M. Dumont to the London Clay. ′ 2. Grouping of the Lower Tertiary strata in France ^ Belffium, and England. (See Table.) In the Paris district the strata beneath the Calcaire grossier have been variously grouped. By M. D'Archiac J, in his very able classi- fication of the French series, they have been all (with the exception of th′ Glauconie grossiere) included in one group ! that of his "Sables Infe'rieurs," or Lower Tertiary Sands ! consisting of six members, which in his latest work, the " Histoire des Progres de la Ge'ologie," (vol. ii. p. 598) stand as under, commencing with the uppermost di\dsion : ! Group of the '^ Sables Inferieurs^' (jyArchiac). ler Etage. Glaises et sables glauconieux (Clays and glauconiferous sands). 2 ? Lits coquilliers (Shell beds). 3 ,, Sables divers ou Glauconie moyenne (Varied Sands or middle Glau- conite). 4 ? Gres, poudingues, et sables coquilliers (Sandstones, puddingstones, and shelly sands). 5 ? Glaises sableuses, Bancs d'Huitres, etc., marnes lacustres, lignite, argile plastique (Sandy clays, oyster beds, lacustrine marls, lignite, plastic clay). 6 ? Glauconie inferieure, Calcaire lacustre inferieur, poudingues et argiles du sud-est du bassin (Lower Glauconite, lower lacustrine limestone, conglomerates and clays of the south-east of the basin). This series is only fully exhibited in the more northern part of the Paris tertiary district. This, however, is the area with which, as it is the nearest to England, we must first establish our relations. * See also Sir Charles Lyell's and M. Dumont's tables in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. pp. 279 and 370, 1852. f With which, as suggested by M. Dumont, the Upper Landenian is syn- chronous. + 1839, Bull. Soc. Geol. vol. x. p. 172 ; 1840, Mem. Soc. Ge'ol. de France, 2nd ser. vol. v. p. 263 ; 1848, Hist, des Prog, de la Geol. vol. ii. p. 598. PRESTWTCH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 209 M. Graves* not only includes the " Sables glauconieux and Lits coquilliers" in this lowest group of Sables Inferieurs, but also the overlying " Glauconie grossiere'* (which M. D' Archiac places wdth the *'Calcaire grossier"), making of this latter division, together with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of D' Archiac, one group ; and forming a second of the divisions 4, 5, and 6 of D' Archiac. These he designates as the two " Groupes des Sables glauconieux." M. Raulinf, on the contrary, takes the "Glauconie grossiere" and the " Lits coquilliers" out of this group, and classes both as sub- ordinate members of the Calcaire grossier. M. Charles D'Orbigny, in his " Tableau General," also makes two groups of these lower French Tertiaries, ! 1st. " Sables quartzeux glauconiferes" (divisions 1, 2, and 3 of M. D' Archiac) ; 2nd. "Argile Plastique;" but in a work;]; more recently edited by him, these are further subdivided into ! 1st. An upper group, consisting of, ! Glauconiferous sands ; sands, sandstones, and pebble beds ; lig- nites, plastic clay, and fossiliferous conglomerates. 2nd. A lower one of the lower lacustrine limestone and quartzose sands. M. Alcide D'Orbigny, who considers that the variation of the fauna of all this period results only from variations in the^ depth and saltness of the waters, forms of these six divisions his " Etage Sues- sonien ou Nummulitique′", ! his oldest Tertiary group. In Belgium, M. Dumont divides the lower Tertiaries into his *' Upper and Lower Ypresian," and " Upper and Lower Landenian" Systems ; whilst Sir Charles Lyell, combining and modifying the classification of Dumont, Omalius D'Halloy, and D' Archiac, groups them into Lower Nummulitic beds, London clay. Plastic clay and sands, Glauconite and Tufeau of Lincent, and Marls and Glauconite of Heers. In England I have placed the Lower Bagshot Sands at the base of the Brackiesham series ; then, in descending order, the " London clay," the "Basement-bed of the London clay," the "Woolwich and Reading series," and the "Thanet Sands." It is curious and instructive to observe how, in each country, the grouping of these lesser divisions of the Tertiary series has been based upon local conditions. This is probably right and necessary in establishing a local order of superposition, but it shows also how much local phsenomena will modify, even at short distances, the apparent relations which exist in nearly allied and synchronous strata ; for it is on some actual predominating feature in the several districts that the various groupings are based. Thus I have, from the recurrence of like lithological characters and in the absence of paloeontological evidence, referred the Lower Bagshot Sands to a subordinate position with the Brackiesham series ; whilst, both from organic remains and structure, the London clay is referred to a * Essai sur la Topographie Geognostique du Departeraent de I'Oise, 1847, p. 174 ; an excellent local work to which we shall have constantly to refer. t " Patria," 1847, vol. i. p. 370. t Manuel de Geologic, 1852, p. 86 and 171. ′ " Cours Eleraentaire de Paleontologie et de Geologic," vol. ii. p. 704. and 713. VOL. XI. ! PART I. Q 210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. division apart, but nearly allied to the three underlying subdivi- sions of **the Lower London Tertiaries." In Belgium, on the contrary, M. Dumont, on physical evidence, unites into one group the sands and clays of Ypres ; and forms a second group of the beds beneath, dividing it into the Upper and Lower Landenian ; whilst Sir Charles Lyell, mainly on the evidence of the organic remains, places the Ypresian Sands at the base of his middle Eocene group ; the Ypresian clays and the upper Landenian in his lower Eocene group ; and the lower Landenian in a separate intermediate group between the Tertiaries and the Chalk. In France the con- stant recurrence of very similar mineral characters in all the strata beneath the Calcaire grossier has rendered the division of this part of the Tertiary series rather unsettled and difficult of exact determi- nation. So much is this the case, that M. D'Archiac observes *, that " where the ' Lits coquilliers' are wanting, there is no mode of separating the third member of the * Sables Inferieurs' from the first, and that at those places where the sandstones, or even the lignites, with their beds of clay and oysters do not exist, there is no distinction to be seen between these sands of the third division and the Glauconie inferieure." M. Graves also states f, that *' as the division into series of the * Sables glauconieux ' is entirely artificial, when the fossils are wanting at the same time as the lignites and sandstones, all distinc- tion ceases, and the beds of sand continue uninterruptedly from the Chalk to the Calcaire grossier, without the possibility of distinguish- ing any divisions." It was this unbroken sequence which before caused me to hesitate in assigning to the London clay its exact parallel in the French series. From the close agreement of the Calcaire grossier with the Bracklesham sands, I felt no doubt of the infraposition of the London clay to the former deposit, whilst, from the agreement of the Woolwich fluviatile beds with the lignites of the Soissonnais, I was satisfied of its superposition to the latter deposit. But then in France the beds beneath the Calcaire grossier were in perfect sequence, and showed no break. Therefore, if we looked only to the limits afforded by these two undoubtedly good geological horizons, the London clay in England held exactly the place occupied in France by the " Lits coquilliers" and associated sands (Et. 1, 2, 3, D'Arch.). But the fossils of the latter presented a far closer agreement with those of the Calcaire grossier than with those of the London clay, although the number of known species common to these beds and the London clay appeared at that time larger than that of any other member of the English series. Consequently, though I considered the London clay to be more closely connected with the Lits coquilliers than with the Calcaire grossier, with which it had previously been associated, I stated J, that "possibly the London Clay may have been formed during a period not represented, or only very partially so, in the French series ; " and further remarked, that I was inclined "to con- sider that the London clay period immediately preceded that of the * Hist, des Prog, de la Geol. vol. ii. p. 604, f Op. cit. p. 257. t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. pp. 376-7, note. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 211 *Lits coquilliers;' ! that it synchronises with some of the older por- tions of the Sables inferieurs" (of M. D' Archiac) : ! a view in which I am now confirmed so far as regards the higher antiquity of the London Clay, but which deposit I however now consider not to be exactly re- presented by any synchronous strata in the Paris district. This instance of the intercalation of a large and important deposit in England, where in France the sequence of the Lower Tertiaries is so well maintained that there is no appearance of any link missing, is a very remarkable one. Both M. D' Archiac and M. Graves have, as mentioned above, particularly noticed the perfect sequence of the beds from the chalk to the Calcaire grossier, and I can bear testimony to the same fact. Lithological structure and superposition seem to indicate a complete and perfect series, whilst it would appear that the organic remains have not been considered to present any suffi- cient differences to militate against this view. It would nevertheless seem that there is a very important interval between the '' Lignites of the Soissonnais" and the " Lits coquilliers," and that, at so short a distance as from Kent to the Department of the Oise, there is introduced, wedge-shaped, between these two deposits, the large mass of the London clay with its multitude of original organic re- mains. Yet there is not only no evidence either of the great lapse of time, or of the important physical changes which such a formation indicates, but there is even no cause for suspicion of such a fact in the apparently complete and continuous series of the " Sables infe- rieurs" of the north of France. ′ 3. Correlation of the several Divisions of the Lower Tertiaries. ! The Thanet Sands, and Landenien inferieur. To prove the foregoing position I will now state my reasons for the correlation I propose to assign to each member of the Lower Tertiaries of England, France, and Belgium, commencing with the lowest, viz. the "Thanet Sands." This deposit ranges through that part of the North of France which geologically forms a portion of the Belgian Tertiary district. At the Artesian well of Calais it is, as far as I could judge from the few specimens preserved in the museum of that town, about 80 feet thick, or about the same as on the opposite coast of Kent. Between Watten and St. Omer the Lower Tertiary Sands crop out from beneath the London clay, and the Thanet Sands reappear with characters closely analogous to those which they present near Canterbury. During a hasty visit to that district, I found in some semi-indurated beds numerous im- pressions of shells, amongst which I recognised the Thracia ohlatay the small Corbula common at Pegwell Bay, and traces of the same Pholadomya, Pa^iopcBa, and Cy])rina. In the neighbourhood of Lille, M. A. Meugy * describes a series of beds overlying the Chalk, and consisting of variable strata, from 1 5 to 105 feet thick, of dark grey or blackish sandy clay more or less glauconiferous, fine sands, and semi-indurated calcareous marls, with marine shells. These are precisely the characters the Thanet Sands * Essai de Geologie pratique sur la Flandre Fran^aise, Lille 1852, pp. 1 1 7-126. q2 212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. have assumed in East Kent ; at Pegwell Bay, for example, many of the lower beds are unusually argillaceous, and of a dark grey colour ! some are fossiliferous, others without a trace of a fossil. M. Meugy states that the strata in many places contain marine shells, but, with one exception (Ci/prina planata [Moiinsiil^), he gives the genera only, and not the species. Sir Charles Lyell^ however, who has also examined part of this district, states that at Carvin near Lille the Cyprina Mon'isii abounds and that imperfect casts of a Turritellay Area, and Corbula occur*. Further, these beds are considered by M. Meugy as the continuation of the Lower Landenian series of Belgium. In Belgium this character of these beds is but little modified ; but the fossils have been better determined, and form a fauna closely agreeing with that of the Thanet Sands. I have found at Tournay and Mons, fossils which I have identified with those of East Kent, though they are not quite so numerous or varied. The occurrence, however, amongst these few of such species as the Astarte tenera, Mor. {A.incBquilatera, Nyst.) Pholadomya cuneata, Sow. CucuUaea crassatina, Lam. Koniuckii, Nyst. Paaopaea granulata, Mor. Cyprina Morrisii, Sow. combined with the general resemblance in mineral characters, development, and superposition, confirms me in the belief that the same deposit occupies the same position at the base of the Tertiary series in both countriesf . M. Duraont, from an examination of the lithological structure of the beds overlying the Chalk at Chiselhurst and "Woolwich, had before come to the conclusion that these Lower Tertiary Sands are of the same age as those in Belgium ! that they are the equivalents of the lower division of his Landenian system. I have not been able satisfactorily to recognise the Thanet Sands in the Paris Tertiary district ; but, from the frequent difficulty, even in this country, of distinguishing this division from the one next above it, ! for the lithological characters of the two are often almost identical, ! it would be impossible to say, in the absence of sufficient organic remains, whether some portion of the Glauconie inferieure of M. D' Ar- chiac should not be referred to the Thanet Sands period. This Glauconite forms the base of the Tertiary series in the more northern portion of the Paris basin, and detached outliers of it are common on the chalk hills which separate the Paris and Belgian Tertiary areas. It rarely exceeds 20 to 30 feet in thickness. M. D'Archiac notices the constancy of its characters and the rarity of organic remains, the only fossils he has been able to detect being casts of some marine bivalves, referred to the Cyprina Scutellaria, Desh., Serpula, casts of a species of Sponge (Sponyia nidus-avis, D'Arch.), bones of JEmydes * Quart. Journ. Geoi. Soc. vol. viii. p. 360. t M. Omalius d'Halloy in his last work, with which I have but just become acquainted, gives a corrected list of these fossils amounting to 14 species. Of these, besides those quoted in the text, the Nucula fragilis also occurs in the Thanet Sands, the Scalaria Dumontiana of Nyst is probably the S. BowerbanMi of Morris, and the PanopcBa intermedia, Sow., the P. granulata, Mor. The Leda, Cytherea, Area, Pinna, and Modiola will also, I think, prove to be species common to both countries. The list of fossils from these beds is, however, yet far from complete. ! J. P., Jun., April 1855. PRESTWICH ! BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 213 and of the Palceocion primcevus. M. D'Archiac himself* refers these beds to the Lower Landenian of Mons and Ciply, but their Htho- logical structure will answer equally well for the lower part of the upper or next division, whilst their general structure and the character of the few fossils here named incline me to place them generally in a rather higher position. Still it is quite possible that some beds of the Thanet Sands may stretch as far south as some parts of the Department of the Aisne ! further than the London Clay, but not so far as the next division of the Lower Tertiary Sands, with which, owing to the want of distinctive characters, they might naturally enough be associated. (See PI. VIII., Diagram, str. ff and h.) ′ 4. The Woolwich Sands f {lower part of)^ and Sables de Bracheux. In parallellising another portion of the French series, well developed in parts of the departments of the Oise, Aisne, and Marne, a diiference of opinion as to its exact position renders it necessary to go into this part of the inquiry separately and in greater detail. I allude to those occasionally fossiliferous sands, of which the well-known sections and fossils at Bracheux, Abbecourt, and Noailles, near Beauvais, have been taken as the type. The superposition of these beds is not at first sight very apparent |. By M. D'Archiac they were originally considered sychronouswith theGlauconie inferieure and to underlie the Lignites and Argile plastique, and that view is taken by M. Graves and M. Hebert. From the general absence of fossils, however, with the few exceptions named above, and some later observations showing that in some places a bed of sand with Pectunculus, Nucula, Car- dium, &c., overlies the lignites, M. D'Archiac separates the Glauconie inferieure from the marine sands of Beauvais, leaving the former beneath the lignites, but placing the latter above them. The lower marine sands of the neighbourhood of Rheims and Laon have in consequence likewise been referred by M. D'Archiac to a position over the lignites ; by M. Melleville the lignites are considered sub- ordinate to the sands ; and by M. Hebert the lignites are placed above these sands. There is further at a few places in Champagne another deposit, local in its nature, but of much interest from the peculiar group of land and freshwater shells which it contains, viz. the calcareous marls, or concretionary travertin, of Rilly. At this spot these marls repose upon a mass of remarkably pure and white quartzose sands. The infraposition of these various beds to the lignites was proved by M. Charles d'Orbigny, but their exact geological relations were not shown. M. D'Archiac considers these sands to be the equivalents of his Glauconie inferieure, and therefore older than the marine sands of Beauvais. M. Hebert refers both the marls and the sands to a * Considering the fossiliferous sands of Beauvais to belong to a higher part of the series. t Or the Woolwich and Reading series. X As, in the massif oi the Tertiaries, these strata crop out usually at the base of steep slopes, they are generally covered by earth and debris, and therefore are rarely exposed in good or continuous sections. 214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. period anterior to any other of the French Tertiaries, and conse- quently preceding the Glauconie inferieure. He regards them both as formed in a large freshwater lake, the deposits of which were, with the exception of a few isolated masses, swept away by an irrup- tion of that sea in which the marine sands of Laon, Rheims, and Beauvais were accumulated, and by which sands they are now, as it were, incased. In a paper communicated last year to the Geological Society of France, I have endeavoured to show that, on the con- trary, these sands of Rilly are independent of the marls which overlie them, that they contain marine shells, and that they are, in fact, but part of the marine sands of Rheims and Laon which stretch around them on the same level ; the difference of mineral character, and the absence of shells, except as casts, being attributable to the infiltration of limpid fresh water, charged with carbonic acid, which deposited the overlying tufaceous marls or travertin*. Although on the whole we have not in England so full and varied a development of organic remains in the Lower Tertiaries as prevails in France, there are nevertheless some phsenomena, which I have had occasion to observe in the Lower London Tertiaries, which may tend to throw light upon these diiferences of opinion ; and, taken together with the facts presented by the French series, may prove sufficient to establish the order of superposition and the correlation of the different beds. In England next above the Thanet Sands we have the complicated series of Woolwich and Reading. In the Isle of Wight it consists almost entirely of pure tenacious mottled clays, which range to the neighbourhood of London ; but, as they approach this centre, they become more and more interstratified with beds of sand and pebbles, until at last these latter entirely replace the clays. With very few exceptions the only fossil shell found westward of the vicinity of London is the Ostrea Bellovacina, which occurs at places at the base of the clays. In the neighbourhood of London, the Fluviatile beds of Woolwich distinctly set in in the midst of this deposit with the mottled clays both above and below them, and the whole mass be- comes pervaded with a fluviatile and aestuarine fauna. Proceeding further eastward these mineral characters undergo a further change ; the clays die out, and, with the exception of occasional pebbly bands, the strata pass into a mass of white and greenish quartzose sands ; while at the same time the estuarine and fluviatile fauna gradually disappears and is replaced by a marine one. It is, however, not until we reach the N.E. of Kent that this change is effected ; and even then the fossils are very rare, preserved as it were by accident, for the calcareous matter of the shells has almost always been dissolved out, and it is only in some few places, where siliceous casts have occu- pied the produced cavities, that evidence of this marine fauna exists f. (See PI. VIII., Diagram, str. a, e, andy.) * Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, 2nd Ser., vol. x. p. 300. M. Hebert has since replied to these observations, and maintains his original views. He has also noted some new localities, Bull. vol. x. p. 436. t For particulars of the changes in the structure and organic remains of this series, see Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. x. p. 75-170. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 215 It is more particularly in the lower part of this division, or that portion of it characterized by the Ostrea Bellovacina (Reading and London), that this development of marine forms occurs. Fortu- nately the fossils, though few, are characteristic, and sufficient to establish a very marked analogy with the fauna of the sands of Bra- cheux. It is to this part of the Lower London Tertiaries that I would also refer the lower marine sands of Laon, Rheims, and the sands underlying the travertin of Rilly. In the first place the general relation of these beds of sand to the lignites and fluviatile beds is everywhere the same both in England and France. In East Kent they form, as before said, the lower part of the group which passes at Woolwich under the clays with Cyrena, Melanopsis, Paludina, &c. ; and it is precisely in the same position that they occur in the Beauvais and Champagne districts, for there also they clearly underlie beds of fluviatile clays and lignites. Neither is there any discordance in the mineral characters. In East Kent the sands are quartzose, sometimes nearly white, and at others much mixed with green sand with a few flint pebbles. In the Beauvais district they also consist of a base of whitish quartzose sand, more or less mixed with grains of green sand, occasionally coloured in parts by the oxide of iron, and likewise containing some flint pebbles ; they there merely exhibit in addition slight traces of carbonate of lime. As the sands range into Cham- pagne, they become rather finer, the green particles fewer, and therefore the mass is often formed of a nearly pure white quartzose sand, especially where it has been subjected to the washing process which accompanied the deposition of the Rilly travertin, wherever that bed overlies the sands. In addition to these common mineral and palseon- tological features, there is a common physical feature maintained throughout their range, one of no importance separately, but of some value conjointly, viz. the presence of rounded and much- worn flint pebbles sometimes scantily scattered through these sands, at other times arranged in bands, chiefly at their base. (Diagram, str. e,f, n.) The fossils are dispersed, as in the English series, in patches, and rarely form continuous or widely-extended bands. The lists of or- ganic remains given by M. Graves* and M. Mellevillef enable us now to compare the fauna of the Beauvais and Champagne sands;};; with that of the Woolwich Sands of East Kent. I should observe, however, that in this country these organic remains are far from being worked out so fully as in France, for, with the exception of the col- lection made by Mr. Lay ton and myself at Richborough, and by my- self at Heme Bay and Oakwell, no fossil-examination of these beds has taken place ; at the same time their limited development under marine conditions in England, and their peculiar mineral characters, * Op, cit. p. 196. t " Memoire sur les Sables Tertiaires inferieurs du Bassin de Paris." (Annales des Sciences geologiques, vol. xi. 1845, p. 9-13.) % M. Rondot also gives a list of some of the characteristic species (" Etude Geologique du Pays de Rheims," Ann. de I'Acad. de Reims, annee 1842-43). M. Hebert makes a further addition to the Rheims fauna, and states that the number given in M. Melleville's list is far from being complete (Bull. Soc. Geol. 2nd Ser. vol. vi. p. 729-730). 216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. almost preclude us from hoping to find in them a fauna equally abundant with that of the presumed synchronous series in France. In the neighbourhood of London, where however estuarine condi- tions prevail, the organic remains have been the object of earher and more continuous research, and the Usts of these fossils are therefore fuller and more satisfactory. In East Kent the number of marine species hitherto determined from the Woolwich and Reading series amounts to fifteen. Limited as is this fauna, it is very characteristic. Seven of the species are likewise found in the lower sands of the neighbourhood of Beauvais and of Rheims. These are the, ! Cardium Plurasteadiense, Sow. (C. Cytherea Bellovacina, Desk. semigranulosum, Sow. of Graves.) Pectunculus terebratularis, Lam. {P. Corbula Regulbiensis, Mor. (C. Ion- brevirostris, & P. Plumsteadiensis, girostris, Desh. of Graves.) Sow.) Cucullaea crassatina, Lam. Teredina personata, Desh. Cyprina Scutellaria, Desh. Of the other eight species, four (the Cardium Laytoni, Glycimeris Rutupiensis, Sanguinolaria Edwardsii^ and Ampullaria subdepressa) being new, and but recently described, have not yet been compared with foreign specimens ; the Corbula Arnouldii ? occurs in the lignites near Rheims ; the Teredo antenautcB may probably prove a variety of the Teredina personata ; so that there are only two of the older-known described species (the Thracia oblata and Cyprina Morrisii) which have not yet been quoted in the French lists*. The seven species common to the two countries are precisely those which are amongst the most characteristic fossils of the lower sands of the Beauvais district, as they are of the Woolwich Sands of East Kent. As before mentioned, the Woolwich and Reading beds present, in their western area, an evidently continuous and unbroken series of like sands and mottled clays from top to bottom ; but, as they range by the neighbourhood of London, the fluviatile and freshwater clays and lignites of Woolmch and Lewisham, set in in the midst of this series, dividing it into three divisions. The lower one consists of sands and pebbles ; the middle, of clays ; whilst in the upper one, sands again predominate. As they trend eastward, the central divi- sion thins out, and the upper and lower beds of sand blend and form an indivisible series. The lower division, with marine shells, of East Kent contains in West Kent a few sestuarine shells only ; whereas the upper division, in the neighbourhood of Woolwich and Bromley, has a rich fluviatile and sestuarine fauna, with also some marine shells ; but as the fresh and brackish water fossils are of identical species in the three divisions, I consider them, notwith- standing the occasional and exceptional presence of marine forms, as forming only one group. Taking now, therefore, the Woolwich series of West Kent in its entirety, we will first examine how far its * Both, however, have been figured since the publication of M. Graves's and M. Melleville's lists. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 217 organic remains agree with species found in the sands of Bracheux and Rheims, and afterwards consider the relation they bear to those of the "Lignites" of the Soissonnais. The number of described species in the immediate district of Woolwich* is forty-two, of which the following nineteen are found also in the above-named sands in France. Area depressa, Sow. (A. striatularis, Teredina personata, Desk, Mell. ?) Buccinum fissuratum, Desk. ? Cardium Plumsteadiense, Sow. Calyptraea trochiformis, Lam. Corbula Regulbieusis, var. /3, Mor.f Cerithium variabile, Desk. Cyrena cuneiformis, Fer. Fusus latus, Sow. {F. deceptus, Desh. ?) intermedia, Mell. planicostatus, Mell. ? Nucula fragilis, Desh. Melania inquinata, Def. Ostrea Bellovacina, Desh. Melanopsis buccinoides, Desh. tenera, Sow. ( 0. angusta, Desh. ?) Neritiua pisiformis, Fer. ? Pectunculus terebratularis, Lam. vicina, Mell. ? Of the other twenty-three species, fourteen are new ; and, as there are still many undetermined species from the Bracheux and Rheims sands, it remains to be seen how many of these new forms may be identified upon a more thorough examination. Deducting these fourteen species, there is a remainder of nine, eight of which, although not occurring in the marine beds of Bracheux, exist nevertheless in those fluviatile and freshwater beds (lignite series of the Soissonnais) which I believe to be subordinate to these sands. Viewing, therefore, the Woolwich and Reading fauna as a whole, and striking out the newly described species and the more freshwater forms which belong to the subordinate lignites, we have twenty-nine estuarine and marine species. Out of this number twenty-two are found in the sands of Bracheux and Rheims, ! evidence which, allow- ing for variations produced by geographical distribution, I take as strongly conclusive of the correlation of these two groups in the Paris and London tertiary districts. ′ 5. Middle beds of the Woolwich and Reading Series, ! the Fluviatile Clays and Lignites ; " Lignites du Soissonnais." Extending over a very small portion of the area of the Woolwich and Reading series, but more largely developed in France, are certain well-marked beds of clay with occasional lignites, characterized by a well-known freshwater and fluviatile fauna. These beds have been generally considered by continental geologists as distinct from the lower marine sands of Bracheux and Rheims ; but if I am right in correlating these sands with the lower part of the Woolwich and Reading series, then, as we have in this country throughout the * Those with " C " attached in my former paper. As that list can be readily referred to, I do not give it again here. See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 117 ; see also further on, p. 219. t This species is, I believe, identical with the Bracheux Corbula, described as C. longirostris, Desh., ! a name at present restricted to the Fontainebleau species, from which the one from Bracheux is now known to differ. There is an unde- scribed Dentalium in the two deposits which also seems identical. 218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. depth of that series common physical characters, common mineral structure, and common fossils, showing an intimate relation of con- ditions throughout the whole period, I cannot but consider that in France likewise, notwithstanding less blending of the several parts, the lignites of the Soissonnais and fluviatile clays are, with the mottled clays, subordinate to an equivalent but more largely deve- loped mass of marine sands. Where the organisms of two groups of strata are so different as they necessarily must be in these marine sands and the overlying fluviatile clays, an apparent distinctiveness is produced by the difference of conditions, the reality of which can only be tested by a recurrence to like terms of comparison. In this country we have seen that the marine sands pass horizon- tally into estuarine sands underlying the fluviatile clays ; that estuarine and marine sands, with a group of shells identical with those descend- ing into the clays and underlying sands, occur above these fluviatile clays ; whilst the whole of these three subdivisions pass further westward into one undistinguishable series of unfossiliferous mottled clays and subordinate sands. Now, in examining closely the French series, somewhat similar phsenomena are apparent. M. Graves has noticed in several places the occurrence of sands with marine shells over the lignites ojp the Soissonnais ; and so marked is this feature at Varesne and St. Sauveur near Pont St. Maxence, that M. d'Archiac, looking at these beds as the equivalent of the marine sands at Bra- cheux, has on this evidence been inclined of late to place these latter above the lignites, contrary to the view he first took of their super- position, and which I believe to be the correct one * . The occurrence of 9 to 10 feet of sand, with marine shells, such as Pectunculus tere- bratularis, Ostrea Bellovacina, Nucula, Cardiuniy Venericardia, Ceri- thiunii and also the Cyrena cuneiformis^ in a similar position, has been noticed at several other places in the departments of the Somme, Oise, and Aisnef . Although the fossils of these beds have not been thoroughly examined, the notices given of them, and the few I have seen, lead me to believe that they are of the same species as those found in the Bracheux sands, and consequently that we have, in these beds overlying the fluviatile clays, a repetition of marine con- ditions such (but to a less extent) as prevailed before the intercalation of the subordinate clays ; these latter appearing therefore, as in England, in the light of a temporary and local accumulation of river or lagune sediment spread over ground from which the sea had par- tially retired, but which at a later epoch it again invaded. Wherever the fluviatile, estuarine, and marine conditions of this division of the Lower Tertiaries (4, 5, & 6 (part?), D'Archiac) are in full force, there the mottled clay (the true argile plasticpie of the French geologists) ceases altogether or in greater part. In the neighbourhood of Paris, the lignites and fluviatile beds form occa- sional bands (" fausses glaises") overlying the '^ Plastic Clay." This order of superposition ! that the Plastic Clay forms the base of the * 1839, Bull. vol. X. p. 172. See also further on, p. 245, for section at Coivrel. t See Top. Geog. du Dep. de I'Oise, p. 234 ; section of the Lagny pit, p. 211, and mention of sandstone blocks at Louvetain, p. 224. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 219 Tertiaries, and underlies the Lignites of the Soissonnais ! has been considered definite. (See PI. VIII., Diagram, str. I, m, n, o.) But there seems to be some evidence in France, as in England, that the lignites alternate occasionally with the mottled clays, and that fluviatile clays with the Cyrenay &c. are sometimes found under beds of these clays, although the occurrence of such phaenomena abroad is much less frequent and distinct than it is here. Neverthe- less some such instances may be detected in the works of M. Buteux and of M. Graves, notwithstanding that the impression of the authors seems to be that the true " argile plastique " always underlies the lignite and fluviatile clays, and the evidence to the contrary is cer- tainly scant. The former author, however, gives one distinct section at Marche-le-Pot, where four beds of variously coloured (mostly red, and mth pebbles in one bed) plastic clay, together 9 to 1 5 feet thick, overlie 3 feet of Lignites with bands of other clays ; the sections also at Mont Soufflard, Lihons, and Hallu show an apparent intermixing of lignites, mottled clays, and pebble beds, in one place (Hallu) over- lying sands with Cyrena and Cerithium^ . M. Graves gives a section at Bonvillers, where 7 feet of well- marked mottled red and purple clay overlie clays with Cyrena, Ostrea, &c. and lignites. At Canly also, ^\ feet oi plastic clay re- poses on freshwater clays and lignites ; and at Coivrel the shells seem sometimes to be imbedded in mottled clays f. (See also p. 245-7.) With reference now to the organic remains of the fluviatile clays and lignites considered apart, the evidence of the synchronism of the French and English series has, as before mentioned, been often ob- served upon and appears well founded. In the London district, the group of shelly clays, sands, and pebble beds, with lignites, of Black- heath, Woolwich, New Cross, and Lewisham contain forty-two spe- cies of mollusks, the following eighteen of which are also found in the lignites of the Oise and the Soissonnais : ! Area depressa, Soiv. *Cyrena cuneiformis, Fer. tellinella, Desk. Nucula fragilis, Desk. *Ostrea Bellovacina, Desk. tenera, Sow. Pectunculus terebratularis, Lam. Teredina personata, Desk. Unio Deshayesii, Wat. *Cerithium variabile, Desh. *Melama inquinata, Desh. *Melanopsis buccinoides, Fer. ancillaroides, Desh. Neritina consobrina, Fer. globulus, Defr. pisiformis, Fer. Paludina lenta, Sow. Planorbis laevigatus, Desh. Those marked with an asterisk abound in both countries. Of the remaining twenty-two, the following eight are met with in the Lower Sands of Bracheux or of Rheims : ! Cardium Plumsteadiense, Sow. Corbula Regulbiensis, Mor. Cyrena intermedia, Mell. Buccinum fissuratum, Desh. Calyptraea trochiformis, Lam. Fusus latus, Sow. planicostatus, Mell. Neritina vicina, Mell. ? * Geol. du Departement de la Somme, pp. 49, 33, & 47. t There are other indications in M. Graves's monograph, as well as in that of M. Buteux, which would lead me to believe that the term " argile plastique " might be more frequently applied to some of the overlying clays. Op. cit. pp. 250, 239, & 244. That the name is not applied, or that they are referred to drift or " remanied " beds, is not sufficient. 220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. This shows a total of twenty-six out of the forty-two species of our English species as common in the lignites or in the lower sands of the French series. Of the other sixteen, ten are new and rare species, which have not yet been made the object of research and comparison in the French beds*. Taking therefore the fact of the recurrence of marine fossils above similar to those beneath the lignites and fluviatile clays, and seeing the alternation of the mottled clays with the fossiliferous beds, I think that we should place them all in one group, identical as a whole, howsoever variable at places, in mineral and palseontological characters ; and that even in all the subdivisions of this portion of the French and English series, there is a far closer correlation than could at first sight have been anticipated. As a whole, the total number of mollusks belonging to the Woolwich series, including the marine beds of East Kent, amounts to fifty-three species, thirty- four of which are common also to the lignites of the Soissonnais and associated fossiliferous sands. In French Flanders and Belgium, all this series presents, as it were, a sort of neutral ground. Neither the great mass of the mottled clays nor the fluviatile shelly clays exist f, but the sands of East Kent and the north of France, in their unfossiliferous condition, prevail exclusively ; the only organic remains mentioned by M. Dumont and M. Meugy (and they under the circumstances are not unimportant) being a few traces of lignite. Still the general cha- racter of these sands, and their superposition on the lower Landenian or the Thanet sands, leave but little doubt of their correlation with the Woolwich and Readmg series. (See PI. VIII., Diagram, str. i,j.) ′ 6. The Pebble beds ; Gres, PoudingueSy and Sables {ly Archiac). We now come to a point where more obscurity prevails in the correlation of the French and English series. The sections of the Lower Tertiaries forming the connecting links between the Paris and London Tertiary districts are chiefly met with in mere isolated patches and detached outliers on the extensive chalk plains of Picardy. Con- sequently, as the series is very variable, and the sections are not con- tinuous, great dissimilarity in the smaller details exists between the several sections, and the correlation of their various subdivisions is frequently far from apparent. Thus, on some of the hills in this extensively denuded district, there are large outlying masses of mottled * The greater and more distinctive development in the Paris basin of both the marine and freshwater series has given to each a far larger fauna than we possess in this country; for, besides the species named above as common to the Lignites and Plastic Clay, there are twenty-seven other species not found here, whilst in the lower sands of Rheims and Bracheux there are also about eighty species unknown in the Woolwich and Reading Series. We can only compare, however, the known forms, and refer the greater profusion of life at that period in the French area to the more exclusive and fuller prevalence of marine and freshwater con- ditions respectively. Those s[)ecies which are common to the two countries are, however, generally speaking, amongst the most characteristic in each. t It is possible that some rudiments of these are to be traced. (For some sections of this series, see further on, p. 243.) PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 221 clays and lignites, or else large accumulations of flint-pebbles, whilst another not uncommon feature is the occurrence of great blocks of sandstone, often disturbed, but hardly removed out of place, and enveloped in a drift-clay. These blocks occasionally contain casts of Pectunculus, Cardium, Cucullcea, Nucida, Venericardia, Cyrena, Cerithium * ; often also they enclose round flint-pebbles and pass into pudding-stones. (See PI. VIII., Diagram, str. k, I.) M. d'Archiac describes these beds, in the Department of the Aisne, as overlying the lignites, and M. Graves assigns to them the same position in the Oise ; but the exact relation of the associated great shingle banks, without fossils, does not appear very distinct. Are they merely large lenticular masses intercalated in the fourth divi- sion of M. d'Archiac, and forming a zone parallel with the blocks of fossiliferous sandstone, as suggested by him ; or are they, in accord- ance to M. Graves's opinion, subordinate at times to the Glauconie inferieure, and at others to the Lignites ? There is no doubt that the lower sands of Beauvais, and the lignites and the sand above them, occasionally contain flint-pebbles, sometimes detached and sometimes in bands ; these in fact seem to constitute one of the constant minor characters of this series both in France and England. It is, how- ever, a question whether the great accumulations of flint-pebble shingle, such as occur on Mont Soufflard near Montdidier, at Ga~ let, Siranmont, and other places on the confines of the Departments of the Oise and the Somme, and also in parts of the Aisne, do all belong to the same zone as that which includes the fossiliferous sands and sandstones ; ! whether rather these shingle beds do not belong to several zones. We have, in England, at the base of the "Woolwich and Reading series occasionally large accumulations of flint-pebbles (as for instance at and near London), mixed with greensand, and sometimes associated with the Ostrea Bellovacina ; at Watford, they form a thick bed in ochreous sand without fossils. Again, we have them mixed with the Mottled Clay itself in some well-sections beneath London f and at Lewisham ; whilst the upper subdivision also of the AVoolwich sands at Woolwich and at Sundridge Park is very pebbly. (See PI. VIII., Diagram, str. c, e.) So, in France, M. Graves mentions that the "Glauconie inferieure " is often pebbly ; that at Bracheux a bed of pebbly greensand, 2^ metres thick, underlies the fossiliferous sands ; elsewhere there are some subordinate beds with pebbles amongst the mottled clays of the "argile plastique ; " whilst in other places, the fossiliferous sands overlying the Lignites pass into pebble beds and conglomerates. All this agrees perfectly well with the structure of the Woolwich and Reading series, but beyond this we have in England another shingle zone, ! that of the Basement bed of the London Clay. This is frequently composed of great masses of pure shingle without traces of fossils, at other times of a slight layer of shingle passing up into a thin bed of fossiliferous sands. This irregular distribution I be- lieve to have arisen from the change in the position of the sea which * An exact list of the species is wanting, t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 142. 222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. took place at the commencement of the London Clay period, and whereby a large body of water, suddenly displaced and passing over the new-formed sea-bed, swept the banks of pebbles formed on the sea-shore and spread over the littoral zone during the Woolwich and Reading period, leaving them in some places merely as a thin layer, and at other places drifting them into thick heaps. There are apparently in the French series some analogous condi- tions. There are many large accumulations of pure shingle ; but no- where have these been traced under any of the regular strata, as we can trace the shingle bed of Plumstead under the London Clay of Shooter's Hill. In those places where the fossiliferous sands over- lying the Lignites are pebbly, the fossils are evidently such as belong to the Bracheux group, and I have not recognized in them any of the more ordinary and exclusive London Clay forms. Where the pebbly sands and sandstones are overlaid by other strata, ! the '* sables divers" of M. d'Archiac, and *' Glauconie moyenne" of M. Graves, ! another series of fossils commences ; amongst these are the Pectunculns depressus, Ostrea flabellula, Crassatella lamellosa, Cassidaria carinata, and other shells not found in the lower sands, but belonging to the Calcaire grossier group. (See Table.) Here then we have a divergence in the London and Paris series. I doubt whether any of the beds just described are the exact equi- valents of the Basement bed of the London Clay ; whether any of the great isolated masses of pebbles on the confines of the Paris district were then, as in England, swept into their present place from their previous position in the underlying sands and clays. The general appearances are certainly in favour of the existence of like conditions, at that period, in the two countries ; but they are merely such physical conditions as might have resulted at any period by the movement of a body of water over the loose materials of the lower sands. In England, this followed close upon the former period of the Woolwich and Reading series ; but it is a question whether in France the " Lignite and Argile Plastique " period was not followed by a period of dry land, and whether the partial destruction and reconstruction of the surface of some of the beds of that period did not take place later, viz. when the land was again submerged, and when consequently some portion of the pebbles and shingle derived from the lower beds were spread out at the base of the deposits of another period, ! the one commencing with the Lits Coquilliers and Calcaire grossier. The probability of this position will be better understood after an examination of the overlying beds. ′ 7. The relation of the lower members of the French series to the Sables Divers and Lits Coquilliers {D'Archiac), or the Glauconie Moyenne (Graves). In England the shingle beds are immediately succeeded by the London Clay, and in the northern part of the Paris basin by M. d'Archiac's fourth division, "Sables divers," which consists of light- yellow and greenish fine quartzose sands, attaining in places a thick- ness of 140 feet, but only occasionally containing a very few fossils. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 223 At the top of these sands, and in close relation with them, M. d'Archiac places his fifth di\dsion or "Lits Coquilliers," usually about 20 feet thick, and abounding in well-preserved fossils. M. Graves unites these two divisions in his group of *' Glauconie moy- enne ; *' and M. Melleville forms of them his second stage of his " Sables inferieurs." If I am right thus far in correlating the Woolwich and Reading series with the three lower divisions of the " Sables inferieurs " of M. d'Archiac, then these Sables divers and Lits Coquilliers, or the Glauconie moyenne of M. Graves, hold, so far as superposition goes, exactly the same position as the London Clay in England. The question then is, are or are not these deposits synchronous ? As before mentioned, the experienced geologists so often referred to cannot draw any decided and maintained divisional planes in any part of this lower series from the Calcaire grossier down to the Chalk. The strata seem throughout connected and continuous ; but I appre- hend, that as the whole series, with a few exceptions (of which the only important ones are the clay of the Lignites and Argile plastique), consists of sands, the absence of any marked divisional surfaces in materials so easily moveable and so yielding, and where the same texture and colour is repeated in the upper and lower beds, is not a proof of passage and uninterrupted continuity, or of the non-occur- rence of contemporaneous physical changes. Thus I have shown that when the pebble bed is absent at the base of the "Woolwich and Reading series, it is almost impossible to draw the line between these sands and the Thanet Sands ; and in support of that fact, I further instanced the case where in a clear cliff-section* even a drift-loam passes down into the Woolwich sands in a manner so imperceptible that no line of demarcation can be drawn between them. M. d'Archiac himself notices a fact of the very same nature in describing with M. de Verneuil some railway sections near Clermont. Speaking of a section where the Lower Tertiary sands and pebbles are overlaid by the drift and its pebbles, he observes f, " This section, although not an important one, is nevertheless valuable in showing what a degree of precision the careful examination of deposits allows us to arrive at in establishing real distinctions ; for here there is a continuity and apparent connexion (liaison) between the oldest ter- tiary beds, the bed of diluidal pebbles, and the sandy alluvium which covers the whole." It is therefore, I conceive, quite possible that a very considerable break, so far as regards time, may occur in a series of loose sandy strata, and yet exhibit no physical evidence of the fact. But, in the absence of the well-marked divisional lines exhibited by more unyielding strata, organic remains afford evidence indepen- dent of such phsenomena, and such evidence we here possess. I do not think that sufficient stress has been laid on the dissimilarity of the fauna of the sands of Beauvais and of that of the Lits Coquilliers. The comparatively small number of fossils in the former, combined with the characters above-named, has probably tended to keep them * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 112. t Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, 2 ser. vol. ii. p. 341. 224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. in a subordinate position: but with regard to the "Lits CoquiUiers," the fossils are most numerous and characteristic, and furnish us with an horizon perfectly to be depended upon. The independent character of the fauna itself of the lower beds of sand was, however, pointed out by M. d'Archiac in 1839*, subse- quently by M. Melleville in 1843t, and by M. Grares in 184 7^. The lists of fossils respectively found in the several districts which these authors described give the following results : ! Total number of Species ranging Number of species in the into the Lits species peculiar to Beauvais and CoquiUiers or the beds of Beau- Rheims Sands. beds above. vais and Rheiras. D'Archiac ... 49 11′ 38,! or 77 per cent. Melleville ...119 60 59,! or 50 1| per cent. Graves 94 48 46, ! or 49 11 per cent. These results differ materially. This may arise partly from the circumstance that M. d'Archiac takes a general view of these beds in their whole range, and treats only of the fossils determined in 1839 ; that M. Melleville gives a joint list of the Rheims and Beauvais fauna, adding a number of new species from the neigh- bourhood of Rheims ; whilst M. Graves's list is confined to the neighbourhood of Beauvais, and he describes no additional new species. If we separate from M. Melleville' s list the Beauvais shells, which have since been more accurately determined by M. Graves, and confine ourselves to the list he furnishes of the mollusks of the Rheims sands only, the numbers vdll stand thus : ! Melleville 43 11 32,! or 70 per cent. M. Hebert^ has since added 25 species to M. Melleville's list. Of these I infer that 10 are new species, or species peculiar to the Lower beds, whilst he names 8 species which have a higher range. Of the other 7 specimens he only gives the name of the genus. As the fossils of these beds are generally so friable and often so indifferently preserved, while at the same time there yet evidently are many undescribed species, these lists are, no doubt, far from complete ; and as also the determinations have been made chiefly upon comparisons with the better studied and far more perfect and * Bull. Soc. Geol. France, vol. x. p. 174. As before-mentioned, M. d'Archiac has since considered that some of these beds may be higher in the series than he believed at that time ; still they would underlie the " Lits CoquiUiers," and our argument would not therefore be affected. t Mem. sur les Sables Tert. Inferieurs, p. 78, t Top. Geog. de I'Oise, p. 196. ′ M. d'Archiac makes the numbers 12 and 37 instead of 11 and 38; the Pectunculus terebratularis, however, which was then thought to be identical with the Gres de Fontainebleau species, has since been found to be different, and to be peculiar to these lower sands. II The similarity of these results is more apparent than real, for in M. Melleville's enumeratian of the Beauvais shells there are 21 Lits CoquiUiers and Calcaire grossier species not found in M. Graves's later list. Against this there are 23 new species described for the first time by M. Melleville, and mostly peculiar to the Rheiras district. There are also a few species given by M. Melleville as peculiar to the lower sands, which M. Graves gives also from the " Lits CoquiUiers." ^ Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 1849, 2nd ser. vol. vi. p. 730. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 225 larger lists of the Calcaire grossier fossils, it is principally the new and peculiar species of these lower strata which remain to be described. Further, to take the " Lignites" as subordinate to the " Glauconie inferieure." From M. Graves's list of the shells belonging to the Oise "Lignites," including those of the Aisne of M. d'Archiac, we obtain the following data* : ! Range Total. upwards. Peculiar. Fossils of the Lignites and associated clays .. . 37 14 23 Adding to these three additional species found in the Rheims district t, and three new species re- cently described by M. Watelet from Soissons ... 6 29, ! or 78 per cent. If we add these numbers to those before obtained of the fossils of the lower Sands of the Oise and Champagne, the following will be an approximate result of the distribution of the fauna of these strata, ! those included in the three lowest divisions of M. d'Archiac : ! Total of Species ranging Species peculiar Per-centage of species. upwards. to the series. peculiar species. 152 55 97 64 only 36 per cent, of the known species thus ranging up into the beds above these divisions. The independence of this fauna, although not appearing at present so great as I believe it will be ultimately found, is nevertheless important, and furnishes us with sufficient data for the subsequent argument. The generally excellent state of preservation of the fossils of the Lits Coquilliers, their abundance, and the large proportion of described species | afford us much better means of judging of the fauna of that period. They have been made the subject of especial research by M. d'Archiac, M. Melleville, and M. Graves, in whose works we find large and carefully drawn up lists, and by whom the position of these beds in the geological series has been accurately determined ; the only question about which there is, as before- mentioned, a difference of opinion amongst the French geologists, being as to whether this deposit should be grouped with the beds beneath or with those above it. The following table, showing the range and distribution of the Mollusks found in the Lits Coquilliers * I do not include in this list the very remarkable land and freshwater shells of Rilly, as they form too exceptional a group to be used as a term of comparison. M. de Boissy has described and figured thirty-nine species, all peculiar to these beds (Mem. Soc. Geol. de France, 2 ser. vol. iii. p. 257, 1848). This deposit I consider subordinate to the Lignite series ; M. Hebert places it lower, or under the marine sands of Rheims. In either case, however, it would belong to this lower eocene series. f Soc. Hist. Arch, et Scient. de Soissons, 1851. X M. Deshayes has described and figured the greater number of the fossils of Retheuil, Pierrefonds, and Cuise-La-Motte in his valuable " Description des Coquilles fossiles des Environs de Paris." M. Melleville has, however, since de- scribed a considerable number of new species (pp. cit.) VOL. XI. ! PART I. R 226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. and Glauconie moyenne, is drawn up from the lists here referred tor- Total number Species ranging of species. upwards*. D'Archiac (-(^e*?e) 188 108, ! or 57 per cent. Melleville {Champagne) ... 273 166, ! or 61 per cent. Graves {Oise) 318 162, ! or 51 per cent. Adding the twenty-nine new species since described by M. Watelet, and taking the mean of the above results, it would appear that about 50 per cent, of the shells of the Lits Coquilliers (D'Arch.) or Glauconie moyenne (Graves) lived on to the period of the Calcaire grossier, whilst of the same fauna only about 16 per cent, were hving in the older tertiary seas. On the foregoing evidence, therefore, I am inclined to agree with those French geologists who would associate the " Lits Coquilliers " with the " Calcaire grossier," rather than with the " Glauconie inferieure." At the same time it cannot be denied that the Lits Coquilliers and Sables divers form a very distinct and important sub- division of that well-marked and typical higher group f. If we now turn to the London Clay, we find that so far as super- position goes, it is exactly on the same geological horizon as the Sables divers and Lits Coquilliers, but, instead of showing any close palaeontological relations with this series, it exhibits almost entirely different affinities. It is true that there are some well-marked fossils common to both J, and that the London Clay shows more ties with the Lits Coquilliers than with the Calcaire grossier, but still the difference is great ; whilst at the same time its relations with the Glauconie inferieure seem almost equally distant. These deposits certainly present very different lithological characters, which might lead to considerable variation in the fauna, but hardly to the extent that here exists, or at least we must endeavour to ascertain whether * The downward range of the species is omitted, as M. d'Archiac gives no list of the fossils of the Glauconie inferieure of the Aisne separately. In calculating the number of species which range upwards, I have taken into account both M. d'Archiac and M. Graves's lists of the Calcaire grossier fossils, as in each depart- ment some species confined to the lower beds in the one seem to range higher in the other. Taking only the Aisne, M. d'Archiac's lists show, including the un- named species, but 71 identical species in the two deposits, while in the Oise M. Graves makes the number of common species 155. t It is necessary to mention that this result is at variance with the opinion of M. Al. d'Orbigny, who considers these deposits to be far more distinct ; so much so that he only allows eight species of shells to be common to the two. He admits that at the noted locality of Cuise-la-Motte there is a greater number of Calcaire grossier forms, but he attributes that fact to the circumstance of many of the fossils having been washed out of the older into the newer deposit, the lithological character of the beds favouring such a transference. I should attach more weight to this argument if the Calcaire grossier here contained species not found elsewhere, but it is the Lits Coquilhers which is here distinguished by the number of additional species. Cours elem. de Paleon. et de Geol. vol. ii. p. 713, 727, & 731. X I have not been able to add many species to the eighteen I enumerated in 1847; after correcting a few errors in that list and adding some other species, there are now twentv-five. PRESTWICH ! BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 227 there are other causes to account for the zoological differences. Of the 224 species of Mollusks of the London Clay, thirty-four are like- wise found in the French series, where their distribution and range are as follows*. Glauconie Lits Calcaire Inferieure. Coquilliers. grossier. Anemia tenuistriata, Desk ! Axinus (Cryptodon) angulatus, Sow.{Heb.) ! Beloptera Levesquei, D'Orb Belosepia sepioidea, Blainv Buccinum semicostatum, Desk ! Calyptrsea trochiformis, Lam ! Cardium Plumsteadiense, Sow ! Cassidaria carinata. Lam Corbula Regulbiensis, Mor ! Cytherea obliqua, Desk ! suberycinoides. Desk , . . . . ! Fusus angusticostatus, Mell. ? bulbiformis. Lam ! Murex spinulosus, Desk Natica labellata. Lam ! ' patula, Desk sigaretina Nautilus zic-zac. Sow Nucula margaritacea. Lam. Ostrea cariosa, Desk. ? . . . Bellovacina, Desk.. . . Panopaea intermedia. Sow. Pholadomya margaritacea, Peetuneulus terebratularis. Pinna affinis, Sow Pleurotoma colon. Sow.. . elegans, Mell. ? Sow. . Desk. Pyrula tricostata. Desk Rostellaria macroptera. Lam.. . Solarium canaliculatum. Lam. Teredina personata. Desk Turritella imbricataria. Lam. . . sulcifera. Desk. Venericardia Suessonensis, D'Arch. Sables moyens. 17 25 14 * In this table I confine myself, as in the other parts of this inquiry, to the lists furnished by M. d'Archiac, M. Graves, and M. Melleville. It is possible that to the south of the districts described in their works the distribution and range of species may be somewhat different, ! that species limited to one group in the more northern portions of the Paris basin may be found in other groups in the more southern parts of this basin. But no equally complete lists of the fossils of this latter area exist, and consequently, although we know the Calcaire grossier to be extremely rich in organic remains in the neighbourhood of Paris, we are unable to avail ourselves of any exceptional cases, which the fauna may there present, differing from that of the district which here serves us as the point of comparison with our English series. I do not, however, believe that this much affects our general results. In fact, although I have drawn up this and the other lists with as much care as possible, they will all no doubt require correction by those better acquainted with the local faunas than I am. Still, I think, the general conclusions will hold good. R 2 228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Or, taking the total number of species in these three French deposits * respectively and jointly with those of the London Clay, as 376, 571, and 863, then the numbers common to them severally show the following per-centagef : ! London Clay, Glauconie London Clay and Lits London Clay and Cal- Inferieure, and Lignites. Coquilliers. caire grossier. 4-5 4-4 1-6 The proportion of common species appears therefore in any case to be remarkably small, and, palseontologically, the London Clay shows nearly the same relation to the Lits Coquilliers that it does to the Glauconie Inferieure ! one evidently closer than with the Calcaire grossier. It may be suggested that these conclusions do not accord wdth those other conclusions upon which the correlation of the Brack- lesham Sands and the Calcaire grossier has been previously esta- blished, inasmuch as whilst we have here a per-centage of only 1*6 species common to the Calcaire grossier and the London Clay, I have on a former occasion shown that there are 9 '4 species common to the two English deposits ! a proportion greater even than that which holds between either the Glauconie Inferieure or the Lits Coquilliers and the London Clay, both of which, I conclude, will prove nearer equivalents. To comprehend this anomaly, we must take each separate area on its own base, and determine the lapse of time by the successive changes there introduced ; in each considering the progression of time as parallel and independent movements. These circumscribed centres may show great irregularities and hiatuses ; the adjacent structures may at one time exhibit close relations with one another, whilst at interme- diate and still synchronous periods, their aberration, arising in most cases from the independence of their zoological provinces, may be such as to produce dissimilarities greater than those which prevail between successive periods in each local centre itself. There are generally, however, at intervals, limits to these variations, which may serve to indicate the exceptional causes to which the latter are owicg. These limits occur whenever two adjacent centres become so connected that like or nearly allied hydrographical conditions prevail over both areas at the same time so as to favour a community in the faunas. We are then furnished with a definite base-line to which we may safely refer all subordinate and intermediate changes We have every reason to believe that a close connexion of this nature existed at the Calcaire grossier period between those beds in France and the Bracklesham series in England;]:. There are, it is true, not unimportant dissimilarities, but these are the perma- nent dissimilarities ! those which belong to ordinary and constant geographical laws, and only modify without essentially impairing the zoological resemblances. They are dissimilarities which have grovm * In this I take the number of Calcaire grossier species given by M. Graves, his list being the largest and most complete. t Looking at the French groups only, the numbers would be ! 11-2 7-2 205 X Commencing with lower Bracklesham or Bagshot Sands, and attaining its full force at the time of the Glauconie Grossiere and Lower Calcaire Grossier. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 229 up on the area, and which result in some measure from those very in- termediate geological aberrations to which allusion has been made, and which may give a sort of local stamp even to wide-spread deposits. If, therefore, the Calcaire grossier and the Bracklesham sands are to be considered as synchronous, we may take them as furnishing a common geological horizon, to which, in each case, other and more independent local phsenomena in the several areas may be referred. The point we have now to inquire into, is what proportion of the separate faunas of these two deposits is to be traced downwards in each respective centre. Taking a common measure, out of every 100 Mollusca living at the latest -named period, the following numbers approximately express the proportion living at the several earlier periods in each central area. French area. English area. Calcaire Grossier 100 100 Bracklesham Sands. Lits Coquilliers 29 15 London Clay. Sables de Bracheux 5 6 Woolwich and Reading Series. If, instead of taking this upper horizon, we take the lower one of the Woolwich and Reading Series in this country, and the Sables de Bracheux in France, excluding in both the freshwater and fluviatile fauna, the following are the results ; ! Calcaire Grossier 30 31 Bracklesham Sands. Lits Coquilliers 38 58 London Clay. Sables de Bracheux 100 100 Woolwich and Reading Series. Therefore, howsoever distant the relation between the Lits Coquilliers, the Bracheux Sands, and the London Clay may seem, when viewed with regard to space only, yet it becomes evident that, when viewed in relation to time within their own centres, these strata occupy certain definitely related and parallel planes ; that on such deductions the London Clay holds a position intermediate between the Lits Co- quilliers and the Bracheux Sands. This evidence by itself affords presumptive proof of each area having one fossiliferous zone peculiar to itself, and wanting in the other ; of each having a link in the sequence which the other has not*. These calculations also afford a singular corroboration of the interval of time assigned upon other grounds to the top and bottom French and English zones in the above tables. ′ 8. The London Clay ; Systeme Ypresien Inferieur, or Glaise Tpresien ; not represented in the Paris Tertiary district. In following the Lits Coquilliers and the London Clay as they respectively range, the one towards the London, and the other towards the Paris Tertiary district, there is no appearance of any suf- ficient change in mineral character that would tend to assimilate them to each other. The London Clay retains, with the slight exception mentioned further on, the same well-marked characters in the Isle of Wight and Hampshire as it does around London. It has not hitherto * The unfossiliferous Lower Bagshot sands may probably occupy the 2nd English parallel. 230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. been found anywhere in the Paris district, although it would appear to have extended across the Channel to the coast of Normandy. For last April, in company with several members of this Society, we examined the well-known cliff-section at the Lighthouse of Ailly near Dieppe, and the majority of our party came to the conclusion that the upper beds there belonged to the London Clay proper*. I had, on a former visit, suspected the presence of the true London Clay, but had found no organic remains to corroborate this opinion. On this occasion, however, we were fortunate enough to discover a few well-marked fossils, which, taken together with superposition and mineral character, leaves little doubt in my mind of the existence of the London Clay at that place. The chalk here rises about 80 feet in the cliff and is overlaid by about 110 feet of Tertiary stata, the lower 60 of which belong to the Woolwich and Reading series perfectly well characterized and composed of sands, laminated clays, and pebble beds, with numerous fluviatile and freshwater shells, on the ordinary Woolwich type, forming a group very similar to that of the section at Castle Hill cliff, Newhaven (see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 83). Above these beds there is about 50 feet of laminated brown clay interstratified in its lower part with several thin layers of sand, ! a lithological character of which we have occasionally some indications in the London Clay on the opposite coast, for at White Cliff Bay the London Clay also con- tains several subordinate beds of sand. This clay contains also some iron pyrites and small light brown calcareo-argillaceous concretions. At the base (which, by the by, is not very well defined) of this deposit I found a few fragments of the Ditrupa plana and teeth of Lamnce, so characteristic of the base of the London Clay in the Isle of Wight and London districtf . Mr. A. Tylor, further, was fortunate enough to find two small fossil crabs exactly in the condition in which they occur in the London Clay, and which appear identical with a species of Zanthopsis (probably a young specimen, the Z. nodosa) of Potter's Bar and other places near London. There is no appearance of any of the fossils of the " Lits Coquilliers." The London Clay cannot be traced further in the direction of Paris, as the chalk is * The distinctiveness of these beds had not, however, escaped the practised eye of M. d'Archiac, who has, I find, stated, so far back as 1839, that " the London Clay formed the upper part of the cliff at the phare d' Ailly." He goes on to say, however, that these clays are "similar to those of the Barton Cliffs, but we have found neither fossils nor septaria." Bull. Soc. Geol. vol. x. p. 195, and Hist, des Prog. vol. ii. p. 499. At the time this was written, the Barton Clays were con- sidered to be the type of the London Clay. Although these two deposits are now separated, this indication of M. d'Archiac is important, but has been generally overlooked, for other French geologists, both before and since, have referred all these beds to the sands and clays of the " Argile Plastique." t M. Hebert is, however, of opinion that some similar fossils equally well mark a thin conglomerate bed at the base of the Calcaire grossier. The " Dentalium strangulatum " may certainly prove to be synonymous with the Ditrupa plana ; but, if so, it ranges up to the " Sables moyens " and is no longer characteristic of a particular zone. The specific characters of the teeth of Lamncb are also ex- tremely problematical. To these two fossils alone I should attach no great weight. The prevalence of closely allied species might result from like conditions tending to the recurrence of analogous forms of life at distant periods of time. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 231 denuded for many miles to the south-eastward of the hills of St. Marguerite ; and at the next mass of the Lower Tertiaries, in the neighbourhood of Gisors and Chaumont, we could find no traces of that deposit. If, however, instead of following in this direction towards Paris, we take a northerly direction through Cassel, Lille, and Tournay, we shall find every reason to believe that London Clay extends through- out the greater part of French Flanders and Belgium. I have before noticed the occurrence of this clay beneath Calais*. I have since seen it at the hills adjoining Watten, near St. Omer, where it rises 220 feet above the plain, with its ordinary aspect and mineral characters just as well marked as at the Norwood hills, or at Primrose Hill, Its thickness also at Watten cannot be less than 300 to 350 feet. M. Dumont and Sir Charles Lyell have shown that the Ypresien Clay (London Clay) has a considerable range in Belgium. The observations of Sir Charles Lyell are particularly pertinent to this point, for he shows by a well-section at the Railway Station at the foot of Cassel Hill, where many of the beds of the Paris Tertiaries are well exhibited, that the London Clay, perfectly well characterized by its mineral character (which he resembles to that of Highgate) and with Septaria, is there more than 291 feet thick. If to this we add 118 feet for the elevation of the London Clay above the spot where the well was sunk, it will give a thickness of more than 400 feet to the London Clay in that district, proving it to have a development probably equal to that which it possesses in the neighbourhood of London. Further, Sir Charles mentions that it is only about 150 feet thick near Lille, showing, therefore, a gradual thinning-out as it ranges southward into France (see PL VIII. Sect. 2). No fossils f * M. Meugy mentions {op. cit. p. 154) many other well-sections proving the same fact. One at Dunkirk was carried by boring through 118 feet of sands (called sea- sand), and then 266 feet into the London Clay; another at Hazebrouck reached the base of the London Clay (here covered only by a few feet of drift), at a depth of 328 feet. His work contains many other sections proving the importance of the Glaise Ypresien (London Clay) in French Flanders. t This has been urged as a serious objection by some French geologists, who, however, have not hesitated to refer these clays to a large development of the clays of the " Argile Plastique," ! a correlation which would be attended not only by the same difficulty to which they here object, but would further want all the analogies which in the other case we possess. It must also not be forgotten that in England the London Clay is frequently non-fossiliferous; that even in cliff-sections, as for example at Sheppey or Heme Bay, it requires a careful search to discover any fossils in the clay itself. As the fossils also are more abundant in particular zones, it is necessary to attend daily during the sinking of a well, as large portions of the clay contain no fossils, whilst in other portions they may be plentiful. I doubt whether there have been opportunities to examine the London Clay in the north of France and Belgium with sufficient care. Since writing this paper, I find that M, Meugy notices a single instance in which fossils were found in beds 55 feet thick, which he refers to the " Glaise Ypresien." He states that they were tolerably abundant, and consisted of species of Turritella, Venericardia, Cardium, Lucina, Ostrea, Pleurotoma, and tjie Num- mulites planulatus, and in some underlying sands Ostrea, Peeten, and Dentalium. I should almost fear some mistake here. This is certainly not a group of fossils found in the London Clay in this country. The section, however, is not sufficiently definite to feel sure as to the position of the beds. Op. cit. p. 143. 232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. have been described, although a few have been found in Belgium; but the mass, position, and mineral character of this bed of clay leave little doubt of its identity with the London Clay. To M. Dumont is due the merit of first having pointed out the analogy of his Systeme Ypresien with the London Clay proper. ′ 9. Lower Bagshot Sands ; Systeme Ypresien superieur or Sables Ypresiens ; Lits Coquilliers and Sables divers, or Glauconie moyenne. Having shown in a former part of this paper that the Lits Coquil- liers are somewhat more nearly related to the '* Calcaire grossier " than to the marine beds associated with and underlying the " Argile Plastique," whereas the London Clay proper shows, on the contrary, closer affinities with these latter beds, it remains to be ascertained whether we can in any way prove the superposition of the Lits Co- quilliers and associated sands on the London Clay. I believe that this now admits of proof, and that in this country the Lower Bagshot Sands form the equivalent beds of the Glauconie moyenne. The hill of Cassel, about thirty-five miles E.S.E. from Calais, rises to a height of 515 English feet above the sea, and affords some in- teresting sections of a large portion of the Belgian series. At about the middle of the hill are some calcareo-arenaceous beds, in which M. Elie de Beaumont many years since found the Cerithium giganteum and other shells which induced him to refer those beds to the zone of the " Calcaire grossier." The correctness of this parallelism has been generally admitted, and has been confirmed by the observations of M. d'Archiac*, who further proved that these beds were underlaid by fossiliferous sands which he referred to his " Lits Coquilliers," and tracing the same zone to Brussels, he showed that it was there characterized by that most abundant fossil of the French beds ! the Nummulites planulatus. These correlations have been since adopted and extended by M. Dumont and Sir Charles Lyell ; the latter of whom further gives a measured section of the hill of Casself, which, with the list of organic remains he likewise furnishes, afford the exact data we require for comparing these beds with others in this country. We need not at present notice the upper part of the hill, which to the thickness of about 120 feet is composed of the sands of Diest, and of the Laeken beds with the Nummulites variolarius. Beneath these strata is the zone before-mentioned and referred to the " Calcaire grossier." But the change, both in mineral characters, importance, and the fauna, between the beds of this age at Cassel and in the Paris district is very great. Instead of the thick mass of soft earthy limestones with subordinate green sands (" Glauconie grossiere") at their base, 100 to 150 feet thick, and containing a rich fauna of 600 to 800 named species, we have at Cassel a series of beds consisting essentially of mixed yellow and green sands more or less pure, and of very thin subordinate beds of sandstone usually with a calcareous cement. * Bull. vol. X. pp. 183, 193, 1839; Hist, des Prog. vol. ii. pp. 497 & 500. t Op. cit. p. 324. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 233 According to the description of Sir Charles Lyell, I should estimate these beds not to be together less than 32, and not more than 50 feet thick *. He enumerates only thirty-seven named species of fossils ; of these, thirty-one are found also in the " Calcaire grossier." I should be inclined to consider these Cassel beds to represent both the '* Calcaire grossier " and " Glauconie grossiere," or rather, more especially as resulting from a development of the latter and a thinning of the former. At Brussels, the fauna of these beds is rather richer. Sir Charles mentioning forty-five named species f. He also makes the series about 100 feet thick. I should, however, be inclined, on the physical characters he describes, to place the lower 40 or even 70 feet with the next underlying series. Sir Charles does not give an exact measurement of the lower beds at Cassel, but if we take the total thickness of the beds above described, it will give in round numbers from 140 to 160 feet. Now M. Meugy states that the " Glaise Ypresien " (London Clay) rises to a height at the base of the hill of 247 feet, which would leave 100 to 120 feet as the thickness of the siliceous sands which Sir Charles describes as underlying the zone of the Nummulites IcBvigatus and associated beds J. In these lower sands, which are referred by M. Dumont and Sir Charles to the " Sables Ypresiens," the Nummulites planulatus has not been found; but it is met with in beds holding the same position between this spot and Courtray, whilst still further eastward this Foraminifer is abundant. The sands beneath this nummulitic zone M. d'Archiac refers to his "Sables divers ′." We have thus had established at the hill of Cassel, by M. Elie de Beaumont and M. d'Archiac, a succession of strata corresponding in all these central beds with those of the Soissonnais in the Paris district ; whilst the later researches of M. Dumont and Sir Charles Lyell show that that series is underlaid by the London Clay. That the zone of the Cerithium giganteum and Nummulites Icevigatus at Cassel repre- sents the Calcaire grossier on one side, and on the other is correlated with the '^ Systeme Bruxellien " of Belgium, I take for granted upon the authority of these several eminent geologists. The identification, however, of the zones of the *'Lits Coquilliers" and "Sables divers" is attended with more uncertainty; for, although a few fossils, position, and mineral structure all coincide in exhibiting a close analogy, yet it must be admitted that the evidence of organic remains is of itself not very strong. Of the Cassel fossils belonging to these beds, we have no positive list. It is possible, however, that the one given by Sir * Op. cit. p. 324. t M. Omalius d'Halloy quotes, on the authority of M. Nyst, 95 species of Mol- luscs from the "Sables Calcariferes de Bruxelles " (Systeme Bruxellien, Dumont), but I do not feel quite sure whether his division is exactly the same as that of Sir Charles Lyell, ! whether it does not include the N. planulatus zone {Abr. de Geol. p. 579). X Including the beds corresponding, according to M. Meugy, with the " Sy- steme Paniselien" of M. Dumont, this portion of the series would be 124 feet thick {op. cit. p. 168), ′ Bull. See. Geol. de Fr. vol. x. p. 182, 1839 (there termed "Sables inferieurs"). 234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Charles Lyell at p. 331 may prove to belong to a bed of that age. In it eighteen named species are enumerated, fourteen of which certainly occur in the Calcaire grossier, but they are met with also in the Lits Coquilliers. One is peculiar to Belgium. Of the three remaining, the Terebellum convolutum occurs, it is true, in the Calcaire grossier, and not in the " Lits Coquilliers," but against that we have the Panopcea intermedia, which occurs only in the latter, and the Vermicularia Bognoriensisly a London Clay species. The Nummulites planulatus does not, as before mentioned, occur here, but near Lille it abounds in these beds. In Belgium, this fossil is found in strata, of which the position beneath the zone of Nummulites IcBvigatus and at the top of the Sables Ypresiens is well determined. Sir Charles enume- rates (p. 357 and 358) sixteen other named fossils, associated with the N. planulatus in the vicinity of Brussels. Of these, twelve occur in both series in the Paris basin, one is peculiar to Belgium, the Tur- binoUa sulcata is a Calcaire grossier species, and a Cytherea (C. oh- liqua X) and a Natica {N. Hantoniensis ?) are found, which appertain as much or more to beds lower than the " Lits Coquilliers*." I pre- sume also, from the observations of M. d'Archiac, that the general facies of the fauna must be essentially like that of the Lits Coquilliers ; still it is clear that the leading evidence is the Nummulites planulatus , a Foraminifer which in the " Lits Coquilliers " generally, and in the Ypresian Sands occasionally, occurs in wonderful profusion, and yet appears in this part of Europe to have but this limited vertical range. These lower Cassel sands may possibly admit, to a certain extent, of a subdivision into three parts; the upper one (Systeme Paniselien of Dumont) may correspond with the glauconiferous clays overlying the Lits Coquilliers in the Aisne ; to this succeeds the fossiliferous band more exactly synchronous with the Lits Coquilliers, as distinguished by M. d'Archiac ; and then the thick mass of unfossiiiferous siliceous sands corresponding with the Sables divers. Or they might be all included in one division ! that of the Glauconie moyenne of M. Graves. There are two facts apparent in the Cassel and Belgian series, which are the poverty of the fauna compared with that of the synchronous deposits in the Paris basin, and the more purely siliceous condition of the strata. If now we pass to the London Tertiary district, and take the first range of hills where the beds above the London Clay are well deve- loped, viz. the Bagshot Hills, we shall find that they present some remarkable stratigraphical resemblances with the hill of Cassel. The Lower Bagshot sands are about 130 feet thick, and consist of light- coloured siliceous sands, with a few thin subordinate argillaceous beds, and a very few concretionary blocks of hard siliceous sandstone. In position and general basic structure they agree very closely both with the Cassel beds and the "Glauconie moyenne" of M. Graves (Et. 1, 2, and 3 of M. d'Archiac). The main difference consists in the absence of intermixed green sands, of calcareous matter, and of solidi- fied beds ; all these, however, are subordinate features subject to great variation, even in the Paris district. The only superadded feature in * The " Cancer Leachii " (?) is also quoted. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 235 the London district is the greater importance of subordinate, very fine, laminated clays. The fossils also, which in the Paris district number 347, and which at Cassel have diminished to 18, are, with the exception of a few vegetable remains, entirely wanting in the London area. As, however, these are progressive changes, which harmonize perfectly well in all their parts, they rather strengthen than invalidate our position, for the dependence of all the collateral phaenomena indicates a common origin, subject only to minor local superadditions. It is only in proportion as the amount of carbonate of lime in the sands diminishes and quartzose sands predominate, that the number of Mollusks decreases. In French Flanders we have intermediate palseontological and mineral conditions corresponding with the intermediate geographical position. In this country 1 have traced the Lower Bagshot Sands as far east- ward as the hills near Southend, in Essex ; they also apparently exist in the Isle of Sheppey ; this carries them about 60 miles from Bag- shot and to within 100 miles of Cassel (see Sect. 1 . PI. VIII). These sands exhibit the same non-fossiliferous character in those districts as around Bagshot, but they are of no great thickness, and the upper portion, or that which is more fossiliferous in the Continent, is wanting. Following the " Lower Bagshots " further westward, and again south-westward into Hampshire, they maintain nearly the same thickness and mineral characters. They are, I think, represented in White Cliff Bay by the Stratum No. 5 (" Section," Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. ii. pi. ix. p. 223), which overlies the London Clay, and consists of siliceous, and in parts clayey, sands, striped various shades of yellow, 98 feet thick. This mass may probably correspond with the *' Sables divers," and possibly include the "Lits Coquilliers," although I do not think it unlikely that these latter may rather be represented by some portion of the overlying beds. In the Alum Bay section, it would be difficult to say how much of the series should be included in this division. I should commence with the bed 7, over- lying the London Clay (3 to 6), and carry it probably up to No. 18 or 20 {loc. cit.). In that case, it would include the foliated clays of Stratum 1 7 with their beautiful group of plant- impressions. In some of these beds green sands again occur as a subordinate character. At the base of the " Glauconie grossiere" according to M. Graves, or at the top of the Sables Inferieurs according to M. d'Archiac, is a very variable bed of foliated clay with occasional lignite. This possibly may correspond with the lignite and foliated clay immediately beneath the green sands of Bagshot, and with some of the carbo- naceous clays and lignites above the sands last described in the Isle of Wight. The Systeme Paniselien of M. Dumont may possibly also be placed on this level. Not only, however, have we in the Bagshot district a series of beds, which in mineral character, superposition, and importance corre- spond in the main with the three upper divisions of the " Sables infe- rieurs" of M. d'Archiac, but we further find them overlaid by other beds corresponding with the '' Glauconie grossiere " or lower part of the '' Calcaire grossier." Here again we must take into consideration. 236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. or rather admit in evidence of identity, the progressive changes appa- rent in this series as it ranges from south to north and north-west. In the neighbourhood of Paris, the "Glauconie grossiere" is but very sHghtly developed ; in the Oise and Aisne it becomes an import- ant subdivision of the " Calcaire grossier," consisting of thick beds of partially consolidated calcareo-quartzose sands, more or less mixed with green sands, and with a slight conglomerate basement. The fossils are often numerous, and the same as those of the Calcaire grossier. At Cassel this zone consists, as before mentioned, of light- coloured siliceous sands, green sands, and calcareous bands irregularly mixed, and containing only a small number of fossils. Then passing to the Bagshot district, we find a single thick bed of nearly unmixed green sand with a few subordinate beds of fine foliated clay and quartzose sand, together about 30 feet thick. The calcareous bands are here entirely wanting. Fossils are very rare ; they consist of the following named and characteristic species, which are sufficient to show, with the collateral evidence of mineral structure and super- position, the true relation of the group. Middle Bagshot Syst&me Sands. Bruxellien. Cardium semistriatum, Desk. ... Chobham. Cassel. Corbula gallica, Lam Chobbam. Cassel. plicata, ♀'c?t<; Shapley. striata, DesA Shapley. Brussels? Nucula similis, Sow Shapley. Cassel. Nummulites Isevigatus, Brug.... Chobham. Cassel. Ostrea jflabellula, Lam Chohbam. Cassel. Pecten corneus, S'ow. ? Shapley. Brussels? Turritella sulcifera, Lam Goldsworth Venericardia acuticostata, Lam. Goldsworth elegans, Des^ Shapley. ^\dimco%t2i,Desh.{abundant) Chobham. Cassel. Calcaire Grossier and o J ^, Sands, Glauconie ??_^.' Grossiere Oise. Oise. Brack- lesham Hants. Lamna elegans, Agas compressa, Agas.l Carcharodon angustidens, Agas. Pristis contortus, Dix Otodus obliquus, Agas Myliobates striatus, Agas. ? iEtobates irregularis, Agas Edaphodon Bucklandi, Agas leptognathus, Agas eurygnathus, Agas Goldsworth. Cassel. Goldsworth Goldsworth. Brussels ? Goldsworth. Brussels ? Goldsworth. Brussels. Goldsworth. Brussels. Goldsworth. Brussels ? Goldsworth. Brussels. Goldsworth Goldsworth Oise. Oise. Oise. Oise. Aisne. Oise. Oise. Oise. Oise. Oise. Oise. Oise. The Brussels species marked with ? are in Om. d'Halloy's lists of the fossils of the Sables calcariferes ; see note f, p. 233. With the exception of three species, peculiar to the English area, there are nineteen which occur likewise either in the Calcaire gros- sier zone of Cassel or in that of Brusssels ; and 14 of these (inclu- ding all these shells except one) species range into the Paris Tertiary district. The Nummulites IcEvigatus, Venericardia planicosta^ V. acuticosta, and Ostrea fiahellula abound in the Glauconie grossiere and the lower beds of the Calcaire grossier, and it is on this level PRESTWICH ! BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 237 that I would place the central green sands and marls of Cassel {h and i of Ly ell's section) and the green sands of Bagshot. In consequence of this parallelism of these green sands of Bagshot with the Bracklesham series of Hampshire, I had on a former occa- sion {op. cit. p. 399) suggested that the lower unfossiliferous sands of the Bracklesham series and the Lower Bagshot sands might possibly be of the same age as part of the " Sables and Gres inferieurs," but that, in the absence of fossils, the evidence was not sufficiently posi- tive*. The other course we have now followed through Flanders has, by the extension of many of the fossils of the " Lits Coquilliers," by the lithological structure and dimensions of the mass, and by the recognition of the London Clay, afforded the further evidence required. These considerations induce me to place the Lower Bagshot Sands on the level, on the one hand, of the three upper divisions of the *' Sables inferieurs" (but chiefly of the Sables divers) of M. d'Archiac, or the '* Glauconie moyenne " of M. Graves ; and, on the other hand, on that of the *' Sables Ypresiens " and the Systeme Paniselien, and including possibly the lower part of the Brussels Sandsf. ′ 10. Conclusion. If the synchronism of the Bracklesham series with that of the " Calcaire grossier" be admitted, then the independence of the London Tertiaries with respect to the former deposit will apply with equal force to the latter. For I have lately shown J that the London series contains 485 species of organic remains (plants excluded), and that only eighty-eight or 18 percent, of these pass upwards into (or through) the Bracklesham series ; or taking the fossils of the two series together, there are only 9*4 per cent, common to both. There are altogether 397 species peculiar to the London group, and they form ! the Fishes, Reptiles, Crustaceans, and Echinodermata especially ! a very charac- teristic fauna. The distinctiveness of age and origin shown by the fauna is fully corroborated by the physical evidence. The large proportion of species peculiar to the three lower divisions of M. d'Archiac also shows a well-maintained distinction between these beds and the Calcaire grossier ; although in this case the fauna of the Lits Coquilliers serves as an intermediate link, and tends to lessen the apparent force of that difference. Nevertheless, these lowest French divisions are evidently in closer relation with our more distant London Tertiaries than with the overlying series in the Paris area. I conceive, therefore, that we may take the " London Tertiaries " as a good natural group, constituting an important and independent division of the Eocene period perfectly well marked by its organic * M. Dumont has since visited the Bagshot district, and without hesitation referred the Lower Bagshots to the Ypresien Sands. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 370. t I am incHned to place in this series (the equivalent of the " Glauconii; moyenne ") the 40 feet of siliceous sands without fossils, and possibly even the " Gres lustre " (strata b & c, op. cit. p. 334), included in the base of the Brussels group. X Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 435. 238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. remains. In this country it is equally well distinguished by structure and physical characters ; whereas the absence of distinctive physical phsenomena in the equivalent series in France has tended to mask the palaeontological distinctiveness which there also equally charac- terizes this group of strata. The series next above the London Tertiary group I would term " the Paris Tertiary group," of which, in France, the centre in time is the Calcaire grossier, and in this country the Bracklesham Sands. Of the relations of the deposits of this period and the one next suc- ceeding I purpose to treat in the next part of this paper. My reason for taking as the base of this Paris group the Lits Coquilliers and the Sables divers*, or rather the Glauconie moyenne of M. Graves, is founded chiefly on the palaeontological evidence ; notwithstanding that, in mineral characters and in the absence of any well-defined base-line, they seem as much, or even more in regular sequence with the underlying than with the overlying series f. In this country, on the contrary, there is no fossil fauna to distinguish the beds of this age (the Lower Bagshots), but in lithological characters and structure they form one consecutive series with the overlying beds of the Bracklesham sands and clays. No passage exists between the Bagshot Sands and the London Clay. It is true that there is no strongly marked line of separation ! only occasionally is a band of pebbles spread over the surface of the London Clay. In Flanders and Belgium the division is again less marked. But although an eroded surface, a conglomerate bed, or a sudden alteration of mineral cha- racter form palpable and useful adjuncts indicative of distinct periods and of altered times, yet such corroborative evidence is by no means indispensable. When these phsenomena occur, some geological changes are generally indicated, but it by no means follows that these phsenomena must necessarily be attendant upon all such changes. If the movements of the earth's surface at that time took place at a distance, ! or if the encroachment of the sea, after its retirement from the land during a long period, were gradual, and the materials drifted to form the newer beds were derived from the same source again as formerly, ! then the peculiarity alone of the new fauna would form the test of its independence, as the physical distinctions would necessarily be in a great measure faint and obscure. One cause possibly of the difference of the faunas of the Calcaire Grossier and Lits Coquilliers and of the London Tertiaries is the connexion apparently of the former vdth forms generally considered to belong to more southern and hotter climates, and of the latter with the forms usually inhabiting more northern seas. Commencing with the Thanet Sands, a sea open to the north extended probably over the south-east of England, Belgium, and the north of France ; whilst, to the south of that area, dry land, including the greater part, if not the whole, of the Paris Tertiary district, prevailed and continued to prevail * With possibly some portion of conglomerate beds. + M. Raulin, however, seems to imply that the base-line between the Glauconie moyenne and the " Sables des Lignites " is generally well defined. Bull. Soc. Geol. 2nd ser. vol. viii. p. 461. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 239 for some time. A subsequent extension of the sea to a short distance further south then led to the formation of the lower marine sands of Champagne, the Aisne, and the Oise, and the marine beds of the Woolwich series in East Kent ; whilst the continuance of some small or slow changes in progress during this period caused, after a time, the littoral zone of this sea to be fringed with river or with lagune deposits, in which fresh- or brackish-water areas the lignites and their associated shell-beds were accumulated. A slight further subsidence again, however, led to the partial return, over these freshwater or fluviatile deposits, of the same sea with part of that fauna that the changes of level or silting up of bays had temporarily displaced. This last period appears to have been rather suddenly succeeded by an extensive rise of the Lower Tertiaries to the south, and a further depression to the north, or, I apprehend, more exactly to the S.S.E. and N.N.W.*, whereby in the former direction a large area was pro- bably again converted into dry land, whilst, in the latter direction, the sea only became deeper and somewhat more extensive, covering the area now occupied by the London Clay. Daring this latter important period, the sea stretched over the south-east of England, some part of the north of Normandy, Flanders, and part of Belgium, as far east probably as Brussels, and thence apparently north-eastward in a course which yet requires tracing. That that sea was extensive is evident from the width and depth of the delta of the London Clay, which, with a maximum thickness of 480 feet, exhibits a transverse section in a straight line of not less than 200 miles, ! conditions which also could hardly have obtained without a large river f, and therefore a large tract of adjacent dry land, unless possibly by the wear of a long line of coast. The wider spread of the seas over the two countries is resumed at the period of the Lower Bagshot Sands. The change seems to have been a gentle one. The waters recommenced their deposition over the shingle and sands capping the Lignite and Plastic Clay series in the Paris district, and over the London Clay in England, and this change was apparently the result of some extensive subsidence to the south. For not only have the strata of this period a greater range southward, but a new fauna abounding in more southern forms is now introduced, and with it appears in extreme profusion the Num- mulites planulatusy followed soon after by the several other species of this Foraminifer which so distinguish the middle portion of the Eocene or Paris group of strata of this part of Europe. Many species of the shells which had passed from the Lower marine sands into the London Clay, or had migrated to some adjacent district, reappear in the " Lits Coquilliers " ; but few of them had their existence prolonged to the period of the Calcaire grossier. * And not, therefore, in any way connected with the rise of the Wealden and Pays de Bray, the final elevations of both of which tracts I believe to be subse- quent to this period. t The large quantity of organic remains derived from land, and at the same time the absence of freshwater shells, must surely indicate the proximity of a considerable tidal river. For this and many other reasons the debris seems to me to have been derived from such a source rather than from the wear of a coast. 240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. A stronger break, physically, takes place between the '* Lits Co- quilliers " and the " Glauconie grossiere " than is shown at the base of the " Lits Coquilliers ;" but nevertheless, that break seems of less importance with reference to the animal life of the period, as so con- siderable a proportion of the species of the ** Lits Coquilliers " are continued up into the Glauconie grossiere and Calcaire grossier*. We cannot expect to find in each country an exact identity in the fossils of these various geological zones. The difference is often important. In each centre there are a considerable number of species peculiar to it ; and at the same time that there are usually a suificient number to establish the correlation of the strata, there yet remain sufficient diiferences to show the variations produced by habitat, depth of water, temperature, &c., such as would exist over areas of like extent in the present day. These variations, while they afford matter for speculation as to what was the ancient distribution of land and water in these districts, yet leave resemblances suffi- ciently strong to enable us to engage in such speculations upon a sure and certain basis. They also show us that whilst it may not be safe to expect, upon any a priori reasoning, a repetition of a like order of palseoutological succession in the two countries, we may nevertheless often successfully seek for that order by taking into consideration the limits within which the differences may, under any circumstances, be admitted to extend ; and, having determined and ehminated the phsenomena which may be considered aberrant, we may look for like terms of comparison where the conditions again become more general and common. Fragmentary as our Tertiary deposits appear to be, I believe this to be in a great measure the effect of denudation and local peculiari- ties of structure, and that we shall eventually be able to connect many of them over large areas, and to show that they are for the most part merely the littoral and shallow water deposits of seas which probably had a wide and oceanic range. * At the same time, although I group the Lower Bagshot Sands and their equivalents in the French series, with the Paris rather than with the London Tertiaries, in consequence of their apparently closer relationship, both palae- ontologically and lithologically, with the former thaa with the latter group, still that relationship is not so close but that those deposits may prove to be entitled to a separate grouping. For the zoological gap between the London Clay and the Bracklesham Sands and Calcaire grossier is such, there not being 10 per cent, of species in common, as to indicate a length of time of considerable importance. This period may be probably only in part represented by the Lower Bagshot Sands and Glauconie moyenne. The fauna of the " Lits Coquil- liers " is, after all, very distinct, not only from that of the beds beneath them, but also, although to a less extent, from that of the Calcaire grossier above. In England, where mineral evidence alone assists us, it is difficult to separate the two groups ; in Belgium, both in mineral character and in the few organic remains, there is still less apparent distinction, whilst in the Paris area, where organic remains become numerous, their individuality as forming a distinct fauna becomes far more marked. From the facts given by M. Alcide d'Orbigny, it seems probable that this deposit attains still greater importance and distinctiveness as it ranges southward. It is in this series that the great develop- ment of Nummulites takes place within the London and Paris areas. The under lying London Tertiaries are as much marked by the absence of these Foraminifera as the " Lits Coquilliers " are by their extraordinary abundance. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xi. to face ]). 240.] CORRELA'iCALCAIRE GROSSIER, France. HAMPSRTMENT OF THE AISNE. (D'Jrchiac.) PARIS. (Brongniart.) P4 o on o g ^ a> ;3 IS o Zone the Calcaire Woolwich ar r Series. (AC. nites et Argile Plastique. Wanti Glauconie inferieure. Wanting ? Grossier. Glaises et Sables. Lower Brackh Lits Coquilliers. Wanting. Sables divers. London Clay. ( Wanting. Wanting. Rudime; Wanting-! Wanting. Gres et Pondingues. Wanting-! Argile Plastique. Rudimentary ' Wanting. E R E S. [^Quart. Joitrn. Geol. Soc. vol. xi. to face p. 240.] TABLE HOWING THE COKRELATION OF THE TERTIARY STRATA LYING BENEATH THE ZONE OE THE CALCAIRE GROSSIER, IN ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM. Dngland. French Flanders and Belgium. (D' /drckiae.) {Brongniart.) fe O (B a' ^1 Zone of the Middle Bracklesham Sands and of the Calcaire Grossier. Lower Bracklesham Sands. Lower Bagshot Sands. Systeme Paniselien. Systeme Ypresien superieur. Glaises et Sables. Wanting. Lits Coquilliers. Sables divers. London Clay. (Bognor beds.) London Clay. Systeme Ypresien inferienr. "?-'- Wanting. Rudimentary. Basement Bed of the London Clay. ? Waniing-i fTanting. *Woolwich and Reading Series. (Mottled clays.) f Upper. Woolwich " and Reading < Middle. Systeme Landenien superieur. Gres et Poudingues. Wanting? Lignites et Arple Plastique. Argile Plaslique. [ Lower. Glauconie inferieure. Rudimentary ? Wanting. Thanet Sands. Systeme Landenien inferieur. Wanting! Wanting. CRETACEOUS SERIES. I nil. imEi T^mnz icaticha/np OrcMvcr \.tu Stay. ^B D Zx ffhi '. ejuJLc'-iJtu^ h MorU I S^ Sau ? 'JcucUjtv PRESTWICH ! BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 241 EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIIL Section 1 is drawn from the nearest points in England and in French Flanders, where all the series beneath the Caleairc grossier zone inelusive occur. The depth and [)()sition of the strata along this line are })rove(l at the following points by local sections of railways, wells, and elitfs, which have already been described. Goldsworth Hill, Chobham Place, "I See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. pp. 382, Woking Com., Chobham Ridges j 384. Maryland Point, Stratford Ibid. vol. vi. p. 2G2. Claremont, Mortlakc, Kingston, 1 Kensington, Haddington, Horn- l Ibid. vol. x. pp. 96, 144-7. sey, lloxton J Hampstead, Langdon Hill, Hay- 1 ., , leigb, Southend, Heme Bay / ^^''^- ^^^- ^- PP' ^"^ '* Upminster Proc. Geol. Soc. vol, iii. p. 132. Heme Hay, Ricbborough Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. pp.239, 251. Chislet, between Home Bay and It.., , . , , , 1,.,, , ^ >* Ibid. vol. XI. p. 11 L Kichborough J '* Calais * TheWatcr-bearingStrataof London, 'p. 208. y^ J r Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc vol. viii. p. 32 4, and \ Essai sur la Fland. Fran9.,pp. 156-169, The heights of the principal hills in this country I have determined roughly by the aneroid barometer ; those in Flanders are taken from the French Ordnance-maps. Section 2 is a continuation of Section 1 prolonged southward to that nearest portion of the Paris basin where a comj)lete development of all the beds forming the " Sables inferieurs " of M. d'Archiac occurs in connec- tion with the " Calcaire grossier " group. In this second section and part of the first, as I have not had leisure to visit all the French localities, several of the main geological features arc derived from the local descriptions of Sir Charles Lyell and M, Meugy in Flanders, of M. Buteux in the Somme, and M. Graves in the Oise ; whilst the general configuration of the country is taken a})proximately from the admirable French Ordnance- maps, which furnish us with levels both of hills and river -courses, that our otherwise excellent ma})S are entirely deficient in. The following are the references to sections on this line : ! Bailleul, p, 153; Armentieres, p. 152; Seelin, p. 107; Douai, p. 106; see also map and sections ; ! Meugy, " Essai de Geologic pratique sur la Flandre Fran^aise," 1852. Mons-en-Pevele ; ! Lyell, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 359. Davenescourt and Ilangest, north of Montdidier, p. 45 ; ! Buteux, " Es- quisse Geologique du Departement de la Somme," 1849. Coivrel, pp. 184, 244; Agnetz, pp, 248, 370, 4f)3 ; St, Felix, pp. 2.9.9, 372; ! " Essai sur la Topogra])hie Geognostique du Departement de I'Oise." The neighbourhood of Noailles is sketched chiefly from my own obser- vations. The paper of M. Elie de Beaumont in the ' Mcinoires de la Societe Geologique de France,' vol. i, p. 107, has aided me in the general features. The valuable geological maps of M. Elie de Beaumont and M, Uuraont have also been of material assistance. VOL. XI. PART I. S cKKEjm KE-cTitoF mm TM mixs :"=? m-Esm*T t-u ^cassbil re wmBm nAKiBras. SECTIOXS !* UUORAM ENGLAND. FRAKCE.fc BELGIUM. 2 , i&KiremAI. SECTirdHHT HWISI CASSlEl 1? BtiAIiLLlES :^EAB^ BEAl j)iAr,i>A2i OF THE LOMnn zayj)ox- rEiiTiAniES. rnn srsjJEja: LASDiSfasr.JXD the tioiee xohe/i /Jin.uays or the sjb/.es jxe^/ue/jis oe ir.HjncHLtr. r,|?-,i?d?i. J,.. i.,;,,\u,iii,-,.l,. 242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL. SOCIETY. Not having sufficient data to give the dip of the Chalk throughout these sections, I have preferred leaving out the stratification altogether, and merely inserting the Clialk as a rock-mass under the Tertiaries (see below). These lines of sections do not fellow a straight line, ! the variations of directions are indicated approximately. The horizontal scale is about 7 miles to the inch, and the vertical scale 20i)0 feet to the inch. The numbers under the names of places denote the height of the spot in feet above the sea-level. The black shading marks the depth of water in the Channel and the Thames. The zones 6 and 7 are left blank, as their correlation is not treated of in this })aper. For the divisions of the Sables inferieurs of M. d'Archiac see p. 208 ; also Table. All the Faults and minor disturbances are omitted in both sections. Diagram. As the scale of the preceding sections does not admit of any detail in the structure of the lowest group of the Tertiaries ! that between the Chalk and the Loudon Clay ! I have here given a theoretical restora- tion ol" these beds as presumed to have extended from London to Paris. It is, in fact, a magnified representation of zone No. 1 of both the Sections above, irres])ective of the present configiuation of the siuface. The vertical dotted lines denote the position of the })roved and complete local sections on which the whole series is established, whilst the chief places at which each member of the series can best be studied is indicated by the names attached to the corrcs})ondiug letters. The distances are only approximately preserved in this diagram. The scale of depth is one inch to 200 feet. The stratification of the Chalk is not given, for the same reason as men- tioned with respect to the sections. I may state, however, that beneath the Tertiaries at Paris, the Chalk has been found to be 1-100 feet thick ; whilst at Lille the Tertiaries repose upou Chalk-strata only 217 feet thick and overlying the Caiboniferous Limestone ; at Calais, the Chalk beneath the Tertiaries again atiaius a thickness of 7(^^ feet, reposing upon the Coal -uu?asures ; and at London of ()45 feet, resting on the Upper Green- sand and Gault. For the evuleuce on ^^hicll that ])ortion of the Diagram which extends from Chobham to Kichborough is founded, see my paper "On the Woolwich and Keadiug Series," in Quart. Joiu-n. Geol. Soc. vol.x p. 7'^-170, and Plate. At Calais, the well-section showed, under 85 feet of recent deposits and 20 feet of London clay, beds which I should group thus : ! foc-t. Greenish sands with traces of shells 10 \ Baseme7it bed of the London Large tlint-iH-bblcs 3.^ J Clay? Ligl\t-eolourc(l green sands ; traces of shells... 32 Woolwich and Reading series. Very tine light-groy sands 17 Clayey sands with traces of shells S Compact sandy clay 11 Hard brown clay with traces of shells 23 Hods of clayey grey and greenish sands 19 Bcdof tlints in clay ^ Chalk. As the specimens were much crushed by the auger, 1 could not determine any of the shells. Between Calais and Cassel I have no sections, except shallow surface-sections at Watten, where I recognised the London Clay. Thanet Sands. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. -43 At Armeutieres, uuder 37 feet of Londoii Clay, M. Meug}- describes* [op. cit. p. 152'! : ! ftvt. " Blackish Siind. rather compact 10 1 (Basetnetit betV:"^ Loose greeu saiul 34 I- Upper Laiuleniau. Plastic day 2 J (frooitrieh ic Reading series.) Greenish clavev sand 52 1 r t j ? f> , , ? ? ,rt Lower Landenian. Compact cliiv 10 > ,., ^o 7 \ Hani ana ilrv clav 36 J ^ Chalk." A little beyond our line of section, and fiuther to the east, a well- section at Toiircoiug (p. 150^ giive, ! feet. "Clay 7i Shifting sand 36 Blue clay 147| Ypresian clay. Loudon Clay. Green sand 16 "I t- i j ? c rr ?* . I I piM?r Li\n?ienian. beam ot liuiute -x > ri- . ? ?. ? j- ? \ <> _ , t,^\{J1 ooltnch i^- ReadtHO series.) brcen saml 44 J ^ ' Clay mixed with sand 22 "^ Clav with seam of iron pvrites 3 t t :i * /^, ? * J . I 3 *^' 1 13. Lower Landenian. tlav mixed wnth sand ! at base a hard stone > -r^ * o j ^ * ,, K . *? ? -\ I - ? 11 oo \Tnanet ixrndjt.^ {CATbonaxe ot iron : ), 4 to o ni. thick ... 3.> I ^ Black sandv cKiv ! drv and with pebbles 57 J Chalk." At La Magtleleine near Lille (p. 14S), under drift and 2S feet of London clav. there occurs, ! feet. *' Fine srreen sand 10 1 t- t j ? n%?. ".I e 1 .1 >? L ppor Landenian. Ditto with a seam of clay 2 j ^^ Argillaceous green sand, effervescing: with acids 46 1 Blackish grey clay, very compact 2S v Lower Landenian. Grevish anrillaceous sand (eilervesces) 11 J Chalk." At Orchies (p. 146), to the southward of Lille, under IS feet of drift and 20 of London clay, there are, ! feet. *' Grey quick-sand 14 Green sand 70 Seam of clay and thin quick-sand 2 Hani sand 2S Clav 21 Hard sand 6 Clay and sand 5 Xe;ir Faumont, between Lille and Douai, the section is as follows ! feot. " Vegetable soil and clay 25 Ypresian clay. Blackish quick-sand "It- t j ? r> -1 3 ..I rui 1 .'- V L pper Landeman. Green quick-s<\nd with a seam of blue clay ... b4 j '^^ Green sand aud hard clav 24 1 ^ t j ? ?? Plastic clay .' 2S } Lower Landenian. M. ^leugy further speaks of the upper frb^ucouifemus snnds i^I'pper Landeniau?) which forms the small oiuliors south of Doiuii and of the River Scarpe. It is not clear from the text if he means that the Lower Sands are wanting; but in his sections he makes the outlier at Bruue- mont, near Douai. to consist of both Lower and Upper Landenian ! * In* these descriptions. 1 merely give a literal translation of the original ! my own additions are in italics. s2 ? Upper Landenian. *? Lower Landenian. 244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. the former, however, being reduced to one-third of the thickness he gives to it on the north of Douai. (PI. VIII. Sect. 2.) South of this district extends j^art of the great Chalk -plateau of Picardy, rising to an average height of 300 to 500 feet, and showing only at a few distant intervals small cappings of Tertiaries. Of this district we only possess a very general description. A little to the east, however, of this line of section, between St. Quentin and Peronne, M. Elie de Beaumont has given {op. cit. p. 112 and pi. 7. fig. 1) a section which is of considerable interest, inasmuch as it shows that, whereas at Mons-en-Pevele the Lignite series is separated from the "Lits Coquilliers" and "Glauconie moyenne" by 150 feet of London clay, at the hill above Marteville, near St. Quentin, the London clay is apparently wanting, and the total thickness of the strata beneath the Glauconie moyenne is thus much reduced (see PI. VIII. Sect. 2). The following is an abstract from the text (p. 113) : ! Sand with calcareous concretions, full of Nummulites and Turritella... 10 to 13 Greenish laminated clay, containing vegetable impressions and capped by a seam of imperfect Ugnite 26 to 32 Thin seams of red, yellow, and black clays, with indications of lignite : ! a few decimetres. Quartzose sand with green grains, the lower part greener than the upper. The thickness of the last bed is not given, but from the general descrip- tion, the section, and the height of the hill, and as at a short distance lower down the hill the Chalk crops out, I should suppose it not to exceed 20 to 30 feet. Now I presume these upper sands belong to the Glauconie moyenne (Graves), with the Nummulites planulatus, and that the clays, lignites, and greenish sands belong to the Upper Landenian or the Woolwich and Reading series. The department of the Somme has been more fully described by M. Buteux, according to whom the Tertiary outliers set in again more conti- nuously in the neighbom'hood of Montdidier. He gives the following section on the chalk-hills between Davenescourt and Hangest : ! feet. " Grey sand and thin seams of sandstone 2 Reddish sand 6^ Greenish sand 9| Whitish sand ?" It is on the confines of the Somme and the Oise that the remarkable thick pebble-beds, extending from east to west, and which M. Graves (p. 182) considers as indicating the bovmdaries of an old shore, occur. On Mont Soufflard, between Montdidier and Breteuil, these beds are largely developed. M. Buteux gives the following section of them : ! feet. " Round flint-pebbles enveloped in a matrix of grey plastic clay* 25 Grey and yello's^'ish plastic clay, with rare remains of shells 4 Sandy bluish grey clay 4 Lignites 6^ Bluish plastic clay 4 Whitish sand passing into greenish 16 Plastic clay ?" M. Graves gives the following section of the hill-top at Coivrel, south of Montdidier : ! reet. " Yellowish and ferruginous sands with sandstone 23 Compact green clay 2 * According to M. Graves (p. 243), it is ! sands and pebbles 26 feet. The shells beneath he states are the Ostrea Bellovacina and Paludina lenta. PRESTWICH BRITISH AND FOREIGN TERTIARIES. 245 feet. Greenish marl with Ostrea Bellovacina, Melanin inquinata, Cerithvum acutum, Cyrena cuneiformis, Slc 1 Green clay 4 Earthy lignite mixed with some red clay and flat pieces of iron pyrites 3^ Green clay 2 White sand." At Pronleroy, a short distance south of Coivrel, is this section (p. 244). The lower sands here commence to exhibit the marine fossils of Bracheux. feet. " Mottled grey and buff stiff clay containing petrified wood 2 Hard greyish fissile limestone full of Chara seeds , 3^ Greenish marl with Ostrea Bellovacina in abundance 1 Green sand with the same oysters 2^ Whitish-grey sand, with Cueullace, Crassatella sulcata, Venericardia mutti' costata, Turritella edita, &c 5 Yellow sands with the same shells more numerous 8 Chloritic sands without fossils, ! the Chalk at a slight but variable depth." This series is extremely variable. The following is the section (p. 234) at St. Sauveur, near Pont St. Maxence, one of the places where the beds over the lignite (but belonging to that series) contain marine shells. feet. " Superficial soil 1^ Yellow sand, containing an immense quantity of Ostrea Bellovacina, Ceri- thium mutabile, Cyrena cuneiformis, Pectunculus terebratularis, &c. ... 8^ Grey glauconiferous sand 3^ Bluish marl with lacustrine shells 3^ Earthy hgnite 2 Greenish and bluish FuUer's-earth 4 Lignite, soft Of Blackish shelly marl 1^ Lignite, harder 0′ Marly yellowish-white limestone, hard, fissile, and shelly 1 Hard compact hgnite, with plants, and bones of Lophiodon, Crocodile, &c.... 4 Blue marl with selenite 3^ White clay 5 Grey glauconiferous sands, to the water-level ^^ These beds dip beneath the Glauconie moyenne (Graves)." A well at Clermont gave the following section (p. 288) : ! feet. " Sands belonging to the Glauconie moyenne 19^ Brown clay 6| Sandy marl with Cyrena, Ostrea, Cerithium, Slc H Earthy lignite *, 1 Blackish clay 1^ Earthy lignite 1^ Greenish-yellow glauconiferous sands." At Boulincourt, near Agnetz, the thickness and number of the beds forming the lignite series varies very greatly. At Froidmont, between Cler- mont and Beauvais, is this section (p. 249) : ! feet. " Yellowish clayey sand with flint-pebbles, Ostrea Bellovacina, and veins of white marl, ! very variable 11 Several beds of earthy lignite, separated by greyish clayey marl ! very variable 3 Bluish-grey clay 6^ Fine grey sand, compact ! maximum thickness 13 Earthy hgnite, containing pyritous wood and nodules of iron pyrites 2 Marly hmestone with lacustrine fossils 0^ 246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. feet. Bluish-grey clay 2 Earthy lignite with petrified wood and^bones of reptiles 2 Bluish-grey clay 2^ Very compact grey clay 10 to 16" The section at Bonvillers (p. 250), near Noailles, shows a mottled clay above the lignites : ! feet. " Yellowish clay, mottled purple, with flint-pebbles ; it is sometimes en- tirely red 7^ Green clay with broken shells, Ostrea, Cyrena, &c 2 Bluish-grey laminated marl 6^ Earthy lignite mixed with clay If Ferruginous grey sand 4 Hard lignite 1 Grey compact clay , 1^ Lignite, petrified wood, and bituminous trunks of trees, nodules and beads of iron pyrites, remains of reptiles, &c 5^ Bluish-grey clay 16 White sand." At Noailles and Abbecourt, the lignite series may in both eases be seen in the slight cuttings on the sides of the lanes, overlying yellowish sands without fossils at the top, but abounding with the ordinary Bracheux shells lower down, and then the Chalk. M. Graves gives the following section of the pit at Bracheux, near Beauvais (p. 188) : ! feet. " Superficial soil 1^ Disturbed beds, with shell-debris 2 Thin layers of OstrecB lying flat, with remains of fishes and broken shells ... 6| Irregular vein of iron-sandstone 0^ Bed of crushed shells, very abundant, replaced at places by a friable white marl 2\ Yellow sand containing a small number of perfect shells, especially CucuUaa and Venericardia , 2^ Finer sand with green grains ! the same shells more numerous, but friable ... 2^ Bed of the crushed shells very abundant in the same sand 1 Grey chloritic sands with entire fossils, not numerous, and flint-pebbles of all sizes 7^ Chalk, with its superficial bed of broken flints." There are no sections of the lower beds between the Dep*'. of the Oise and Paris. The following is M. Chas. d'Orbigny's section of Meudon* near Paris, which may serve as a type for the lower beds of that district, except that the fossiliferous lignites and conglomerates, Nos. 6 to 8, are only of local occurrence, ! and that traces of the lignites and clays with fluviatile shells, the equivalent of the above-described lignites and clays of the Soissonnais, are occasionally found overlying the mottled clays (No. 10). No. feet. " Calcaire grossier 46 Glauconiferous sands 2\ Plastic clay, red, grey, &c 6 to 26 9. White marl, with calcareous nodules 1 Lignite, with large PflZM♀?ma and -(^wo of figs. 1 & 2, of which the Hamrine Hills are composed. These older beds frequently dip at an angle of 70<, and gradually become horizontal in their extension westward. The similarity of their general aspect with the alluvial beds, which have chiefly been derived from their denuda- tion, renders it very difiicult to define the exact limit of either formation. The alluvium may be clearly divided into ! (A.) fluviatile and (B.) marine. (A.) The fluviatile alluvium, now in process of deposition, is limited to the banks of the rivers, with the adjoining marshes and canals. It consists of a stiff blue, or fine arenaceous grey clay, and fine sand or gravel. These deposits are dried and cracked in every direction 250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. by the intense heat of the sun, and are on this account exceedingly- difficult for a horseman to traverse. They afford a rich soil for the cultivation of maize, rice, water-melons, cucumbers, and the ordinary vegetables of the x\rabs; and they frequently contain imbedded shells of extinct species of the genera Cyrena, Unio, Melanopsis^ Helix, &c. At the junction of the Diyala River with the Tigris below Baghdad the deposit is a tenacious deep-red clay, derived from the Hamrine red range, through which this river passes in its course from the higher mountains. At Baghdad the foundations of all good buildings are laid on this clay, at a depth of 1 5 or 18 feet below the surface, upon which rests an arenaceous grey clay used for common fictile purposes. During an extraordinary rise of the Tigris in the spring of 1849, the deposit on its banks at Baghdad attained the height of six feet. (B.) The marine beds of the alluvium are much more extensive than the fluviatile, and consist of dark-grey or reddish-yellow loose sands and sandy marls. These are usually seen in the desert, at some distance from the rivers ; and, where not otherwise distin- guishable from the beds of the underlying rocks, are to be recognized by the growth of saline plants, and by dark wet patches, produced by the presence of chloride of sodium. They are sometimes accom- panied by fossils. In the neighbourhood of Mohammerah, Sablah on the Karun, and Busrah, are the following shells, identical with species now living at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, ! so far at least as they have been compared with a small collection, made by the late Captain New- bold, E.I.C.S., from the beach of Bushir. (Identified specimens are marked with an asterisk.) Fossil Shells from Mohammerah, Sdhlah, and Busrah. Venus. Neritina crepidularia, *Purpura (Rapana). Area. Lamk. *Cerithium. Melanopsis. Purpura. Cyprsea. Strewed over the desert in the neighbourhood of the extensive ruins of Worka and Sinkara, in Lower Chaldaea, and on the verge of the marshes of the Euphrates, are innumerable fossils, of which I collected 30 species, many of the specimens exhibiting distinct traces of colour. The Arab women of the Madan tribes collect and wear them in their hair as ornaments. Fossils from Worka and Sinkara . Astraea. Neritina sp. Strombus. Meandrina. Nerita. Nassa. Balanus ? Trochus. Colurabella. Venus. Cerithium. Mitra. *Cardium. Planaxis sulcata. Cyprasa ; 2 sp. Spondylus. Purpura. Aneillaria. Dentalium octangulura. * (Rapana). Oliva. sp. Murex. Conus ; 2 sp. Melanopsis Triton ? Otolite of a Fish Neritina crepidularia, Lamk. Mr. Ainsworth met with abundance of similar fossils near the first- LOFTUS TURKO-PERSIAN FRONTIER. 251 mentioned locality, at Gerah on the Euphrates ; and Messrs. Fraser and Ross, during a journey through the Jezireh of Chaldaea, observed a large surface of the desert on the banks of the Shat el-Hie, a few miles to the N.E. of Worka, literally composed of shells. It is to be regretted that none were preserved. Still further to the north, in the centre of the Jezireh, in about lat. 32< 10' N., between the Lemliim marshes and the ruins of Niffr, I picked up numerous pieces of silicified shell-conglomerate with a white and siliceo-calcareous matrix. From the abundance of these fragments, and from their angular aspect, it is evident that they must have been derived from the immediate locality, although the outcrop and position of the beds, with relation to the older and newer deposits, are entirely concealed beneath the drifted sands of the desert. Mr. Ainsworth, who had good opportunities for examining the order of stratification of these beds, exposed in the sections upon the banks of the Euphrates, divides this marine formation into two parts : ! *' the upper and more sandy beds were characterized by the tro- choidal and buccinoidal forms of turrited univalves ;" and the most abundant shells in the lower argillaceous beds were a Venus, a Cyrenay a Mytilaceous shell, and some turrited univalves. {Op. cit. p. 123.) An examination of the fossils of this marine deposit proves, that at a comparatively recent period the littoral margin of the Persian Gulf extended certainly 250 miles further to the N.W. than the present embouchure of the Shat-el-Arab ! the combined stream of the Tigris and Euphrates, and 1 50 miles beyond the junction of these two great rivers at Korna. The actual extent of this marine deposit to the N.W. it is im- possible to define, as, from the nature of its formation in the shallow estuary, it probably passes upwards gradually into the more recent fluviatile beds. Mr. Ainsworth, in his * Researches,' and Col. Rawlinson, in a paper read before the Geographical Society in 1850, have both shown the rapid accumulation of this alluvial deposit, which is represented to increase a mile in thirty years at the head of the Persian Gulf. It is therefore needless here to repeat the investigation ; ! especially as I have no new matter to add upon the subject. 2. Lacustrine Deposit. ! The only deposit of this nature which I was so fortunate as to meet with was in the mountains of Luristan, upon the elevated plateau of Hassan-i-Gowdar, between Khorremabad and Bisiitun. This plateau is surrounded on all sides by lofty peaks, and presents the appearance of having been at some time or other the basin of a lake. A small stream on the north side of the plain exposed a section 1 2 feet deep, and exhibited a friable, loose, yellowish limestone, filled with freshwater shells, viz. ! Planorbis ; allied to P. corneus. Planorbis ; a striated species. Planorbis ; allied to P. marginatus , Lymnaeus ; an elongated species. 252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The entire absence, with the above exception, of Lacustrine Depo- sits in the region I am describing is somewhat remarkable, when it is considered that such are the most extensive and largely developed of all stratified rocks throughout the adjoining districts of Asia Minor. In this place it would be proper to discuss the recent deposits of calcareous tufa (see Part II. of this Memoir) ; but, as these do not appear in the Southern part of the Frontier, and as they constitute a very important feature in the investigation of the rocks at the northern end, I omit the consideration of them at present, and proceed to the subject of the gravels underlying the above-described fluviatile and marine alluvia. 3. Limestone Gravel. ! In many localities (especially in the neigh- bourhood of Dizfdl ; see fig. 4, p. 329) on the outskirts of the great chain, an enormous accumulation of gravel reposes nearly horizontally on the upturned edges of the tertiary strata, or dips at a slight angle towards the plains on the S.W., in which direction it gradually thins out. Seen from the plains at sunset, these gravel-masses present a very peculiar appearance, their surfaces being cut up and deeply furrowed by innumerable channels, caused by the heavy periodical rains. Towards the N.E. and E., at their greatest elevation, they frequently terminate abruptly in a perpendicular escarpment. A very remarkable instance of this occurs about twelve miles N.E. of Dizfdl, where, after attaining the summit of the range, the road is carried to the valley of Gilalahu by a zigzag path down the face of a cliif, which, judging by the eye, must be 200 feet in height, and is entirely composed of this limestone gravel (see also fig. 3, p. 328). The escarpment bears 12< S. of E. for a distance of about twenty miles, being only interrupted by the passage of the River Diz and the Kiinak Stream. Magnificent sections are obtained along the course of these streams, as well as at the debouchure of the River Kerkhah into the plains of Arabistan. Masses of this deposit fre- quently stand isolated from the main range, and, being precipitous on all sides, were formerly the strongholds of the mountain-chiefs. Tangavan, at the N.W. extremity of the escarpment above alluded to, is a conspicuous and fine example of an isolated gravel-fortress. The towTi of Dizfiil is situated on the left bank of the River Diz, which here cuts through cliffs of this gravel 60 feet high. The actual thickness of the deposit is certainly not less than 100 feet in this locality (see fig. 4). The serdaubs, or cellars, in which the natives pass the day during the scorching heat of summer, are excavated in it, and are reached by long flights of steps. Subterraneous canals called Konats, for irrigation derived from the river, have been cut by Persian perseverance for miles through the gravel at a great depth below the surface. Their course is trace- able by the heaps of pebbles thrown out at regular intervals through wells. To one of these Konats, \\ mile E. of Dizful in the direc- tion of the mountains, I descended by 60 steps of 13 inches each; i.e. 65 feet. LOFTUS ! TURKO-PERSIAN FRONTIER. 253 The same deposit is cut through by the Ab-i-Zal, in its course from the higher ranges to its junction with the Kerkhah. The section of the chffs at the ruins of the Sassanian Bridge over the Zal shows a perpendicular height of 80 feet. Not having examined the west skirts of the Pushti Kiih, I am not able to state whether the gravel extends N.W. of the Kerkhah; but from the contour of the outer range seen from a distance, it most probably does so. Eastward of the Pushti Kiih, however, it occurs in the trough of the Mah Sabadan, resting, as usual, unconformably on the gravels, sands, and marls of the gypsum-series. The road along this valley is exceedingly painful and difficult, as the boulders are of enormous size and obstruct the pathway. They cease, how- ever, at the junction of the Kashghan and Hulilan streams, which constitute the Kerkhah. Similar masses of gravel are met with in the plain of Hershel, at the point where the River Shirwan emerges from the gorge of Semi- ram. They repose horizontally on the edges of the gypsiferous rocks, and abut against the side of the Bamii limestone-range. The components of this gravel, wherever met with, are essentially the same ; and prove beyond a doubt that the deposit is everywhere due to the same cause, whatever that may have been. At Dizfiil we have the following per-centage of the component materials : ! Pebbles of Character. 1 . Compact, blue, crystalline Generally oval, or with the angles limestone. worn off, frequently 2 feet in diameter ; 43 per cent. 2. White or cream-coloured num- Ditto ditto, but not quite so large ; mulitic limestone. 38 per cent. 3. Breccia of small angular frag- Oval, 9 inches in length ; 5 per ments of coloured cherts in cent, a matrix of hard sand. 4. Fine-grained, friable, red sand- The largest 1 foot in diameter, stone. cubical angles worn oif ; 5 per cent. 5. Red, dull-green, and other ^ inch in diameter ; 5 per cent. coloured cherts. 6. Quartzose yellow sandstone. Rounded, 3 inches in diameter; 4 per cent. 7. White quartz. Less than 1 in. square ; 4 per cent. North of Shuster I observed likewise a few angular and rounded lumps of bitumen ; but in no instance was t